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PERCEPTION Introduction: It is defined as the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience. Sensation can be defined as the
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


PERCEPTION Introduction: It is defined as the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience. Sensation can be defined as the result which derives from the stimulation of sensory organs. Our sensory organs feels something from the environment i.e., from the stimulus and sends the signals to the brain where these signals are interpret by the brain and then our brain responses to that sensory organ. The process of perception helps us to form our viewpoint towards the other objects or living beings. If a person do not have any perception about anything then his or her life will be meaningless. It means there is no happiness, nothing. It may vary from person to person. Different people may react in different manner for the same situation. This is called perception. How we perceive situations differently is our perception. (n.d. 2015) Importance of perception: It forms our world. Our happiness or sadness depends on how we perceive the object or situation which comes in front of us. If we perceive it positively then we can become happy otherwise sad. It is based on the behavior of people which means that how they interpret the situation. When behavior is concerned, one should make use of perception very carefully so that reality and perception can be understood differently. Our behaviors are the result of our perceptions. If our perception is good, then we perceive well for others otherwise vice-versa. Perceptions should not be misunderstood so that it may not lead to misunderstandings which ultimately break relationships. People with like perceptions can form a group easily and share their feelings with one another. If the perception is healthy and positive then it may result in good. But if perception is negative then it may create misunderstandings. Workforce will become happy if you will be able to reduce the conflicts by handling the situations with positive perception. It is necessary for us to survive in our environment. It allows us to take the sensory information from the environment and to put into meaningful information. (T.Bernhard, 2015) Perception has many principles which are as follows: • Organization: It helps the person to put a raw data into meaningful information. It involves cognition which is the combination of various activities such as thinking, knowing and remembering. If a person possesses knowledge then he or she can easily identify the stimulus and can act accordingly. Visual perception is the process through which one can understand the shapes or symbols and can interpret the meaning from it. But for an illiterate people it is quite impossible to read the language. • Gestalt laws of grouping: It is founded by three researchers who are Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang. According to them, there are five main laws which are proximity, similarity, continuity, closure and common fate. Here, proximity refers to the close relationship between the objects. Similarity means same in shape, size, texture, weight, etc. Continuity refers to the law which helps us in continuing in a particular direction. Closure means the way of seeing the complete form of the objects. Common fate means that all the objects in the group move in the same direction. (R.R.Behrens. 2004) Factors affecting perception There are many factors which affect or you can say helps in forming our perception. These factors are: • The perceiver: Perceiver is the person who has to perceive which means the person who has to understand the situation and act accordingly. The perception of the perceiver depends on the following factors: 1. Attitudes: It is the way in which one thinks of something or the feelings he or she has for another thing. 2. Motives: It can be defined as the reason for which work is done. 3. Interest: It refers to the feeling of wanting to know about someone or something. 4. Experience: It refers to the event which leaves an impression on someone. 5. Expectations: It can be defined as a strong belief that something will definitely happen. • The target: Target refers to the stimuli which the perceiver has to speak on. • The situation: It refers to the surrounding environment in which perceiver has to perceive the object. (S. Rao, 2008) Perception and individual decision-making Every individual has to make decisions according to the situation. It means he or she has to make choice between the two or three alternatives. Decision-making can be done at all the level of management. Each management level has its own decision-making powers. So here, the perception is required to make decisions. When anyone of them does not have any perception then he or she cannot make right decisions. Perception helps us in forming any views of others. It can be positive or negative. Perception builds one’s character. It helps us to present your views regarding the situation. If employers provide a comfortable environment to his or her employees then they can easily give their best. People are judged according to their perception because on the basis of their perception they can form an opinion regarding the situation or the event. Decisions of an individual should be wholly based on his or her own’ perception, because perception helps us to form responds to the stimuli existing in our environment. (D.Raliya. 2013) Conclusion: Perception plays a very important role in our life. It helps us to judge the things in a right or a wrong way according to our abilities. REFERENCES • An introduction to the analysis of perception.2015. n.d. Retrieved from https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/an-introduction-to-the-analysis-of-perception-w84MeILM on 11th Nov. • Why judging people makes us unhappy. 2015. T. Bernhard. Retrieved from http://tinybuddha.com/blog/why-judgimg-people-makes-us-unhappy/ on 11th Nov. • Art, design and Gestalt. 2004. R.R.Bernhard. Retrieved from http://www.leonardo.info/isast/articles/behrens.html on 11th Nov. • Factors influencing perception. 2008. S. Rao. Retrieved from http://www.citeman.com/2849-factors-influencing-perception.html on 11th Nov. • Link between perception and individual decision making.2013. D.Raliya. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/isszspq7loq_/link-between-perception-and-individual-decision-making/ on 11th Nov.



