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What lead my decision to seek a bachelor’s degree in Sports and Recreation
Posted On: Nov. 11, 2017
Author: Shipra


What lead my decision to seek a bachelor’s degree in Sports and Recreation Management was the enjoyment in being a coach on my son’s recreational league baseball team. It was that feeling of accomplishment in teaching these young athletes the true meaning of sportsmanship and the right way to play the game of baseball. I want to expand on that experience and begin coaching at the High School level, in football and baseball. As with any new job I understand that I will have to apply and accept an entry level position and to not expect to jump right into a head coaching position. I have the advantage of living in El Paso, Texas. With that, I have dozens of options with the level of schools that are looking for employees in their sports and physical fitness departments. There are also opportunities that I can look into at the University of Texas in El Paso and we also have a Minor League Baseball team that is has just moved into town that is building a brand new downtown baseball stadium. The jobs on the website sportscareerfinder.com that are interesting to me are the recreational sports jobs and coaching. A career path in Athletics is a challenging field which has many specialties that are in high demand. One of the statements on the website that caught my attention is that jobs in athletics are plentiful because the sports industry is everywhere and there is ongoing worker turnover. One of the disadvantages in choosing coaching as a career path is that success in coaching is marked by wins and losses, winning coaches have better job security, losing coaches are often let go, and the coaching staff is generally grouped into how successful the head coach is. From the website I learned the different positions that appeal to my career field choice, of coaching. Coaching has many different levels of responsibility and promotion opportunities. Opportunities range from grade school level, to the collegiate level, and into the professional level. Coaching may lead to being an Athletic Director as well. Jobs in the sports industry are available and varied, I am looking forward to the opportunities ahead and using this website in greater detail in the near future. Thanks Lee There is ample no. of opportunities available for those who want to make a career in athletics and other sports. It could start with an entry level and later becoming a head coach. Other openings are in the field of sports marketing. These openings exist at school level and college level. Even in professional games, one can easily try his luck and gain entry. Thus learning about sports is a good idea and gives one a chance to explore different career options.



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Sports discussion Week 5 dis 1 Olympic financing The modern Olympic Games come with staggering financial figures. Why are the
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports discussion Week 5 dis 1 Olympic financing The modern Olympic Games come with staggering financial figures. Why are the Olympics so costly to organize and manage? What are the sources of financing for the Olympics? What is the economic impact of the Olympics? How has the cost of the Olympics changed over the decades? Support your analysis with examples from the course text. Hosting Olympic Games has become a matter of prestige for countries. It is a global mage building strategy that is applicable for all events, be it international, global media events or a mega –event. Governments across the world are vying with one another to get the privilege of hosting Olympic Games in their own countries. The belief is that the image of the country will get enhanced in the eyes of people around the world, especially sports lovers. The financial benefits are another reason as to why countries compete to have the games in their own countries. But on closer look, it is debatable if the cost holding Olympic Games is really worth it. This endeavor comes with a huge cost tag, not to mention the other challenges of managing the crowd and terror threats that are being seen as greater security threats. Big hype is created around Olympics, especially the economic aspect. It is considered as a big boon to business for its host city, leading by tourist traffic and TV time and the spur of well deserved building of infrastructure investment. In reality, countries do not gain as much as is given out to be. Some long term benefits are definitely there but it is difficult to quantify and identify concrete gains. The first problem begins with the bidding process in which getting to host the games becomes a costly affair. The money earned from bidding is one of the sources for financing Olympics. Barcelona is one of the examples of economic impact of the Olympics. The city ended up with a debt of close to $ 6 billion to host the 1992 games. However, the city’s image gained tremendously and tourism has taken a big leap since then. Barcelona is definitely a case where critics are in agreement of hosting Olympic Games. Chances are that without the games, Barcelona would perhaps not been able to gain the status it has acquired today. More than 90 % of the revenue collected by the International Olympic Corporation (IOC) is distributed by it to the organizations to promote the Olympic movement and support the staging of Olympic Games. Only 10 % of the revenue is retained by it. Reference Preuss H. (2004) The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games, 1972-2008 Edward Elgar Publishing, Week 5 dis 2 Amateur sports An array of problems, from gender equity to doping, plagues the businesses related to amateur sports. What do you think is the most significant concern facing amateur athletics? What ethical issues are involved? Provide examples and research to support your perspective. The present day athletic sports are not what it existed in the 60’s or 70’s. cases of use of steroids, scandals, crime and overall degradation of the games are a common sight. One of the most significant concerns is the attitude of present day athletes who have the “me first and foremost” attitude. Today’s athletes would stoop down to any level to stay ahead, even at the cost of leading them to personal problems as an individual or to their teams. The consumption of substances to maximize their performance is the biggest threat to sports. This leads to a debate on what is ethical and what is not. This also leaves a bad influence and impression on young kids, who look at athletes as a role model. What they see is rich superstars and thinks that all it takes to get rich quickly is join sports, without realizing the hardships one has to undergo before reaching the pinnacle of success. They want that success so they do what their “idols” do. They take steroids. This can even result in others taking steroids even if they wouldn’t normally take them, because they have to keep up with the athletes who initially took them. Amateur sports have a lot many athletes who are aspiring to be highly endorsed superstars. They would do anything to achieve success as early as possible. There are several examples of corruption in college sports that are not getting worse with the passage of time. A case in point is that of Maurice Clarett who believed he could fight the entire NFL and force his way in despite his ineligibility. . same is with others reputed and well established names such as Mike Williams, Reggie Bush and OJ Mayo who openly accepted gifts to play at USC while LeBron was driving a Hummer before he was out of high school. References Marzilli A. (2009) Amateur Athletics Infobase Publishing



