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Session 7: Separation of Powers and Public Administration (Oct 9-16) Assignment Questions:
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Session 7: Separation of Powers and Public Administration (Oct 9-16) Assignment Questions: 1. Civil Service Reform Act. This question contains two questions and counts for two different questions in terms of points. First, what did the Civil Service Reform Act accomplish? What ethical issues surround the SES? The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (CSRA) is applicable to labor organizations which represents employees in most agencies of the executive branch of the Federal Government. The regulations implementing the standards of conduct provisions of the CSRA incorporate several provisions of the Labor- Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA). These provisions include the one that are related to labor organization reporting requirements. The LMRDA grants rights to union members and also protects their interests. This is achieved by promoting democratic procedures with in respective labor organizations. The LMRDA assures the following:- • a Bill of Rights for union members; • reporting requirements for labor organizations, union officers and employees, employers, labor-relations consultants, and surety companies; • standards for the regular election of union officers; and • Safeguards for protecting labor organization funds and assets. The proponents of civil service were of the view that it was essential to reform the spoils system, i.e. a process by which an individual who supported the election of a candidate was rewarded with a prominent post in the government. The reformers believed that personal favors should not be the criteria for awarding these posts. There should be some type of test of merit or basic qualifications for persons to be appointed to non-elected positions in the government. Legislation was adopted in the year 1871, when a rider was adopted to an appropriation ac, which authorized the establishment of regulations for admission into the civil service with regard to knowledge, ability, and other job performance factors. Later developments established the fact that spoils system was responsible for revolt and even assassination of the President James A. Garfield in the year 1881. This incident was exploited by the civil service reformers to push for revision of the act. The Pendleton Act transformed the civil service and greatly affected the organization structure of the political parties to a large extent. The result of the same is for us to see, as government workers are becoming more professional and better educated, and in the matter of their selection, political influence was being replaced by business skill and overall competency. A series of executive orders was also important in shifting the emphasis from a necessary political reform to a positive search for better procedures and personnel. Some of the more important of these directives reflected the changing nature of national life, its economy, and its values. It led to further reforms and Congress passed the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which is the most sweeping reform legislation since the Pendleton Act in 1883. It abolished the Civil Service Commission and split its functions among an Office of Personnel Management, a Federal Labor Relations Authority, and an independent quasi-judicial Merit System Protection Board. The ethical issues surrounding the Act were witnessed in the emergence of Watergate scandal. Where does the power end and where does the power originate? The clash or conflict of interest has a very thin veil and sometimes it becomes difficult to justify the action on the basis of moral grounds or power given to the executive to take actions. ===================================================================================== 2. Control over the Bureaucracy. Specifically, how do Congress and the President Control administrative discretion? What is at stake here? (Hint: you will want to incorporate the Gaus and Rosenbloom articles for this answer). Federal bureaucracy is a huge structure consisting of around 2.6 million employees. It throws a big challenge to monitor and control their actions. Everyone working in bureaucracy is responsible for administering the law. The executive branch mostly manages the federal bureaucracy. Even though it controls the majority of federal bureaucracy, legislative and judiciary branches have an equal role to play and influence. For example, Congress, through its power of concept, controls and monitors the working of federal bureaucracy and makes sure that it works in a proper manner. There are five types of organizations in the federal bureaucracy viz. Cabinet departments, Independent executive agencies, Independent regulatory agencies, Government corporations, Presidential commissions. Each of them has their own role to play in controlling and monitoring the actions of the bureaucracy. Administrative discretion as the name suggest is “the exercise of professional expertise and judgment, as opposed to strict adherence to regulations or statutes, in making a decision performing official acts of duties. “ Since discretionary power is informal in nature, it is unprotected by the safeguards which are part and parcel of the formal procedure. A public official, by virtue of the position he occupies, has administrative discretion when he has the freedom to make a