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Chapter 13 Psychological Therapies for Alcohol Abuse Cognitive and Behavioral therapies Successful long-term recovery centers on changing a person’s behaviors and
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Chapter 13 Psychological Therapies for Alcohol Abuse Cognitive and Behavioral therapies Successful long-term recovery centers on changing a person’s behaviors and expectations about alcohol. Many treatment approaches, including mutual-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), focus on behavioral principles such as reinforcement and behavior modeling (for instance, these groups provide sponsors who guide participants through the program) to help patients make those changes. Behavioral therapies are especially effective in encouraging self-change—or the ability of some people to quit drinking on their own. These approaches use goal setting, self-monitoring of drinking, analysis of drinking situations, and learning alternate coping skills. Couples and family therapies analyze drinking behaviors and aim to improve relationship factors, such as improving communication, avoiding conflicts, and learning to solve problems that might lead to drinking. Screening A potentially powerful way to improve problem drinkers’ access to treatment is to make routine screening part of primary care. Asking the single question of how often the patient exceeded the daily maximum drinking limits in the prior year (i.e., 4 drinks for men, 3 drinks for women) can screen effectively for unhealthy alcohol use.A simple question can then become the opportune moment for a brief intervention. Mutual-help Groups (MHGs) MHGs remain the most commonly sought source of help for AUDs in the United States.MHGs are groups of two or more people who share a problem and come together to provide problem-specific help and support to one another.Although AA has the largest following, groups catering to populations with different demographics and preferences. One reason for the popularity of MHGs may be their inherent flexibility and responsiveness. People can attend MHGs as frequently and for as long as they want without insurance and without divulging personal information. Often, people can attend MHGs at convenient times, like evenings and weekends, when they are at higher risk of a relapse to drinking. MHGs also are more cost effective than formal treatment. For example, patients can attend AA at no cost, which translates into about 45 percent lower overall treatment costs than costs for patients in outpatient care while achieving similar outcomes. Some scientists believe the improvement in participants’ social network and the support they receive for abstinence may explain the success of MHGs. Emerging Technologies The Internet is changing the way people communicate and obtain information. Internet and computer-based technologies are infiltrating many levels of AUD care, from screening to recovery. Early evidence suggests that they improve access to services and promote treatment effectiveness. The Internet gives patients the option of receiving treatment 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It enables a patient in a rural setting to access much of the same care as those in urban settings provided he or she has Internet access. These tools are cost-effective ways of engaging people in treatment. For those who want to reduce their drinking, Internet tools can provide drinking diaries, goal-setting exercises, and relapse-prevention techniques. These may prove useful for patients most interested in self-help. Keeping Patients in Treatment Unfortunately, even after entering treatment, many patients drop out—either during the initial phases or later during follow-up care. Research shows that interventions with a longer duration (i.e., at least 12 months) or in which patients are actively engaged through telephone calls, home visits, or by involving a patient’s support network—such as family, friends, and employers—have the most success. Aversion Therapy Aversion therapy works by attempting to break the association between alcohol and pleasure. The therapy, in the case of alcoholism, involves the 'patient' drinking while at the same time having a negative stimulus administered. This negative stimulus could be an emetic drug (i.e. one that makes the patient vomit when drinking alcohol) such as disulfiram, or an electric shock administered whenever the subject drinks. ContingencyManagement Contingency management principles involve giving patients tangible rewards to reinforce positive behaviors such as abstinence. Controlled Drinking Controlled drinking is a strategy in which you reduce your alcohol consumption to a moderate level. The belief is that by reigning in consumption to lower levels, the negative outcomes that heavy drinking produces will be greatly reduced. Sometimes called “moderation drinking”, this approach – as a treatment option for alcohol addiction – has generated a lot of controversy among mental health and addiction experts for decades. Biological Therapies for Alcohol Abuse Biological treatments for alcohol abuse include Antabuse, Naltrexone, Busiprone, Acamprosate and Clonidine. Disulfiram has a simple mechanism of action. It makes the use of alcohol aversive. Disulfiram produces an unpleasant interaction with symptoms including facial flushing, headache, palpitations, nausea, and vomiting. This aversive interaction deters further drinking. The usefulness of disulfiram has been limited by poor patient compliance. Naltrexone is a mu opiate receptor antagonist. The effectiveness of oral naltrexone is postulated to be based on the reduction of the euphoric effects of alcohol. In clinical trials and in human laboratory studies, naltrexone has been shown to reduce the “high” associated with drinking alcohol. Naltrexone has been shown in clinical trials to be effective mainly in reducing relapse to heavy drinking in alcoholics. Injectable naltrexone has been shown to be safe, well tolerated, and efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence long-acting naltrexone was significantly better than placebo in reducing days of heavy drinking during the 6-month trial. Acamprosate mechanism of action is not known. One of the proposed mechanisms of action of acamprosate is reduction of glutamatergic activity in alcohol-dependent individuals during early abstinence. Glutamatergic activity in the brain is thought to be increased as a result of chronic alcohol administration.19 This increase in glutamatergic activity is thought to contribute to symptoms of alcohol withdrawal during early abstinence. By reducing glutamatergic activity, acamprosate may reduce symptoms of alcohol withdrawal during the post-acute phase and may reduce negatively reinforced relapses to drinking. Buspar is primarily used to treatGAD. Unlike most drugs predominantly used to treat anxiety, buspar is not related to benzodiazepines or barbitutares so it does not carry the risk of physical dependence and withdrawal. Buspar has shown to help with alcohol abuse. Clonidine is used for Alcohol Withdrawal. It is used for safe withdrawal. Chapter 15 Rationale for including personalities disorders in the DSM-IV.