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Name of paper Management of sports at different levels Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Introduction Sports industry requires good governance. A good...
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Name of paper Management of sports at different levels Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Introduction Sports industry requires good governance. A good governing body is structured in such a way that it fulfills its mission in the dynamic environment it works in. this throws a big challenge to the governing body as it is required to maintain a balance by being consistent in its operations and simultaneously be aware of the changes taking place in the market and adapt suitably make the organization stay afloat. A sports manager needs to know the factors responsible for smooth operations of a governing body and also understand the pitfalls. This paper aims to evaluate the factors that impact the management of sports organization at collegiate, professional level as well as Olympic organization. These factors affect the working of the organization and it is important to understand and compare their effects at different levels of sports. Finally an attempt will be made to predict as to what kind of factors will be responsible for influencing each level of sports in the next decade. Factors affecting management of sports events Several factors affect the management of a collegiate, professional, and Olympic organization/institution. A classic example is that of mega sporting events those themselves are highly complex and therefore tough to handle successfully. However their execution leaves a big impact on various aspects of organization and the place they are held in. the factors that affect the organizations are related to political, social, economical, physical and cultural aspects. These can leave both positive and negative effects. The success of Olympic Games is an example of how mega-international sporting events have taken the central place in managing sports athletes (Gould et al 2002). An ever increasing number of local political leaders around the world vie for their respective cities to hold the games. The desire to have large amount of funds invested in Olympic bids is an indication that such events act as an opportunity to improve the economic and social facets of the city and the region. Such events tend to invite investments in infrastructure, entertainment, and sponsorships. This has aroused interest on the impact of the Olympics on the socio-economic and political life of the host city, region and the country where the games are held. The Olympic Games are examined vis-à-vis other mega-sporting events, that include World Cup football and Wimbledon tennis championship. The comparison is also done in relation to the possibility of holding commercial and cultural events that includes Expos, festivals with sports themes and so on. It has been proven that such events help in generating interest for the host cities and regions. The Olympic Games, however, should not be treated just like any mega-event as they have other characteristics that make them different. The reason for this is that Games are promoted and packaged as an expression of the spirit of Olympic philosophy. The other factor is that strict institutional framework set by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) act as a guiding force in organizing such events. This makes it more professional in nature. Success of an athlete in colleges, institutions etc. depends on factors related to physical, psychological and environmental factors. Psychological and environmental factors tend to contribute in the initial status of collegiate players. Physical factors tend to discriminate between groups that are differentiated by age, and coping with the uncertainty or initial failure at the starting point. Some researchers are of the opinion that level of mastery of skills of an athletic movement is directly related to the number of hours put in for practice. This helps them in gaining experience and become confident. The number of test matches played also adds to their self-confidence and acts as a motivating factor to pursue the games later on in college and as a professional. Factors that impact the various organizations at the different levels of sports In today’s society, sports have become more popular than anyone could have imagined. Huge number of athletes takes deep interest in participating in a variety of youth, high school, collegiate, professional, and recreational sports. As sports become popular, several factors emerge, that affect all those involved in sports such as organizations holding sports events, coaches, parents who encourage the children to participate in sports. It thus becomes pertinent for officials, and organizers to provide a healthy environment, where athletes compete and play without any personal grudge against others. Several factors affect performance of sports. Hence it is necessary to be aware of these factors because this knowledge can change the outcome of sports performance. The most important among these factors relate to physical characteristics. When one is in good health, he would perform better. Their natural talent and physical strength is all that would make a difference. While health is important determinant to success, practice plays an equal if not more part in the way collegiate sports gain success. Individual practice on a regular basis matter a lot. Next on line is knowledge about the strength and weaknesses of the opponent (Laguna et al 2003). This will help the sports person in making a big difference in his own performance. By understanding his own strength, he can focus on the same and gain an upper hand over his competitor. Similarly by understanding the weaknesses of the opponent, it is possible to design a strategy to take a lead over them. Analysis of both strength and weaknesses helps one to adjust how to play and give best performance against the competing team. While practice and health are important factors affecting performance of sports athletes, effect of psychological factors cannot be ruled out. There are several psychological factors that play an important part in how one plays and perform in a game. Being pessimistic is a sure recipe for failure. By feeling discouraged or demoralized, one may not put in his hundred percent, and thus will not go for shots that could make a difference between winning and losing. Nervousness affects the performance and one tends to lose focus on the game. This might hurt how they perform in a match. Having a good frame of mind and by remaining focused, will help in taking a lead and also result in better performance. The confidence level shown can also affect the competing team, who may not be able to match and thus lose out. Lastly, it has been observed that many athletes make use of drugs and medications to improve their performance. While this may help in the shorter run, it’s after effects in the longer run can lead to deadly consequences. It is also not ethical to indulge in these activities. Contrary to what people feel, influence of legal or illegal drug can affect how one performs in sports. This invariably turns out to be negative in nature. Thus the above factors need to be considered while evaluating sports performance. A lot many of them can be controlled individually and one should make a sincere attempt to optimize these and play in the best manner of sportsmanship. Factors that will influence each level of sports over the next ten years Across the globe, one can see a union of sports and entertainment industries. The common factor that binds these two is the rising challenge of new and improved digital technologies. These are responsible for shaping the way we look at and spend our relaxation time. Simultaneously, one cannot ignore the fact that it is the sponsorships and media rights (both TV and Audio, as well as print) that have emerged as the main drivers of growth. This has put the traditional methods of generating revenue under severe pressure. The current events would force organizations to focus more on developing and making use of more complex and sophisticated techniques to generate better returns of investment in sports. The current need of the hour is to identify and investigate the issues that key players in the world of sports are encountering and find out alternate methods of generating revenue for them to remain successful and survive. The future holds the key to factors responsible for the growth of sports market (Werner et al 1966). It has also become important to find out these factors in view of increasing economic and political uncertainty prevailing across the countries in the world. It is important to investigate and explore the new opportunities that exist and the challenges one is likely to face to future growth in sports. The positive aspect of the environment is that in spite of the downward trend in the economy, sport has continued its journey of growth and is flourishing. This can be witnessed by the fact that major events continue to become popular than ever. The only difficulty is that of lower level of event, that are having problems and finding it difficult to attract support in terms of sponsorship and generation of revenue. Their survival is a cause of concern for their event managers. The trend is to focus more on providing value for money for the spectators, who have become more demanding. This hunger for value for money is being fulfilled by adding entertainment by way of offering trade shows, post- event concerts and also organizing concerts indirectly related to the events as well. One can see that the popularity of mega events is sustained by ongoing improvements in broadcasting technology. Their innovative ways are helping in carrying out better –quality coverage than what was ever being done earlier. The popularity of TV networks and social media is seen to be believed. Both of them are taking up the activity of engaging the fans and deliver a mind boggling experience, never felt before. At the same time, sponsors are vying with each other to be associated with sports events and team with a view of becoming a part of their marketing plan. They are taking help of research firms to increase the understanding of the level of participation of spectators and thus gain useful insights into their demographically spread target markets. While the outlook appears to be positive, the challenges are many and one has to remain vigilant to meet the same by finding out newer ways of handling. The situation is that market exists for big events as the stadia and arenas are full but spectators are faced with the unresolved state of affairs of rising ticket prices. Even sponsors face hurdles in terms of economic and regulatory constraints. Under these circumstances, the conventional media is struggling to find better ways of extracting more value from new media options. While on the one hand, sports continue to find newer ways of increasing their revenues, they are bogged down with rising costs of maintaining players in their fold. As things stand today, players are the single largest contributors to the expense in most of the sports. The trend is continuing and there is no respite in sight. This has put a tremendous amount of pressure on their bottom line. The definition of stakeholders has widened and sports organizations are finding it extremely difficult to meet their expectations. The new stakeholders include viewers who have at their command the social media, which is being used extensively to voice their opinions. The same is also true for corporate world and sponsors and broadcasters, who have an equal opportunity to mold the experience of the spectators and fans with the help of same social media (Lazarus et al. Sponsor has a lot at stake as any benefit that he might gain using social media, can be destroyed in an instant by associating with sports that have poor sports administrator. The damage could also be done by poor behavior of a player or by news of using corrupt ways of playing such as spot fixing scandal that was witnessed recently in cricket players. All the above discussions lead us to explore and find out the future of sports. There are several pointers that can help us in ascertaining the likely direction the sports may follow in the near future. The sports markets are emerging in developing countries such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (the so called BRIC countries) as well as the Middle East. These countries are expected to offer scope for the development of new and lucrative opportunities that) will not only have space for domestic but international sports and events as well. Secondly, sponsors have realized the potential of sports events and are now willing to allocate a larger amount of money to sports. Looking at the popularity of sports, the sponsors have recognized the potential of earning higher returns on that investment. Thirdly, sports associations are trying to find out new regulations and methods to control the rising cost of holding sports and exploring the possibility of finding out sustainable business model that could survive for a longer period. As things stand today, most of the sports organizations are trying to find a balance between the increased commercial demands of their sports events and need to maintain ethical standards of operating (Weinberg et al 2003). There exists a popular view that sports organizations should focus on making the events more exciting and appealing and avoid any tarnishing of their image that would lead to a permanent damage to their brand name. Globally, revenues from sports are on an increased path as witnessed by events such as FIFA and the World Cup series. The size of the cake is growing and the real competition is not around those organizations that can put forward and deliver the most entertaining offerings that only can claim a major chunk of the market share (Mahoney et al 1987). To do this, sports organizations continue to find newer ways of attracting spectators in their hunt for growth in revenues. This would include combining concerts and sporting events into one mega –event. In the case of IPL, an innovative way of generating revenue was adopted by auctioning the teams that were bought by popular Indian film stars. In these matches, entertainment inspired glamour was added by creating theater and spectacle at matches with the help of hiring cheer leaders who were provocatively dressed. These marketing efforts have to strike a tradeoff between entertainment and sports. The struggle is to draw a balance in drawing crowds and at the same time maintaining the credibility, quality as well as the dignity of sports. Several sports have to toy with the idea of focusing more on live experience vis-à-vis experience of the TV viewer. The viewing experience turns out to be far better as compared to the chaotic atmosphere of the stadium. Organizers can improve the viewing experience by encouraging and providing incentives for participating in contests while the game is on. Similarly in the case of live sports participation, the spectators can become part of the entertainment by encouraging them to display messages in the stands they occupy. This is done by distributing colorful cards, containing easy to understand messages. These are then transmitted by TV networks for the benefit of viewers who can find the experience more lively and entertaining. The crowd can also be made a part of the sponsor as was done by Vodafone who distributed orange caps to the spectators at various Grand Prix events. The sports rights and related advertising revenues will be affected by the availability in abundance of digitized content, web access and social media. What it implies is that sponsors will be able to micro manage the information and focus on their target matter in a better way by putting in place strategies that would draw out more customers to their products. For this, the availability of data would play a crucial role and act as an interface between the consumers, content and brands. References Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffatt, A. (2002) Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172-204. Laguna, P.L. & Ravizza, K. (2003). Collegiate athletes' mental skill use and perceptions of success: An exploration of the practice and competition settings. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 15,115-128. Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping New York: Springer-Verlag. Mahoney, M.J., Gabriel, T.J., & Perkins, T.S. (1987). Psychological skills and exceptional athletic performance. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 181-199. Weinberg R., & Gould, D. (2003). Foundations of Sport & Exercise Psychology (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Werner, A.C., & Goettheil, E. (1966). Personality development and participation in college athletics. Research Quarterly, 37, 126-131