choice among the potential courses of action. The most important point to note is the abuse of discretion, which is what need to be monitored and controlled. Failure to exercise reasonable judgment or discretion leads to abuse of power or discretion. To quote from examples of court most judicial determinations are made based on evidence introduced at legal proceedings. Evidence may consist of oral testimony, written testimony, videotapes and sound recordings, documentary evidence such as exhibits and business records, and a host of other materials, including voice exemplars, handwriting samples, and blood tests. Similarly, Congress and the President should use their discretionary power judiciously and in an appropriate manner. Both Congress and the President as decision-makers use their discretionary powers in good faith and for a proper, intended and authorized purpose. These decision-makers do not act outside of their powers. No decision-maker has an unfettered discretionary decision-making power. It is not sufficient to exercise discretion and approve an application simply because it seems the right thing to do. When exercising discretion, decision-makers need to act reasonably and impartially. They must not handle matters in which they have an actual or reasonably perceived conflict of interest. According to Gauss and Rosenbloom ( a well known scholar in the field of Public Administrator ), the discretionary decision should be taken b public administrator by taking into consideration three constitutional powers , viz. law , politics and management. In pursuing this logic, the writer has become a leading advocate for establishing ‘constitutional competence” as a basic standard for public service professionals. Managerial- The Managerial foundation is used to manage the performance of organizations so that they will be successful. Key areas include administrative decision-making, managerial techniques, leaders, and employee contributions. By these elements working together, organizations are able to operate successfully. Political- The Political approach discusses how the political officials oversee the different administrative decisions. Politicians have the final say on the laws that public administrators are tasked with executing. Rosenbloom states that the Politics/Administration Dichotomy is a principle stating that politics and administration should remain separate in the public sector which was developed by the Civil Service Reforms of the 1870s and the 1880s. According to him, the idea that public administration can be separated from politics is strange. He believes that if politics and public administration were separate, this approach would not work, emphasizing their inevitable interconnection. Legal- the Legal approach was, according to Rosenbloom, the most crucial. The Rule of Law involves orderliness, comprehension, and spells out when and how tasks will be completed. Rosenbloom argues that in order to carry out their tasks, public administrators must be competent in their legal and constitutional obligations and restrictions. Rosenbloom’s argues that to understand public administration, it is not sufficient enough to use just one of the approaches, but to think of all three at the same time. Rosenbloom documents that in 1946, by making major reforms, Congress became the central authority in how public administration operated in the federal government, incorporating all three approaches. According to Rosenbloom, public administration at other levels should operate in the same way.



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A view I have is that every person should step back a take a look at themselves to see what their morals and ethics are before they judge other’s actions. This is not to
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


A view I have is that every person should step back a take a look at themselves to see what their morals and ethics are before they judge other’s actions. This is not to say that if someone is doing something that is considered blatantly wrong in “our” society that we shouldn’t say anything, but we must check our own beliefs before we are quick to come up with what we think happen and why it was done. A figure from the history of philosophy section I think might have some similar views is Socrates. I say this because on the “Concept Review 1.1 History of Classical Philosophy” section Socrates’ major idea was “People must critically examine their own lives” (Mosser, K., 2010). He also believed that our mind/soul and body were separate entities and would part from each other at death. I chose Socrates because he was said to be almost solely interested in moral and ethical questions. I find this interesting that he would not want to explore more and many of his followers did. Mosser, K. (2010). Philosophy, a concise introduction. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc The example of Socrates, chosen by writer is very apt in nature. Our beliefs may not be wrong but still it is proper to examine them in a critical manner. It is important for all of us to review and examine our actions and beliefs and then work accordingly. Socrates was more interested in moral and ethical questions and we all are faced by them in our daily lives. Thus critical thinking will help us in avoiding mistakes.



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Identify a specific belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your reasons for holding that belief.