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university of north dakota online &distannceeducation
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


university of north dakota online &distannceeducation



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Psychology The limits of skepticism Can a person be skeptical about everything, or are there limits? Is it possible to
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology The limits of skepticism Can a person be skeptical about everything, or are there limits? Is it possible to doubt everything or almost everything? Does a person have an obligation to use ethical and moral reasoning when examining ones beliefs? Are there beliefs you possess that cannot be challenged or shown to be false? How might the skeptic respond to your claim that such a belief cannot be doubted? Identify one such specific belief and present your response to the skeptic. (If you don't have such a belief, explain how one could live while not accepting any claim as true.) A skeptic is basically a disbeliever or doubter. He believes only on the basis of firsthand information. He needs proof of everything in the form of physical evidence. Otherwise he is not satisfied with the answer provided by others. Skepticism is obscure, mysterious in nature. We come across it in our daily life. For example, when we buy a refrigerator, we don’t take the word of salesperson as a gospel. We examine the features , ask technical questions ( even if we don’t know the answers ) or take a technical person along with us to do the talking. We all know that some skepticism is required, and also understand the reason behind it. There is at least a small degree of interpersonal confrontation involved in the purchase of a refrigerator. It may not turn out to be pleasant experience. But there is a good reason for being skeptical. if you don’t exercise some minimal skepticism, there is probably a chance that you end up paying more for the product you have purchased. It is better to have some amount of skepticism in life. One way of looking at skepticism is by an example of a person who is standing on a train track and uses a skeptical argument to deny the fact that he is going to be hit by a train. It is one way of testing one’s limitations of skeptical thinking. The strongest arguments for skepticism turn out to be deductive. It may seem to us that there are things that no one can be skeptical about. For example, it would seem to be impossible for a person to be skeptical about the fact that they exist. However, even this is possible. We can hold that we are only imagining that we exist and there is no way to prove that we are wrong. Historically, there have been philosophers who have argued that there is no way to truly know anything. These thinkers have also claimed that there is no way to prove that anything we see is real. Reference Meidan A. (2004) Skepticism Is True Universal-Publishers