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We all come across situations where we have to take a decision on important
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports discussion We all come across situations where we have to take a decision on important events in our life. Ethical dilemmas are the ones that are most tricky in nature and difficult to justify to ourselves and to others as well. Ethical dilemmas are also called moral dilemmas wherein we are faced with options and have to choose amongst those. We are toyed with the dilemma of deciding whether the decision that we are going to take will be morally acceptable to the society members. To do this, we go by the guidelines provided by society or our own personal beliefs and convictions. However, these cannot be termed as logical or rational, but only beliefs. The situation I am going to describe deals with the ethical dilemma faced by me while I was studying medicine. I was working as an intern to a famous cardiologist who had a flourishing practice. The doctor had just completed a procedure lasting six hours and all those who were helping him, including me, were all stressed out. The doctor decided to take a break and after giving instructions to the staff, moved out to his chamber. The relatives of the patient were eagerly waiting for the news about the successful completion of the operation. However, since the patient was in the I.C.U. and under observation, we could not convey or inform the relatives about the actual condition of the patient. He was the sole bread earner of the family and his family was dependant on his earning. Around mid-night I observed his pulse was going down and immediately informed the nurse on duty to provide assistance so that his pulse could come back to normal. We also informed the cardiologist, who came to the ICU immediately. We struggled for some time, but the condition of the patient had become from bad to worse and a situation arose, where we could not save him. I came out tired, frustrated and stressed out at not being able to do anything for this patient. The patient had a small daughter who was also waiting for her father with other relatives. She was awake and playing, while her mother told her that her father has gone for a checkup and shall come back and play with her. When I came out of the ICU, I saw her cheerful face and eyes looking at me inquisitively. I was faced with an ethical dilemma and was at a loss of words. I could not bring myself to break the news of the sad demise of her father to her and to her mother and other relatives. In my subconscious mind, I was thinking, should I be impersonal and speak the truth, or should I tell a lie and let the child remain in her own world of happiness? It was a very difficult choice for me to make. At one point, I was guided by my medical ethics and bound to speak the truth. However I could not bring myself together to hurt this small child and blurt out the truth. I intentionally took the risk of not telling the family the truth and said that we are still observing his progress and shall know the exact position in the morning; I advised all of them to go home and take rest. I knew I was breaking the medical ethics and tradition, but I deliberately too the decision as I did not want to hurt the child. Reference Garber P. R. (2008) The Ethical Dilemma Human Resource Development