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Identify a specific belief you have that you think is worth defending, and then explain your reasons for holding that belief. I think that treating people the way you would want to be treated is important. In ways, I guess it is a karma thing for me. I understand that the concept comes from an Indian religion and is infulentual to Buddhism and Hinduism. (Mosser, 2010) However, I still think it can be used in Christianity “Do to others as you would have them do to you.” (Luke 6:31, Bible) If you do good things then good things will come to you. If you hurt someone then in the future something bad will happen to you. This is hard for me to live by at times because I feel the world is going to hell in a hand basket, as my grandfather always said. It seems there is so much bad out in the world that trusting people is more difficult than it was in the past generations. I do not agree with the logic of the writer. Just because one sees bad things happening around us does not mean the world is going to end and is full of cheats. It is difficult to trust and believe people but at the same time one cannot say that we will also follow what others are doing. If we are strong in our beliefs, then it will give us power to change others also. It may take time, but then truth always prevails. This is a universal fact across all religions. Using the required text and outside sources, explain what philosophers mean when they say that beliefs need justification? According to Mosser “The better we understand the philosophical assumptions behind our own beliefs, the better we understand those beliefs themselves. And, if we wish to defend those beliefs against those who object to them, we may wish to explore what exactly those beliefs are and what they imply.” (Mosser, 2010) Philosophy is a quest for answers and questions should have answers. Being able to justify your beliefs will give you a reason for believing in it. Without justification then how do you know if you really believe in something? It is not always the answer you are looking for that is important but the journey its self. (Mosser, 2010) Philosophy is a quest for knowledge and finding answers to the doubts and questions that prick our mind. It is important to justify our actions. We all do it inadvertently , without realizing it. Sometimes it turns out to be logical and at other times it is just our belief that makes us take a decision. What is the importance of subjecting our beliefs to critical scrutiny? Subjection beliefs to scrutiny is a way of making sure it is the right belief for you. Without information how is someone supposed to make a good logical choice in what to believe? Critical scrutiny would help us in coming to conclusion if our beliefs stand the test of logic or not. What are the advantages of believing something without examining it? What are the disadvantages. An advantage of believing in something without examining it is that ignorance is bliss. (Mosser, 2010) I have often said lately that I do not want to be ignorant of my surroundings but sometimes not knowing is less stressful. Disadvantages could be not having enough information to make a well rounded choice, won’t be able to defend the belief, or know if it is worth defending. Mosser, K. (2010). Philosophy a Concise Introduction. San Diego, CA : Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Ignorance is not bliss according to me. This logic can be applicable to children who do things without going in details and who do not apply logic to their decisions in a conventional way. Knowledge helps us in taking a decision that results into an action, which in turn can be explained later on.



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Introduction: Every individual has the ability of imagination. The ability of imagination is not just a happening in human beings but involves a number of processes by the brain
Posted On: Nov. 11, 2017
Author: Shipra


Mental Imagery Practice Introduction: Every individual has the ability of imagination. The ability of imagination is not just a happening in human beings but involves a number of processes by the brain and its neurons. Relieving one from unwanted thoughts imagination is necessary. Similarly imagining making an achievement, to demonstrate something highly appreciable, to come out from unpleasant thoughts or occasions is obviously helpful for every one of us. The set of systematic procedures devised by the psychologists to perform in an efficient way is called to be mental imagery practice. Mental Imagery Practice is called as symbolic rehearsal also called visualization or mental rehearsal, is defined as experience that resembles perceptual experience, but which occurs in the absence of the appropriate stimuli for the relevant perception. It is also referred as imagery exercise, covert practice, cognitive rehearsal, imaginable practice, motor imagery, visuomotor training, implicit practice and introspective rehearsal. “ Murphy defined Mental Imagery Practice as sensory experiences in the absence of input Mental imagery”. (1994) “Mental Imagery is the acquisition and maintenance to improve one’s performance”(Richardson, 1967). It is also referred as reinforce implicit processes and rehearse arousal attention. (Cohn, 1990) Whenever we imagine ourselves performing an action in the absence of physical practice, we are said to be using imagery. While most discussions of imagery focus on the visual mode, there exist