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Psychology The concepts discussed in Chapter 3 (Sole, K; 2011) point out that if you have a negative self-concept/self-image, it affects your communication on many levels. The
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology The concepts discussed in Chapter 3 (Sole, K; 2011) point out that if you have a negative self-concept/self-image, it affects your communication on many levels. The major one is how you present yourself, whether with confidence or meekness. Someone with self-confidence exudes the aura of that in their body language, choices of words, as well as their focusing abilities. I agree with the textbook when they say that self-image is basically a work in progress and that “You see your-self through the mirror of other people’s eyes” (Cooley, 1902; pg. 52) because I believe that, especially today, society has become so judgmental! When you look at magazine areas in shopping centers, the majority of them portray breathtaking people with the “perfect” bodies. Once we see those types of things, even though we think we are not paying attention to them, subconsciously we can’t help but allow them to absorb some part of our brain. This can influence people that do not have higher self-esteem. When we communicate with others, we learned in chapter 1 of our text (Sole, K; 2011), our body langue inevitably becomes a part of our communication. Negative self-image, via our body language, can change whether we are sending or receiving with a good frame of mind. I used to weigh 350 pounds and in 2000, I had gastric bypass which helped me lose about 200 pounds over the following 18 months. It’s incredible how my self-esteem didn’t really change, but those around me did. To make a long story short, I had taken a young girl shopping for a prom dress and we naturally separated when we entered the store. Two sales representatives completely ignored me. When I approached a third to ask a question, she rudely looked me up and down and told me that they did not carry anything for me there. Boy was I humiliated! Just the look was horrible! Needless to say, we walked out of there without buying anything! Now I can go places and sales people smile and offer to help. I still have the over-weight mindset but I am now and always have been, happy and cheerful. People have naturally gravitated towards me for many years. Outer appearances have never meant anything to me but it is incredible how the judgment of others can really chip away at your internal self. References: “Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication” (Sole, K; 2011) San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Inc. Negative self concept is bad for one’s image. It is considered the root cause of poor communication. What ultimately matters is how you present yourself to other, either with confidence or with a fear of getting rejected by people. Confidence is reflected with body language, choice of words, and focusing on the main issues. Self image is something that has to be developed by an individual over a period of time. While outer appearance may not matter to an individual, they do carry some significance to others, especially those who develop judgment by looking at the physical structure of people. It is sad but true fact of life. However this can be overcome by oozing out confidence and not getting affected by others opinion.



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Week 1 dis 1 What is Philosophy? Most people have views that are strongly influenced and informed by philosophy, often without realizing it. Identify a view you have—whether on politics, religion,
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Week 1 dis 1 What is Philosophy? Most people have views that are strongly influenced and informed by philosophy, often without realizing it. Identify a view you have—whether on politics, religion, science, culture, or even the media and entertainment—that might be regarded as being related to philosophy. What kind of reasons do you have for holding that belief? What figure from the history of philosophy section do you think might have some views that are similar, or at least relevant, to your own? Explain why you chose that particular figure. I have always believed in the existence of a super power which controls our actions. While science can provide explanation in a rational way to the ways of life, how do we explain that some people die young while others live a long life ? Who decides how long we can live ? Science provides an explanation to this question. If we follow a strict and healthy diet, and exercise on a regular basis, we can live a long life. But then ,we see people around us, who follow a strict pattern of diet and exercise ,but still die young. All these observations have made my belief stronger in a super natural power, who decides our fate and the way our lives are controlled. This view is similar to St. Augustine , who believed that there is a superpower who guides our thoughts and action. St. Augustine believed in the philosophy of Plato and found it to be extremely important. However, at the same time, he argued and believed that Platonism was only completed with Christ (Medieval Philosophy chapter 1). So this is the reason I chose this school of thought for my belief. x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x Week 1 dis 2 Justifying beliefs Many philosophers insist that our most strongly held beliefs should be examined and critically evaluated. Using the required text and outside sources, explain what philosophers mean when they say that beliefs need justification? What is the importance of subjecting our beliefs to critical scrutiny? What are the advantages of believing something without examining it? What are the disadvantages? Identify a specific belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your reasons for holding that belief. Be sure to include logical reasoning as well as factual evidence in all your arguments. According to our text,” Rationalism puts much greater emphasis on the mind, and on reason, and sees sensory information as being either less important or as actually interfering with our ability to discover fundamental philosophical truths”(Chapter 1 rationalism). We must examine our observations and beliefs in line with scientific reasoning. Looks can be deceptive and give rise to a perception which may , in reality , be totally wrong. Mathematics is an excellent example of reasoning and rationalism. If we believe in some happenings without examining it from rational point of view, we may end up in making mistakes and be a victim of poor judgment. Rationalist do not reject information obtained through senses but on the contrary, examine it critically and analyze the reasons as to why this is happening and then come to a conclusion. Rationalists believe that there is nothing wrong in believing happenings in the world or God, but all should be explained with reasoning and logic.