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Olympic Games. In 2008, Beijing was the host city for the Summer Olympics at a
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports discussion Olympic Games. In 2008, Beijing was the host city for the Summer Olympics at a bid of $24.7 million (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). Then the actual cost of games themselves was in the neighborhood of $43 billion (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). The Beijing Games were fortunate enough to turn a profit, unlike the Winter Games in Turin two years earlier which lost $32.4 million (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). There are many factors that make these games so costly to organize and manage. First is the bid of course, but then you have the planning phase which includes the building of facilities, not only for events, but for athletes, media, officials, and tourists. Really, the only way for host cities to come out on top is for these facilities to be able to host events for the foreseeable future once the games are over with. There is also the cost of transportation, financing, and security (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). Like the NCAA, the Olympics build on the “amateurism” of their athletes. We know this isn’t case. Olympic basketball and hockey use multi-million dollar professionals. In fact, boxing is the only sport that doesn’t allow professionals (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). Looking at how athletes are financed, the Olympics have allowed them to earn money through endorsements and trust funds that provide expenses for athletes (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). The Olympic Games themselves, like most sports, rely on television contracts, sponsorships, advertising, and ticket sales. One would think the economic impact of the Olympic Games would be tremendous for the host city, but this isn’t always the case. A review of the Olympic Games revealed there is relatively little evidence that hosting the Games produces significant economic benefits for the host city or region (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). Tourists will always have some economic impact, but use of land for facilities and the how the city maximizes the use of the facilities. Unsuccessful Games seldom use the land for anything else, and successful Games do, or in the case of the LA Games in ’84, use existing facilities (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). Rosner, S., & Shropshire, K., (2011) The Business of Sports (2nd Ed) Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. The general belief is that hosting the Games produces significant economic benefits for the host city or region where they are held. It all depends on the use of land for facilities and the how the city maximizes the use of the facilities. Agreed the city spends a whole lot of money in bidding and then in building infrastructure. However it is important that the organizing committee of Olympic games of a particular country plan their activities in such a way that the facilities built before the events, are put to good use, not only during the games but also thereafter. In addition to that, there are several opportunities available to promote other events that may be related to the games, directly or indirectly. By carefully negotiating the TV broadcasting rights, it is possible to gain additional monetary advantage. However, has this always been true in the case of games held at all the locations? That is the moot question to be answered by experts.



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being the host of Olympic Games has become a big deal for contries now a days. It
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports discussion being the host of Olympic Games has become a big deal for contries now a days. It a new way of getting that exposure they been trying to get for a long time. All the governments are jocking for position and even negotiating with one another to host the upcoming Olympic Games in whatever countriy they are in. As many know many countries are struggling finanically so this the main reason they are fighting over who hosting the games It is debatable as to what benfits a country to have the Olympics. Especially with what is going on this wold today. There has been a lot of hype to those countries who host the Olympics, It bring in money of course Take barceona for example the basketball team known as the Dream Team was formed and everyone in America went crazy just off of one event. This is what people don't get how much money are dispensing in order to host the event? As mentioned before some cities are looking for exposure to get put on the map as well. Reference Preuss H. (2004) The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games, 1972-2008 Edward Elgar Publishing, Bidding for games cost a lot of money. What is important to note is how the organizing members of the host country use the opportunity to maximize the advantages of hosting the games in their own country. Based on the ingenuity shown, they can avail of the benefits and gain innumerable advantages. Barcelona is a living example of how, just on the basis of one game, the city gained popularity and is now one of the finest and most visited tourist attraction. Agreed a lot of hype is created for Olympic games. The question is, is it really worth it? Do countries really gain from this hype? The answer to this question will lead to arrive at different possibilities.



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There are many issues facing amateur athletics. There is the gender equity issue,
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports discussion There are many issues facing amateur athletics. There is the gender equity issue, the doping issue, and the “pay for play issue.” My first thought was that paying athletes was the concern, but it’s not. Is there really “amateur” athletics? Olympians get endorsement money and use professional athletes. College players get paid, just everyone doesn’t get caught. It’s like speeding on the highway. Everyone does it only a few get caught. The biggest concern I would say is gender equity. I have a strong opinion about this, but remember it’s just my opinion. The gender equity issue is a work in progress. We have had advancements in women’s athletics throughout the country. Title IX establishes that: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance” (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). If a woman wants to play football on a men’s team, I’m ok with it. If a woman wants to play baseball on a men’s team, fine. If a woman wants play on men’s basketball team, I wish her the best. If there are women who want to play against men and are good enough to, then I am completely ok with it. My issue is when women’s volleyball or gymnastics feel that they deserve the same money as men’s football or basketball. Has anyone ever seen 100,000 people at women’s volleyball game? Does women’s softball sign $10 billion television broadcasting rights? Yes, there should be money funded for women’s sports and any woman should be able to participate in any sport she is qualified for. When they generate the same amount of revenue, I will understand them wanting the same as men. Let’s take two realtors as an example. One brings in $100 million in sales and the other brings in $20 million. Should the one, male or female, that brings in $100 million share their commission with other because of fairness? I know it’s touchy, and I am all for women having the opportunity, but that’s just my thought. As with this issue, ethics play a huge role. I think a key thing to remember when it comes to ethical situations is that what’s unethical isn’t always illegal. What’s unethical to one person may not be to someone else. Paying student-athletes is a great example. The NCAA is pretty clear about paying athletes. In 2009-2010, $639 million (90%) of revenue for NCAA came from television contracts of the men’s basketball tournament. Many people view it as unethical that the athletes that generate this money receive nothing. Same goes for football players’ or any sport that generates revenue and athletes aren’t compensated. Many view this as unethical. I can’t say I completely disagree, but these athletes know the rules (or they should) when they decide to play. So when athletes do take money they violate the rule, but it’s not illegal. Who’s going to argue they are being compensated for their “work.” Something is always going to be unethical to someone. It’s just the world we live in today. Rosner, S., & Shropshire, K., (2011) The Business of Sports (2nd Ed) Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. The question of what is ethical and what is not is clearly a matter of opinion. I fully agree that what is ethical to someone may be unethical to others, and vice versa. But there are some universal facts of life that determine what is ethical and what is not. Telling lies is unethical , stealing is unethical but when we look at the situation under which these so called unethical activities are conducted, one starts having doubts about the assumption of ethical and unethical practices. Take a hypothetical example of a widow whose children are hungry. She has not been able to get a job and has to look after her children. She passes near a bakery and upon seeing that no one is around, grabs a couple of cookies, runs and hands them over to his hungry children. The question is this is stealing right, but is ethical or unethical? This is where one faces ethical dilemma and finds it difficult to put people in ‘watertight compartments’ of what is right and what is wrong. Coming to the first question of gender inequality, one has to realize that there are visible and proved differences between the way men and women are built. It is not right to put men against women for the same games as their strength varies due to physical characteristics. As far as generating revenues from games played by women is concerned, the situation is that such games do not enjoy that much patronage as those played by men. The reason as per me, is that sports, historically, have been promoted and seen as games played by men. It is only recently that women have entered this arena. It would take some time to change the mindset of people that women can also play sports equally or sometimes better than men. But pitting men and women against each other for the same type of games is not a good idea at all. It is like comparing apples with oranges.