other modes of experience such as auditory and kinesthetic that are just as important. However, for the purposes of this paper, only visual imagery will be discussed for it is the most relevant mode concerning athletic performance. The reason visual imagery works lies in the fact that when you imagine yourself perform to perfection and doing precisely what you want, you are in turn physiologically creating neural patterns in your brain, just as if you had physical performed the action. These patterns are similar to small tracks engraved in the brain cells, which can ultimately enable an athlete to perform physical feats by simply mentally practicing the move. Hence, mental imagery is intended to train our minds and create the neural patterns in our brain to teach our muscles to do exactly what we want them to do (Porter, 17). Theories of Mental Imagery Practice: Many theories are evident to support mental imagery practice. Psychoneuromotor theory emphasizes on muscular innervations are involved in imagination movement produces activity. (Harris & Robinson,1986). Many studies on mental imagery found that it increases the supplementary motor area in the brain. (Roland et al., 1981). It overlaps neural substrates as to enunciate the process. The Symbolic learning approach suggested by Sackett, explains is about mentally rehearsing the symbolic elements which will reduce the stress or improves performance in any individual. (Sackett,1934). Mental Imagery Practice is used to concentrate on temporal or spatial elements of the skill and it is difficult to clearly define.Mental Imagery Practice has greater gains for cognitive tasks (Driskell et al., 1994). According to attention or arousal theory Mental Imagery Practice primes individual to develops sustained attention (Schmidt, 1982) The dominant theory of mental imagery, suggests that the mental operations that we perform on actual and mental representations are internalizations of physical changes that we perceive as we see the world (Finke and Shepard 1986). In the world, things move in different manners and directions: they change shape, color and texture in regular and predictable ways. For this reason, many mental transformations parallel the changes encoded in forming the mental representations of changing entities. Anticipating these changes is critical to interacting with the world. Anticipating changes entails mentally enacting those changes. The extraordinary flexibility of human mind then allows these mental spatial operations to be applied to imagined stimuli as well as to perceived ones providing the means not only to anticipate states and processes in the world, but also creates new states and processes in the imagination. That said not all the changes we observe in the world are faithfully reflected in mental transformations.(Learn to think spatially, P 43-44) Self -Motivational theory Motivation Imagery is used to help people inspire themselves to action in whatever area of life they need a quick jump-start. Palmer and Neenan at the Centre developed it for Coaching, who found that many of their clients avoided life changes because they feared they would not be able to cope with the stress created. The Bio-informational approach suggests that there are some stimulus which match to the response propositions.(Lang, 1979) It provides a distinct physiological response for the brain. (Hecker & Kaczor, 1988) Mediating Factors: There are certain factors, which mediate the mental imagery practices. In that, age is considered as a mediating factor that implies keen difference in the performance. Age is a mediating factor for mental practice. Younger ones than older ones less practice it. A study done by Jarus & Ratzon in the year 2000, indicates that individuals in the age group of 9 are less likely to practice mental imagery that is limited to 15 seconds where the than older people of age group 65-70 can practice for about 35 seconds. The young adults are the ones who are able to practice this for a very minimum period of time that is 7 seconds, which is very less than the time period of younger ones that is age group of 9. The task and skill level of a person also act as mediating factor to practice an efficient imagery. The individuals who are good in imagination skills and have the ability to organize their thought processes can perform imagery to bring out expected results. They are the symbolic components for a good imagery. (Ryan & Simons, 1983). Mental imagery practice brings in expected outcome for experienced performers (Clark, 1960). It also provides greater benefit for novices on cognitive tasks. (Driskell et al., 1994) Practicing imagery for a longer time period is not necessarily better. There should be 5-min barrier between each MIP session (Twining, 1949). Sackett, in 1935 did a Correlation study between number of sessions and Performance. He key out when the number of MIP sessions increased the reaction time decreased. The number of trials tone also decreases as the number of session increased. They proposed that performance could be better in a lesser time period. Importance of mental imagery: Mental Imagery ability can produce the ability of generation, manipulation; control the environment through mental processes.