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Psychology The limits of skepticism Can a person be skeptical about everything, or are there limits? Is it possible to doubt
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology The limits of skepticism Can a person be skeptical about everything, or are there limits? Is it possible to doubt everything or almost everything? Does a person have an obligation to use ethical and moral reasoning when examining ones beliefs? Are there beliefs you possess that cannot be challenged or shown to be false? How might the skeptic respond to your claim that such a belief cannot be doubted? Identify one such specific belief and present your response to the skeptic. (If you don't have such a belief, explain how one could live while not accepting any claim as true.) A skeptic is basically a disbeliever or doubter. He believes only on the basis of firsthand information. He needs proof of everything in the form of physical evidence. Otherwise he is not satisfied with the answer provided by others. Skepticism is obscure, mysterious in nature. We come across it in our daily life. For example, when we buy a refrigerator, we don’t take the word of salesperson as a gospel. We examine the features , ask technical questions ( even if we don’t know the answers ) or take a technical person along with us to do the talking. We all know that some skepticism is required, and also understand the reason behind it. There is at least a small degree of interpersonal confrontation involved in the purchase of a refrigerator. It may not turn out to be pleasant experience. But there is a good reason for being skeptical. if you don’t exercise some minimal skepticism, there is probably a chance that you end up paying more for the product you have purchased. It is better to have some amount of skepticism in life. One way of looking at skepticism is by an example of a person who is standing on a train track and uses a skeptical argument to deny the fact that he is going to be hit by a train. It is one way of testing one’s limitations of skeptical thinking. The strongest arguments for skepticism turn out to be deductive. It may seem to us that there are things that no one can be skeptical about. For example, it would seem to be impossible for a person to be skeptical about the fact that they exist. However, even this is possible. We can hold that we are only imagining that we exist and there is no way to prove that we are wrong. Historically, there have been philosophers who have argued that there is no way to truly know anything. These thinkers have also claimed that there is no way to prove that anything we see is real. Reference Meidan A. (2004) Skepticism Is True Universal-Publishers



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Psychology The concepts discussed in Chapter 3 (Sole, K; 2011) point out that if you have a
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology The concepts discussed in Chapter 3 (Sole, K; 2011) point out that if you have a negative self-concept/self-image, it affects your communication on many levels. The major one is how you present yourself, whether with confidence or meekness. Someone with self-confidence exudes the aura of that in their body language, choices of words, as well as their focusing abilities. I agree with the textbook when they say that self-image is basically a work in progress and that “You see your-self through the mirror of other people’s eyes” (Cooley, 1902; pg. 52) because I believe that, especially today, society has become so judgmental! When you look at magazine areas in shopping centers, the majority of them portray breathtaking people with the “perfect” bodies. Once we see those types of things, even though we think we are not paying attention to them, subconsciously we can’t help but allow them to absorb some part of our brain. This can influence people that do not have higher self-esteem. When we communicate with others, we learned in chapter 1 of our text (Sole, K; 2011), our body langue inevitably becomes a part of our communication. Negative self-image, via our body language, can change whether we are sending or receiving with a good frame of mind. I used to weigh 350 pounds and in 2000, I had gastric bypass which helped me lose about 200 pounds over the following 18 months. It’s incredible how my self-esteem didn’t really change, but those around me did. To make a long story short, I had taken a young girl shopping for a prom dress and we naturally separated when we entered the store. Two sales representatives completely ignored me. When I approached a third to ask a question, she rudely looked me up and down and told me that they did not carry anything for me there. Boy was I humiliated! Just the look was horrible! Needless to say, we walked out of there without buying anything! Now I can go places and sales people smile and offer to help. I still have the over-weight mindset but I am now and always have been, happy and cheerful. People have naturally gravitated towards me for many years. Outer appearances have never meant anything to me but it is incredible how the judgment of others can really chip away at your internal self. References: “Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication” (Sole, K; 2011) San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Inc. Negative self concept is bad for one’s image. It is considered the root cause of poor communication. What ultimately matters is how you present yourself to other, either with confidence or with a fear of getting rejected by people. Confidence is reflected with body language, choice of words, and focusing on the main issues. Self image is something that has to be developed by an individual over a period of time. While outer appearance may not matter to an individual, they do carry some significance to others, especially those who develop judgment by looking at the physical structure of people. It is sad but true fact of life. However this can be overcome by oozing out confidence and not getting affected by others opinion.



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Psychology My self concept has been developed over time through various experiences. “"The
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology My self concept has been developed over time through various experiences. “"The self is something which has a development; it is not initially there, at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity . . ." (Sole, 2011, p. 49). My concept of self is quite satisfied and confident in who I have become and what I have achieved thus far in my life. Every goal I sought to achieve has been acquired by the specified self imposed timeline (except for college). However, I am half way through achieving the college goal right now. I consider myself to be someone that radiates poise and achievement. I am someone who can be trusted and someone who you would want your children to be around. My self image is in a state of displacement at the moment as I am 13 weeks pregnant. So needless to say my physical bodily appearance is not at its peak. I consider myself to be intelligent, attractive and of a normal weight and height (absent the baby bump). My self esteem as I am sure you can see from my descriptive so far is pretty positive. Please note that I would never speak of these attributes in everyday conversation. I am only speaking of them because I was asked to do so. Nonetheless, I am glad to have the opportunity for self reflection. I spend allot of time thinking about what I have not done yet and not enough time appreciating what I have already accomplished. It is not often enough that people take the time to self reflect before they are well seasoned in years. Thank you professor for the opportunity. The self concept, self image and self esteem, described above, have helped me to be confident. Allowing me to be clear and decisive in conversation. Specifically, conversation with other scholars, mothers, and others trying to achieve a goal. Sole, K. (2011).Making connections: Understanding interpersonal communication. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Developing self concept through experience is a big challenge and something that is to be admired. Not many people possess the skill and determination to do that. The very fact that physical appearance change but not the mental image is commendable. There is no point feeling bad about one’s appearance. It is God given and cannot be changed by mankind. What needs to be changed is the perception of one’s own. For that also, one has to look inside and not depend on others’ opinion.