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Answer study question #4 "competition in quality and service may be just as effective as price competition in
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Answer study question #4 "competition in quality and service may be just as effective as price competition in giving buyers more for thier money". Do you agree? Why? Explain why monopolistically competitive firms frequently prefer nonprice competition to price competition. I fully agree with this statement. In any business, there are several competitors. As per Michael Porter’s theory of 5 forces, there are basically five forces which act in any Industry viz. 1. Threat of buyers 2. Threat of suppliers 3. Threat of substitute products 4. Rivalry 5. Threat of new entrants As we can see, all these threats deal with competition , be it supplier, buyer, or competition in the strictest sense. The business is always worried about quality and service of the products. Buyers pay a lot of attention to the quality of the product they wish to purchase. Even though quality is a perception , as the saying goes , each one to himself, still the fact is that a person will buy a product ( or avail a service ) only if he is satisfied with its quality . i.e. If he is confident that the purpose for which he is buying it , is served . The question of quality would arrive only if the product is requiring service, which may not always be the case. However the fact remains that the customer would definitely look for quality and service aspect. The price definitely plays a big role in purchase, but the customer ‘s needs are different and any one who buys a product or service would like to make sure that it serves its purpose. Moreover, no one would pay a particular price for a product unless it meets his requirement and also in case of malfunctioning of the same , he would expect the same is attended to without any further delay. Take the case of an automobile, be it Ford or Chrysler or Toyota . Any customer would buy the care for meeting his needs ( prestige , convenience etc ) . He would also expect that in case the automobile is not working properly, the respective garage owner would repair it . Price is equally important but not at the cost of quality or service In the case of monopolistic companies , they prefer non price completion . The reason for this is that sooner or later, it is easy to copy the product or bring out substitute ( refer Michael Porters theory ) and in such a case the monopoly of the company would not remain so the only way a company can stay competitive in the market is by way of quality and service study questions 9 Demand supply and equilibrium Demand and supply of a product plays a very big role in its pricing in any market. Let us take an example of a farm product such as Milk. This is an essential item on any one’s diet and almost everyone has it, even though the quantity of consumption may be different --------------add a graph here =========== As can be seen in the graph shown above the price of the product ( milk ) would depend on the demand and the production capacity of the companies . Once the stage of equilibrium is reached, the price becomes static and would not change drastically unless there is some drastic action by either government agency or other suppliers . the stage of equilibrium means that the demand and supply are more or less equal . The equilibrium price floor ( price support ) would play a very big role in the price and demand of the product. It either cause a surplus or a shortage in the market. The government policy would drastically affect the price or demand of the product ( milk ). We will take all the actions of the government one by one and see how this affects the demand / price a. Changes in supply and changes in demand due to shortage The above can be affected by a government policy change. If the demand of the product is very high, and supply is limited, there could be increase in price due to shortage of milk. In such a case the suppliers would try to take advantage of the situation and increase the price or charge an exorbitant price for milk this would not only cause hardships to the consumer but may also lead to a law and order problem. The government can step in and help the industry and the consumers by relaxing import restrictions and allowing companies to import the milk from other countries. The government can also allow the companies to increase their production capacity. b. Changes in supply and demand due to excess / surplus This situation would result when there is excess supply of milk in the product either because the capacity of the companies is high or because people have stopped buying milk ( a situation which is quite unlikely but never the lees can exist. Here the government could step and provide support by way of • acreage allotments • food stamp program • Food for peace program • a government buyout of dairy herds • export promotion each of these actions would result in price support to the producers / farmers . the food stamp program would help people to buy more of the milk and thus sustain the consumption .similarly the food for peach program would also help in a big way in making sure that the consumption pattern is maintained. The government can also purchase the product and keep in its stock for distribution to people at a later date when the supply is reduced The government can also provide support for export by giving incentives so that the excess produce is exported and the companies can generate profit



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The MIXMAP-model for international sport sponsorship
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