(Murphy, 994). It also enables a person with accurate clarity and similarity (Cornoldi et al., 1991). It is said that MIP is more beneficial for good imaginers. (Marks, 1977). Mental imagery is a learnt skill where it can be more suitable for high achievers. (Rodgers et al., 1991) Anne Isaac in 1992 conducted a study that examined the influence of mental practice on sports skills. While most of the previous studies on this topic showed positive effects of mental rehearsal, they were not performed in actual field context using subjects who learned actual sport skills rather than just novel motor tasks. Isaac eliminated this problem in her experiment. She also tested the hypothesis of whether people who have better images and control over their images result in better performances. Isaac tested 78 subjects and classified them as novice or experienced trampolines. Then she further divided the two groups into an experimental and control group. She also classified the subjects as either high or low imagers based on initial skill level. Both groups were trained in three skills over a six-week period. In order to prevent confounds, the imagery group was unknown to the experimenter until afterwards. The experimental group physically practiced the skill for 2-1/2 minutes, which was then followed by 5 minutes of mental practice. Lastly, an additional 2-1/2 minutes of physical practice followed the mental practice. Meanwhile, the control group physically worked on the skill for 2-1/2 minutes, which was then followed by 5 minutes of a session trying a mental task of an abstract nature, such as math problems, puzzles, and deleting vowels. Then, 2-1/2 more minutes were spent physically working on the skill again. The outcome of the experiment was as followed: there existed a significant difference in the improvement of the high and low imagers. In both novice and experimental groups where the initial skill ability was similar, the high imagery groups showed significantly more improvement than the low imagery group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the experimenter and control groups. Not surprisingly, the experimental group had significantly more improvement than the control group. This study posits that despite the level of skill (beginner or experienced) visual imagery proves effective. (Isaac, 192-198). In a recent experiment conducted by Roure et al, they found six specific autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses that correlated with mental rehearsal, thereby improving sports performance. The subjects were placed into an imagery group and a control group. The task measured in each group was based on their ability to pass an opponents serve to a given teammate, in the sport of volleyball. The experimenters measured the variations of the ANS during the motor skill and during the mental rehearsing sessions. The ANS parameters tested included: skin potential and resistance, skin temperature and heat clearance, instantaneous heart rate, and respiratory frequency. The results of the test revealed a strong correlation between the response in the actual physical tasks (both pre- and post-test volleyball) and during the mental imagery sessions. There existed a difference in the skills between the imagery and the control group, the former being the better. In addition, no clear difference was present between the pre- and post- tests in the control group. This study showed that mental imagery induces a specific pattern of autonomic response. These include: decreased amplitude, shorter duration and negative skin potentials when compared to the control group. As a consequence of the ANS, the imagery group was associated with better performance. In light of this experiment, Roure suggested that metal imagery might help in the construction of schema, which can be reproduced, without thinking, in actual practice (Roure, 99-108). Not only does mental imagery seem to enhance athletic performance, but it has been shown to enhance intrinsic motivation as well. A study in 1995 tested who would spend more time practicing a golf-putting task and who would result in having higher self-efficacy. Thirty-nine beginner golfers were grouped into an imagery or control group. For 3 sessions, both groups were taught how to hit golf balls. The imagery group practiced in an imagery training session designed for this specific golf skill. As a result, the imagery group spent significantly more time practicing the golf-putting task than the control group. In addition, the subjects in the imagery group had more realistic self-expectation, set higher goals to achieve, and adhered more to their training programs outside the experimental setting (Martin, 54-69). Since all of the studies mentioned have focused on adult subjects, I wanted to see if mental imagery had the same effect on children. I found a study, which examined the effects of mental imagery on performance enhancement with 7-10 year old children. In this experiment, table tennis players were divided into three groups. The results indicated that the children who used mental imagery had significant improvement in the accuracy and quality of their shots compared with the control group. This study shows that mental imagery training for children can be beneficial. This could be a perfect opportunity to learn mental skills at an early age, which can ultimately give them greater control over their own destiny. However, this is only one particular study, and more studies on children do need to be conducted (Orlick, 230-241). Effective performance in sports: Grouios, in 1992 identified that diving performance can be improved by practicing mental imagery increased from 0.3 to 3where physical practice is done. Apparently Lejeune et al., in 1994 