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Week 1 dis 1 What is Philosophy? Most people have views that are strongly influenced and informed by philosophy,
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Week 1 dis 1 What is Philosophy? Most people have views that are strongly influenced and informed by philosophy, often without realizing it. Identify a view you have—whether on politics, religion, science, culture, or even the media and entertainment—that might be regarded as being related to philosophy. What kind of reasons do you have for holding that belief? What figure from the history of philosophy section do you think might have some views that are similar, or at least relevant, to your own? Explain why you chose that particular figure. I have always believed in the existence of a super power which controls our actions. While science can provide explanation in a rational way to the ways of life, how do we explain that some people die young while others live a long life ? Who decides how long we can live ? Science provides an explanation to this question. If we follow a strict and healthy diet, and exercise on a regular basis, we can live a long life. But then ,we see people around us, who follow a strict pattern of diet and exercise ,but still die young. All these observations have made my belief stronger in a super natural power, who decides our fate and the way our lives are controlled. This view is similar to St. Augustine , who believed that there is a superpower who guides our thoughts and action. St. Augustine believed in the philosophy of Plato and found it to be extremely important. However, at the same time, he argued and believed that Platonism was only completed with Christ (Medieval Philosophy chapter 1). So this is the reason I chose this school of thought for my belief. x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x Week 1 dis 2 Justifying beliefs Many philosophers insist that our most strongly held beliefs should be examined and critically evaluated. Using the required text and outside sources, explain what philosophers mean when they say that beliefs need justification? What is the importance of subjecting our beliefs to critical scrutiny? What are the advantages of believing something without examining it? What are the disadvantages? Identify a specific belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your reasons for holding that belief. Be sure to include logical reasoning as well as factual evidence in all your arguments. According to our text,” Rationalism puts much greater emphasis on the mind, and on reason, and sees sensory information as being either less important or as actually interfering with our ability to discover fundamental philosophical truths”(Chapter 1 rationalism). We must examine our observations and beliefs in line with scientific reasoning. Looks can be deceptive and give rise to a perception which may , in reality , be totally wrong. Mathematics is an excellent example of reasoning and rationalism. If we believe in some happenings without examining it from rational point of view, we may end up in making mistakes and be a victim of poor judgment. Rationalist do not reject information obtained through senses but on the contrary, examine it critically and analyze the reasons as to why this is happening and then come to a conclusion. Rationalists believe that there is nothing wrong in believing happenings in the world or God, but all should be explained with reasoning and logic.



1.1. Analyse the principal distinctions between psychotherapy and counselling.
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


1.1. Analyse the principal distinctions between psychotherapy and counselling. Counselling is one of a number of helping strategies which individuals use throughout their lives. Everyone has some of the skills required for each strategy but will become more skillful if they are aware of the different skills Counselling is an inferiority complex with respect to its slightly older sibling, Psychotherapy. Or, perhaps more accurately, it could be claimed that psychotherapy has the superiority complex with respect to its younger rival, counselling. Counseling is the artful application of scientifically derived psychological knowledge Psychotherapy is simply defined as the treatment of psychological disorders or maladjustments by a professional technique, as psychoanalysis, group therapy or individual therapy. In contrast counseling is defined as professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems. Counselling is used to explain a relatively brief treatment that is focused most upon behaviour. It targets a particular symptom or problematic situation and offers suggestions and advice for dealing with it. Psychotherapy is generally a longer term treatment which focuses more on gaining insight into chronic physical and emotional problems There are no essential differences between counseling and psychotherapy but there are unessential differences. Both counselors and psychotherapists engage in the same behaviors –listening, questioning, interpreting, explaining and advising and so on. However, often they differ so in different proportions. Generally, psychotherapists are less directive, go little deeper, work a little longer with individual cases, and a charge of high fee. In contrast, counselors are slightly more directive and work more on developmentally normal- but troubling-issues, work more overtly at the surface. They also, work more briefly with individual clients and charge a bit less for their services. Although counselors work with less disturbed clients but psychotherapists work with more disturbed patients, now obtaining services from masters’ level counselors or social workers is generally less expensive, counselors often work more than psychotherapists with clients who have extensive personal and family problems.