The MIXMAP-model for international sport sponsorship The Authors Claudio Vignali, Claudio Vignali is in the Department of Retailing and Marketing, The Manchester Metropolitan University, Aytoun Building, Manchester, UK Abstract Posits that this analysis is based on the dependence of international sport sponsorship on the market audit and the individual product class/product form or brand environment. The MIXMAP-model addresses the question of how the marketing mix framework can be used to analyse the competitive standing of a business organization, and how the outcomes of this analysis can be translated into practical tactics which capitalize on the organizations’ strengths. The MIXMAP-model was developed as a guide to make this transition from the strategic to the tactical level. The MIXMAP-model begins by categorizing the product in the product-life-cycle concept and Boston Consulting Group matrix. This position is decisive for the intensity of the different elements (product, price, promotion, place) and their different variables. Discusses how a qualitative survey was used to provide an initial check of the theory and that the survey approach was a questionnaire to 60 multinationals in Germany, England, Italy and France. Article Type: Conceptual Paper Keyword(s): Marketing mix; Multinationals; Sponsorship; Sport. Journal: European Business Review Volume: 97 Number: 4 Year: 1997 pp: 187-193 Copyright © MCB UP Ltd ISSN: 0955-534X Introduction According to estimates by Sponsorship Research International (Hitchen, 1994) the worldwide sport sponsorship industry has continued to grow in real terms over the last decade from around US$2 billion in the early 1980s to its current level of over US$10 billion, almost a five-fold increase. The international sport sponsorship involvement of multinationals changed their communication-marketing. Whereas in the past the communication mix comprised only of advertising, sales promotion and public relations, international sport sponsorship is an additional element of the marketing mix today. The first steps of the international sport sponsorship pioneers were characterized by “gut feeling” for promoting something with a promising future. There was neither research for international sport sponsorship engagement nor strategic implementation of it. In the meantime the financial expenditure, for example the cost of international sport sponsorship involvement, pitch perimeter advertising, team sponsorship and event sponsorship, has dramatically increased. We should not forget the fact that theoretical research of strategic implementation is still in its earliest stages. More recently some companies have tried to integrate the element of international sport sponsorship into the marketing mix. This has proved difficult without theoretical models (Hitchen, 1994). International sport sponsorship as part of the communication process International sport sponsorship does not usually exist in isolation and the ESCA (European Sponsorship Consultants Association, 1994) indicates that the sponsorship which works best was integrated with other marketing activities such as advertising, sales promotion and public relations programmes. International sport sponsorship can provide a positive platform for media visibility, additional image shifts, sampling, corporate hospitality, sales force incentives and even industrial relations. For a sponsor to achieve success in its chosen sponsorship requires understanding, strategic planning, expert targeting and the application of the dedicated professional skills and services, including creative and technical support. The features of the MIXMAP-model and the implementation for international sport sponsorship The MIXMAP-model was developed in 1994 by Vignali, Davies and Schmidt of the Department of Retailing and Marketing at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The model was created due to the lack of congruence between marketing strategy and tactics of marketing concepts of multinationals. It is the intention of the MIXMAP-model to simplify the co-ordination of the different elements and their variables of the marketing mix in order to make the important objectives and targets more obvious. As McDonald (1992) emphasizes it is the “two dimensional” thinking behind the matrices that helps to simplify complex situations and clarify the relationship between the variables and elements of the marketing mix. It follows that altering one variable or element of the mix automatically has an impact on another. International sport sponsorship is a complex variable of the marketing mix and contains numerous sub-variables which have to be co-ordinated and regulated. Against this background of complexity, the MIXMAP-model has the potential to co-ordinate the different instruments that are involved with international sport sponsorship and to integrate international sport sponsorship into the marketing mix. That idea has resulted in transfer of the MIXMAP-model into the segment of international sport sponsorship. The use of the MIXMAP-model for international sport sponsorship enables the sponsor to combine the product and economic environment to decide on the intensity of the different instruments. This will have an influence on the choice of the sponsored sport as well as the actual performance of the contracting sport, to control the extent to which it meets the objectives of the marketing mix elements and variables. The idea of placing the product into different models is not new. What is new is the consideration of the strategic level and the tactical level in the area of international sport sponsorship as well as the establishment of different variables through specific research for international sport sponsorship. Fundamental principle of the MIXMAP-model The MIXMAP-model begins by categorizing the product in different fundamental models such as the product-life-cycle-concept/ Boston Consulting Group matrix. This position is decisive for the intensity of the different elements (product, price, promotion, place) and their different variables. The MIXMAP-model transferred into the area of international sport sponsorship is the combination of strategic and tactical elements and research as shown in the MIXMAP-model triangle in Figure 1: • The element of research: The research element has different instruments to achieve various objectives which can be summarized as follows: • “Where do I stand in the marketplace?”; and • “Where do I want to be ?” • The elements of strategy can be analysed through: • the product life cycle concept; • the Boston Consulting Group matrix. • The elements of tactics can be analysed through: • Different elements and variables that are mapped in matrices; • The elements and the variables and the relevant values which are received through different methods of research. The research element for international sport sponsorship has different methods such as existing research vehicles, syndicated tracking surveys, omnibus surveys and the ad-hoc surveys to meet the various objectives. On the one hand research is the connecting link between the strategic and the tactical elements and on the other hand the basic material for both points of perspective. These different qualitative surveys for international sport sponsorship entail collecting information from the relevant individuals or organizations by directly asking questions on the issues of interest. These survey approaches are different in comparison to the most common quantitative methods of evaluating the international sport sponsorship involvement in the past. These were, and still are, linked in practice to evaluating the number of recordings and length of media exposure and comparing this to the equivalent cost of rate card advertising (Parker, 1991). This approach was questioned by Ukman at the 5th National Sponsorship Conference and reported in Dwek (1993) as follows: “We are still evaluating sponsorship in terms of take offs instead of landings - it’s a qualitative not a quantitative thing.” The MIXMAP-model starts by placing the product of a multinational which is involved in the international sport sponsorship process, in order to monitor the situation of the profitability. For this reason the following models will be implemented: • product-category-life-cycles; and • the Boston Consulting Group matrix. In using the PLC concept it has to be considered that the PLC can describe a product class (soft drinks), a product form (Cola), or a brand (Coca-Cola as a soft drink). In order to follow the MIXMAP-model the user has to decide the main objectives of the international sport sponsorship engagement (product-class, product form or brand). By identifying the stage that a product/brand is in, or may be headed towards, companies can formulate better marketing plans. After considering the main objectives (brand or product related), the application should classify the variable into the PLC to get the starting point of the strategic level mapping of the MIXMAP-model. In order to understand the characteristics of the MIXMAP-model an example product class will be placed (indicated by a black star - see Figure 2) in the growth stage because it has the features described above. This is the starting point for the following positioning. The MIXMAP-model is followed by the positioning of the product in the Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCGM). The BCGM developed and popularized the growth share matrix shown in Figure 2 with the market growth rate on the vertical axis indicating the growth rate of the market in which the sponsorship related product operates. The process of the MIXMAP-model schedule is to transfer the position of the variables from the PLC to the BCGM. Having explained the main features of the BCGM, the position in the PLC can be transferred in the BCGM. In our case the example product is positioned in the star square. This position after the PLC is the second strategic level in the MIXMAP-model concept. The strategic positioning can be summarized as follows: After looking at strategic mapping, we now know that the product promoted by international sport sponsorship has the following features: • the PLC implements the growth stage in a certain time period, which means an increase in profit and sales; • the star position in the BCGM highlights the market growth and high market share. The tactical mapping follows the strategic mapping. For the purpose of tactical mapping, the selected variables are initialized by the implemented marketing research. As a result, the high/low axes remain constant throughout the application of the MIXMAP-model. As Vignali (1994) said: “Congruence between strategy and tactics is indicated where related elements and variables are consistently placed in the same quadrant.” Furthermore, the quadrant would correspond to the quadrant in which the product is positioned if the mapping technique is applied using strategic framework of the PLC and the BCGM. It is proposed that such a matched result in a consistent message is likely to enhance the probability of achieving strategic objectives. In contrast, a mismatch infers incongruity between the strategic and tactical level, resulting in a contradictory message to the consumer, with many of the marketing measures taken neutralizing each other out. The tactical level is based on the idea of using the results of the research in a double meaning in the following way: • the variables are the axes of the different matrices; • the values of the research are the indicators of the level in the matrices (high/low). In our case it will be assumed that the results of the quality research identified the following elements and variables of the marketing mix (see Figure 2) as the most important ones for the promoted product. Product (quality/ brand), price (level/discount), place (outlet no/location), promotion (advertising/ sponsorship). The categorizations will be used to set up different matrices (see Figure II). Additionally the research delivers the suitable data of the company performance for the different elements/variables in order to position the level of this performance in the different matrices. The following examples will explain the operation of the tactical MIXMAP-model. The first matrix shows the product element and combines the variables of quality and brand. Research data placed the example product in the high quality and brand range. This reflects the high quality of the product and the high recognition of the brand. It can be concluded that the example product is known as a well recognized quality product. • Quality: product quality. • Brand: brand awareness. Second, the element of price with the variables discounts and level will be analysed. The product examples are placed in the high price and high discount square. It can be concluded, that the product is being traded at a high price, with the opportunity for the retailer to obtain high discounts. • Level: price level relative to the market; • Discounts: opportunity to obtain discounts. The third stage in the tactical mapping is the consideration of the element place with the variables outlet number and locations. The research results place the example product in the high outlet number and high location square, owing to the extensive distribution channels in the country. It can be concluded that the product has a high rate of ubiquity. • Outlet number: number of outlets relative to market. • Location: geographical spread. Promotion is the last examined variable to be examined. Compared with the other international sport sponsorship variables it is categorized by more intensive mapping than for the other elements. At first the variables advertising and sponsorship will be mapped on a tactical basis. These two variables should be connected in order to make the consumer aware of the international sport sponsorship engagement. The example product is placed in the high/high square which conveys the integration of the international sponsorship into the advertising instruments and the high expenditure for advertising and international sport sponsorship. • Advertising: budget relative to market. • International sport sponsorship: budget relative to market. After the tactical mapping process it is possible to characterize the product and the variables that are related to the product with the following features: • Product has a high quality and a high level of brand. • Price has a high level as well as the opportunities for retailers to receive high discounts. • Place is secured by a high rate of ubiquity. • Promotion is implemented through a high level of television and press presence of the product. • The advertising and sponsorship budget is relatively high in comparison to the market. Furthermore it is possible to analyse the product and the suitable variables in more depth, by using actively the research data in combination with the marketing mix. The MIXMAP-model considers the marketing mix as a flexible modular system which encourages the user to combine the different variables with each other. This means, for example, that the variable sponsorship can also be analysed in a matrix with public relations or sales promotion, if the research data requires such examination. The more data that can be implemented into the MIXMAP-model framework the more features can be discovered in the product and in the product environment. Finally the research data can even control the set objectives for the international sport sponsorship engagement. Different qualitative surveys implemented by the Durham University Business School/Witcher (1991) and the Sponsorship Research International (SRi, 1994) analysed that international sport sponsorship is mainly implemented by multinationals in order to achieve the following objectives: media exposure (TV/press), direct increase in sales, increase of company image/awareness; entertainment of opinion of former/customers. The positioning of the research data into the different matrices on the objective level (see Figure 2) will have different advantages for the user. First he/she can control the result of the strategy and the tactics because the strategy and the tactics has been set up to achieve the set objectives. Second he can work the MIXMAP-model from the objective level to the strategical level up, which will give him/her the opportunity to set the variables that are necessary for achieving the objectives. The following matrix has been set up to monitor the set objectives for the international sport sponsorship engagement. There is at first the level of image and awareness, the two main sub-variables for most companies involved in sport sponsorship. Also, in this matrix the demonstration product is in box 2 which translates the high image and the high awareness of the product. • Image: company image; • Awareness: customer awareness of company. Two other important reasons for international sport sponsorship are the sub-variables of the direct influence on sales of doing sponsorship and the corporate image. Both variables are especially difficult to measure because of the different influences that are involved in image transfer and the buying process. Nevertheless, the example product is placed in the high/high range which shows the high level of direct sales that are connected with the engagement in international sport sponsorship and the influence of international sport sponsorship on the corporate image. • Sales: level of sales relative to market; • Corporate Image: customer opinion of company. International sport sponsorship can also have functions that are indirectly connected with the end-user of the product. This is shown in the next matrix which compares the level of importance of doing international sport sponsorship for the entertainment of customers (wholesalers/retailers) and the entertainment of opinion former (press, officials). The producer of the demonstration product places the product in box 2 because he recognizes the importance of the sub-variables mentioned above . • Customers: level of importance of entertainment of customers; • Opinion former: level of importance of opinion former. We can also summarize the process of mapping on an objective level. • Image and awareness are very high; • Direct sales and corporate image are high through the engagement of international sport sponsorship; • The sub-variables entertainment of customers and opinion former through the international sport sponsorship engagement are very high. After mapping the product/brand at a strategic/tactical and analysis level we can conclude different results which can be of importance for the following processes: The main perspective of the MIXMAP-model is the continuous setting of objectives through the strategic and tactical levels and the analysis of the objectives. This is based on the idea that a congruence between strategy and tactics can only be assured by consistently placing the variables in the same square in the different models. Furthermore the quadrant would correspond to the square the company is positioned in if the mapping technique is applied using the strategic framework of the PLC and BCGM. This can be of help in co-ordinating the timing of different instruments to be more targeted in using certain elements and variables. Furthermore the intensity of the different variables can be controlled and directed easily. The MIXMAP-model can be helpful in the decision process in carrying out international sport sponsorship and the choice of the types of promoted Sport because the potential sponsors know the features that the sponsored sport must fulfil. The mapping process can find an answer to the following questions: “What is the influence of sport sponsorship to certain variables?” or “Does the product match the sponsorship or vice versa ?” etc. because the international sport sponsorship engagement is directly related to the stage of the product/price/place and promotion through the positioning in the different matrices, through which the determination of the precise budget is possible. Additionally the MIXMAP-framework stresses the use of research, because the implementation of the model without research data is not possible. Different analytical research processes are possible through the MIXMAP-model settings such as the ad-hoc research which can set benchmarks before the international sport sponsorship and afterwards in controlling the influence of the international sport sponsorship engagement. Conclusion Can the MIXMAP-model simplify the integration of international sport sponsorship into the marketing mix? The use of the MIXMAP-model as a tool for international sport sponsorship enables the sponsor to combine the product-class, brand and economic environment to decide the intensity of the different elements and their variables. It also simplifies the co-ordination of the different objectives of the marketing mix that are concerned with international sport sponsorship. In this way the high degree of complexity of the decisions involved with the marketing mix and international sport sponsorship can be broken down into individual objectives. This can have an influence on the selection of the sponsored sport or event, if the sponsorship object can meet the objectives of the marketing mix elements and variables. The authors are confident that the MIXMAP-model is a useful, theoretical and practical approach to help multinationals to improve the quality of the communication process and in this manner to enable the international sport sponsorship involvement to be more effective and successful. As McDonald said in his book Marketing by Matrix (1992): “When practical decisions are required in a hard and competitive world, any ‘tools’ which lead to higher quality outputs are not to be spurned lightly.” Figure 1MIXMAP-model triangle Figure 2The MIXMAP-process References and further reading Anonymous (1994), "Hospitality makes a welcome return", PR Week, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Anonymous (1994), "Sports sponsorship and television coverage", National Heritage Select Committee Report, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Anonymous (1994), "Global sponsorship", SRi Newsletter, Switzerland, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Anonymous (1994), Guide to Sponsorship, ESCA (European Sponsorship Consultants Association), Chesham., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Baker, M.J. (1981), Marketing, Macmillan, London., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Bernevik, P. (1989), European Integration and Global Competitiveness, Zollikofer AG Druckerei und Verlag, St. Gallen, Switzerland., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Brewer, G. (1993), "Be like Nike ?", Sales & Marketing, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Crowley, M. (1991), "Prioritizing the sponsorship audience", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 25 No.11, pp.11-21. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Dwek, R. (1993), "Compassionate commitment with cash", Marketing, Vol. 1. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Harris, T. (1993), The Marketers Guide to Public Relations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Hastings, G. (1984), "Sponsorship works differently from advertising", International Journal of Advertising, No. 3., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Hitchen, A. (1994), "Sports marketing strategy", Sponsorship Research International, Lausanne, Switzerland., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] McDonald, M. (1992), Marketing by Matrix, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Meerabeau, E. (1991), "Sponsorship and the drinks industry in the 1990s", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 25 No.11, pp.39-56. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Mooij, M. (1991), Advertising Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Parker, K. (1991), "Sponsorship: the research contribution", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 25 No.11, pp.22-30. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Porter, M.E. (1985), Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Free Press, New York, NY., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Pound, R. (1994), Sponsorship and the Olympic Games, IOC, Lausanne, pp. 35-47., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Schreiber, A. (1994), Lifestyle and Event Marketing, Donnely & Sons Co., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Shaw, R. (1993), The Spread of Sponsorship, Cromwell Press, Broughton., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Simkins, J. (1977), Whose Benefit?, Economist Intelligence Unit, London., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Sleight, S. (1989), Sponsorship, What it is and How to Use it, McGraw-Hill, London., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Turner, S. (1987), Practical Sponsorship, Billings & Sons Limited, Worcester., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Vignali, C. (1993), "The marketing mix redefined", Management Decision, Vol. 32 No.8, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Vignali, C., Davis, B.J., Schmidt, R. (1993), "The Benetton experience", International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 21 No.3, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Vignali, C., Davies, B.J., Schmidt, R. (1994a), "The Marketing Mix Model", . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Vignali, C., Davies, B.J., Schmidt, R. (1994b), "Heuristic devices for managers", MEG Conference, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Witcher B., Craigen, G. (1991), "Objectives and functions in sponsorship", International Journal of Advertising, No. 10, pp.10-33. [Manual request] [Infotrieve]