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Evaluate the key requirements to be an effective counselor? Evaluate the conditions for which it would be appropriate to see a counsellor or a psychotherapist?
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Evaluate the key requirements to be an effective counselor? Evaluate the conditions for which it would be appropriate to see a counsellor or a psychotherapist? Effective counsellor: Personal Qualities of an Effective Counsellor: All the counsellors are not alike. They differ in differnt ways. The personal characteristics of the counsellor, as well as, their personality differ quite considerably. A number of research organisations have tried to ascertain the personal qualities of a counsellor, which are necessity to bring about therapeutical transformation in another person (i.e. the client). Three researchers namely Carkuff, Truax & Carl Rogers came up with the under mentioned characteristics, which are as follows: a) Empathy: The empathic behaviour is the ability of a counsellor to stand in the shoes of the client i.e. to see the things from the point of view of the client. This empathy is a must quality for the counselling process to succeed. Empathy calls for 'forgetting oneself so that the counsellor surrenders himself completely towards the client. The process of empathisation is never total or complete, which leaves a lot to be desired, for the counselling process to succeed. Several empathy enhancing activities helps in enhancing the quality of empathy in a counsellor. b) Genuineness: Rogers as well as Truax considered genuineness, as a very important part of counselling. The employees of various public services are well trained to meet the public at large, in a very cordial and friendly manner. "Genuineness" is synonymous with good or honest intentions. A genuine interest in the client is a must for the counselling process to succeed. c) Warmth: Personal warmth or being warm is a controversial issue. There is a hairline difference between being warm or being dubbed as 'sickliness'. The quality of being warm refers to a situation, where a person shows interest in other individual/group. 'Cold' individuals rarely become good counsellors. A word of caution here, a too warm counsellor may lead towards the development of over-dependence on the part of the client. The ideal feeling of being warm is the one which demonstrates that the counsellor is non-judgmental and is honestly interested in his/her client. Care should be taken to see that the counsellor does not try to dominate the process of counselling. d) Concreteness: It can be termed as a type of skill. It is an ability to listen, to what is being said by the client, instead of what is being implied. Concreteness in counselling is essential, if the counselling process has to succeed. A counsellor possessing the skill of ‘concreteness' does not go for details (regarding psychological explanations) of what the client is speaking about, but instead tries to understand what the client is trying to express. Any quick, preconceived or initial judgment about what the client is saying will not be particularly helpful. In fact, it will be counterproductive. The concept of concreteness almost integrates all the important elements of the counselling process. A concrete counsellor, invariably, listens to and accepts what the client is saying and does not quickly make his judgments. e) Unconditional Positive Regard: Rogers came up with a term called, 'unconditional positive regard' to refer to 'necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change' in the counselling relationship. Rogers emphasized that the counsellor's positive feeling for the client must never be conditional in nature. He further suggested that the counsellor should feel warmly disposed towards the client, irrespective of the client's feelings or emotions, which is almost impractical or unreal. This is impossible. Further, it is important that a counsellor is broad minded and initially non-judgmental. Also positive general disposition towards the client is a must for the counselling process to succeed. f) A Tragic Sense: In order to get involved with a client's problem a 'tragic sense of life' must be developed. All human beings have some limitations. A tragic sense helps the counsellor to remain humble. It also inducts a sense of humanity in him. Counsellors are not people with better brains, but are the people who readily listen to the problems of their clients. g) A Sense of Humour: A sense of humour comes quite handy, in rescuing most of the sensitive or delicate situations. It does not means that a counsellor should resort to a comedian's tactics. It also does not mean that a counsellor should start taking the conversation during counselling session lightly. But, it means to help a client to regain the sight of the larger picture of a problem. It helps in calming down the tense atmosphere, that builds up because the clients generally blow the things out of proportion. Even subjects dubbed as 'taboos', can be easily confronted with the help of a sense of humour. h) Self-awareness: It means to being aware of oneself i.e. to be aware of one's own limitations and strengths. It means to explore oneself. It is a realistic attempt of comparing oneself with other people. It means to explore one's own life situations. A MAN is literally what he thinks, his character being the complete sum of all his thoughts. - James Allen in “As a Man Thinketh” A GOOD COUNSELLOR A GOOD COUNSELLOR is also: a positive influencer enthusiastic caring supportive trusting focussed goal-oriented knowledgeable attentive clear and concise patient observing responsive According to Walter B.Jones, the counsellor should have the following five personality traits: 1. Breadth of Interest: The counsellor should be interested in various types of poeple , jobs and organization. 2. Co-operation: The counsellor should cooperate with all the staff in a cheerful manner. 3. Refinement: The counsellor should not be over confident but, on the other hand, should be modest and humble towards the clients. 4. Magnetism: The counsellor would inspire confidence in others and put others at ease. 5. Considerateness: The counsellor should appreciate the difficulties of teachers, exhibit human understanind and possess real love for fellowmen. B. Training and Preparation. Myers says that the counsellor must have the following traits: 1. Good liberal education including knowledge of humanities such as sociology, psychology, economics, history, geography, etc. 2. Knowlegde of objectives, curriculum and methods of secondary schools. 3. Knowlegde of vocational activities. 4. Knowlegde of methods of occupational information. 5. Knowlegde of principles of guidance. 6. Knowlegde of psychological tests in guidance services. 7. Knowlegde of organization of guidance services. Counselling offers help to people going through a period of emotional or psychological distress and confusion which is hindering their normal capacity to arrange their lives more effectively.



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Learning Outcomes Criteria Classification Fail 3rd 2,2 2,1 1st 1.be conversant with a range of theoretical perspectives on the nature of
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Developmental & Social Psychology Essay Name: Submission Date: Learning Outcomes Criteria Classification Fail 3rd 2,2 2,1 1st 1.be conversant with a range of theoretical perspectives on the nature of psychological development (e.g. cognitive science, constructivism, sociocultural psychology) 2.acquire an understanding of major issues, findings and areas of research in contemporary developmental psychology (e.g. Theory of Mind, development of memory and representational abilities (language, drawing, number etc), cognitive change in infancy and across the lifespan, etc) 3. engage critically with a range of historic and contemporary debates within developmental psychology, including the relationship between communication and cognition, and the interplay of biology and culture in psychological development 4.apply and evaluate multiple perspectives on issues in developmental psychology in an informed, systematic and critical manner, employing appropriate psychological terminology, concepts and conventions in communication, and when summarising and critically evaluating journal articles and other readings on selected topics. Introduction: Covers main themes/justifies scope of essay Coverage of concepts/theory: demonstrates clear and extensive knowledge of the subject Evidence: provides relevant evidence to support arguments Critical Evaluation: provides a critical analysis of material discussed Answers the question: provides a comprehensive answer to the question Conclusion: offers a clear conclusion that integrates preceding discussion Structure and Quality of narrative: effective use of paragraphs, presents a coherent argument, correctly referenced. Fluently written, accurately spelt and grammatically correct References: shows use of material outside recommended readings: Follows American Psychological Association (APA) format Overall Mark (%) 1st Marker: 2nd Marker: General comments:



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1.1. Analyse the principal distinctions between psychotherapy and counselling
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Psychology . Counselling is one of a number of helping strategies which individuals use throughout their lives. Everyone has some of the skills required for each strategy but will become more skillful if they are aware of the different skills Counselling is an inferiority complex with respect to its slightly older sibling, Psychotherapy. Or, perhaps more accurately, it could be claimed that psychotherapy has the superiority complex with respect to its younger rival, counselling. Counseling is the artful application of scientifically derived psychological knowledge Psychotherapy is simply defined as the treatment of psychological disorders or maladjustments by a professional technique, as psychoanalysis, group therapy or individual therapy. In contrast counseling is defined as professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems. Counselling is used to explain a relatively brief treatment that is focused most upon behaviour. It targets a particular symptom or problematic situation and offers suggestions and advice for dealing with it. Psychotherapy is generally a longer term treatment which focuses more on gaining insight into chronic physical and emotional problems There are no essential differences between counseling and psychotherapy but there are unessential differences. Both counselors and psychotherapists engage in the same behaviors –listening, questioning, interpreting, explaining and advising and so on. However, often they differ so in different proportions. Generally, psychotherapists are less directive, go little deeper, work a little longer with individual cases, and a charge of high fee. In contrast, counselors are slightly more directive and work more on developmentally normal- but troubling-issues, work more overtly at the surface. They also, work more briefly with individual clients and charge a bit less for their services. Although counselors work with less disturbed clients but psychotherapists work with more disturbed patients, now obtaining services from masters’ level counselors or social workers is generally less expensive, counselors often work more than psychotherapists with clients who have extensive personal and family problems.



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