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Sports VISION, MISSION, and VALUES PAPER .You can write this from the perspective of
Posted On: Nov. 1, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sports VISION, MISSION, and VALUES PAPER .You can write this from the perspective of an assistant coach, Head Coach, Associate AD, or Athletic Director. If you are an assistant coach and desire to become a Head Coach, write it from a Head Coach’s perspective. If you are a coach or Associate A.D. and have a goal of becoming an Athletic Director, write it from an Athletic Director’s perspective. There are 3 components to your paper: PART 1: In simple terms, Vision is a picture of the future that focuses you on what you want to create. You will write your Vision Statement using information and insights from your readings, class assignments, and personal knowledge, experience, and observations. This part should be 1 to 2 pages in length. You can use the following questions below for guidance in developing your Vision: • What does your ideal Program/Department/Staff/Team look like? What images come to mind? • What is special about the hopes and dreams you have for the extraordinary program or department you will create? • How is it distinctive compared to plans leaders at other schools or universities have? • When you revisit this project 10-15 years from now into the future, what will it look like? • How does your plan anticipate change and succeed deep into the future given innovations and trends you forecast over the next decade? • How does your plan serve both the short-term and long-term needs of fellow coaches, administrators, and student-athletes? • Why should others ‘buy into’ your plan’s vision? PART 2: Create your own MISSION STATEMENT. This will express succinctly what your Life's Mission is. It should blend both your personal and professional missions in life, and can be anywhere between one sentence to a page in length. If you already have a Mission Statement you live by, use it. Here is a 4 step process suggestion from Ken Blanchard on creating your own Mission Statement: A. List some personal characteristics (nouns like Energy, Strategic Thinking, Friendliness, etc) you see in yourself. B. List some verbs (teach, coach, lead, encourage, inspire, build, etc) that describe how you successfully interact with people. C. Write a picture of what your ideal of the perfect community looks like. D. Combine two of your nouns and two of your verbs with your definition of a perfect community. Begin your statement with: "My life mission is....." You don't have to use Dr. Blanchard's process, it is merely a tool which you can choose to employ. PART 3: Write a CREDO MEMO. Credo is a Latin term for 'I Believe'. Imagine you have just been granted a paid 6 month sabbatical by your school/university during your off season. You are not allowed to communicate with anyone at your school during the sabbatical. Before you depart, prepare a 1- 2 page document specifying the shared, ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES that should guide the organization's decisions and actions (team/program and/or athletic department. The VALUES must be prioritized and include no more than 4 VALUES. It is critical that you rank them in importance just as you did for your personal values above. After listing them, please explain why each is indispensable for the welfare of the organization. Final Thought: Don't think of this as an academic exercise to earn points and check an assignment off a list. An Inspired Vision, a Clear and Powerful Mission Statement, and Establishing Values, and committing to them, or even going through a process where your existing purpose and values are analyzed and become crystalized in your mind can have a deep impact on your leadership for many years to come.



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Fiscal Management As a business manager of a sports program, what aspects of fiscal management
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra


Fiscal Management As a business manager of a sports program, what aspects of fiscal management would involve you and the management of that sports program? Be sure to define the level in the program you choose for context. Fiscal management is defined as a process of keeping an organization running within its allotted budget. The word fiscal is invariably used and interchanged with the word financial. Fiscal management refers to the act of money management within a government entity. The objective of any department is to improve the way it operates by properly planning, recording and performing procedures that relate to the budget. This exercise involved use of a variety of tools such as budget spreadsheets, accounting software and other guiding procedures as specified by the government or department itself. Poor fiscal management is indicated by a lack of record-keeping and unnecessary or unplanned expenditures that can cause a department to go over budget or fail to meet its objectives. Normally fiscal planning is done on a yearly basis, which usually coincides with the fiscal year under which the department operates. A fiscal is a 12 month period which may not always be the same as a calendar year. The types of expenditures accounted for in fiscal budget may differ, depending on the organization. For a sports program, a fiscal management would consist of buying and maintaining the facilities provided for its clients. It would also consist of educating and employing the right trainers for the sports program. Budget expenditures at an emergency services department might be used for buying and upkeep of equipment for maintaining the same, uniforms for the sports person, and specialized training for the service professionals. A well-designed management plan can supply a guide upon which department members base financial decisions. Detailed budgets can help prevent financial emergencies by planning recurring expenditures that an organization regularly faces, but which might come as a surprise to managers operating without proper planning. For instance, if a department has already budgeted for the cost of cleaning uniforms, the cleaning cost will not come as a surprise that costs an organization more than its budget can afford. Budgeting for this type of cost can also give a fiscal manager sufficient time to find out solutions that are less expensive for costs placed within the budget. It definitely helps in saving money on avoidable last-minute emergency expenditures that might cost more than they would if they were properly planned in advance. . Generally, a good fiscal management involves recording all fiscal transactions in a checks-and-balances system that reduces mistakes or omissions that might lead to surprise budget overages. After financial transactions are recorded, they must also be reconciled on a regular basis, usually monthly, to help a fiscal manager identify any discrepancies between the financial records and the available remaining budget. Without proper and regular reconciliation, a small error in recording financial transactions can become a large deficit over time that may create serious budget shortfalls. The level of program chosen for fiscal management in this discussion is at top level, which helps in guiding the people at lower level to budget accordingly and carry out expenditures. Reference Gentile D. (2011) Teaching Sport Management: A Practical Guide Jones & Bartlett Publisher



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Deviance and Sports We read and hear news reports about performance enhancing drug use in sports
Posted On: Oct. 30, 2017
Author: Shipra


Deviance and Sports We read and hear news reports about performance enhancing drug use in sports so regularly some may think all athletes are taking them. We also hear and read regular reports of athletes committing crimes and carrying unlawful weapons. Is deviance out of control in sports, or is deviance just behavior that’s interfering with the status quo and not really a problem to anyone other than wealthy people with property to protect? What’s your view? Explain your position incorporating data from the text and applying one of the theories discussed in Week One.



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