found out that performance improvement in table tennis is improved from 1 to 35 when mental imagery is practiced. Performance in music: Coffman analyzed the speed of playing music, which shows increase prominently to 8 seconds when practicing mental imagery physical practice. (Coffman, 1990). It has more long-term benefits where it is short-lived practice. In short, it can be practiced for short period and benefit for a longer time. It is consuming less time. (Driskell et al., 1994) Magnitude of effect on performance Though Physical practice helps a person to perform well in sports or difficult cognitive tasks, it is less than the magnitude of the effect of performance when mental imagery is practiced. After reading through numerous studies, mental imagery seems somewhat promising and beneficial. Although it is not as beneficial as physical practice, mental imagery fairs better than no practice at all. Hence, a program with physical practice combined with mental training seems to be the best method. Virtually all of the studies show that mental training improves motor skills. More recently a lot of studies go even further and prove that mental imagery can improve various skills related to sports in actual field contexts. Mental imagery seems to be beneficial to anyone who wants to improve at his or her sport. Summary: Mental imagery is a mental rehearsal process. Many theories support this concept like Psychoneuromotor theory, symbolic theory, attention –arousal theory, motivational theory, bio-informational theory. The mediating factors for mental imagery practice are age, task, skill, practice, and ability, perspective and content. It can peak performance in fields like sport, cognition, and music. It is a short-term practice. It can have adequate control over imagination. The procedures for practicing mental imagery is not very clear. The benefits of mental imagery have proved successful at any level. References: 1. Vernon, D. (2009). Human Potential: Chapter 11 Mental Imagery Practice. Psy Press 2. Bowman, J.J. (1993). Golf mental training room. Mind Plus Muscle. 3. Druckman, D., & Bjork, R.A. (1991). In The Mind’s Eye: Enhancing human performance. Nat Acc Press. 4. Van Raalte, J.L., & Brewer, B. W. (1996). Exploring sport and exercise psychology. Washington DC; London. 5. Learning to think spatially By National Academies Press (U.S.) 6. How to deal with stress by Stephen Palmer & Cary Cooper. 7. Feltz, D. L., & Landers, D. M. (1983). The Effects of Mental Practice on Motor Skill Learning and Performance: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 25-57. 8. Isaac, A. R. (1992). Mental Practice- Does it Work in the Field? The Sport Psychologist, 6, 192-198. 9. Murphy, S. (1990). Models of Imagery in Sport Psychology: A Review. Journal of Mental Imagery, 14 (3&4), 153-172. evaluate its use as a mechanism for enhancing performance in humans



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University of Phoenix Material Films on Demand: Sociology Collection: Social Institutions Week 4 Individual Assignment Resource: Films on Demand located in the University of Phoenix Lib...
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


University of Phoenix Material Films on Demand: Sociology Collection: Social Institutions Week 4 Individual Assignment Resource: Films on Demand located in the University of Phoenix Library under the Multimedia Resources. Select and watch one video from each of the following categories: Family Family & Social Changes. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2014. Web. 19 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=58548>. (FIRST 15 MINUTES) Why More Americans Are Living Alone. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2012. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=53410>. Why Are Fewer Americans Getting Married? Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2011. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=53399>. Religion TEDTalks: Alain De Botton. Atheism 2.0. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2012. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=52934>. Heaven: How Five Religions See It. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2011. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=48848>. Nine Years After 9/11: Has Religious Tolerance Changed in America? Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2010. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=53385>. Symbol: Should We Still Fear the Swastika? Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2010. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=44870>. Education The Education of Michelle Rhee. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=58681>. Unbreakable: One Girl Changing the World: The Story of Malala. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=56121>. TEDTalks: Daphne Koller. What We're Learning from Online Education. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2012. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=53018>. Lessons from the Real World: Social Issues and Student Involvement. Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2011. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7967&xtid=43914>.



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What are the social values and life lessons learned through youth sport
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sociology What are the social values and life lessons learned through youth sport participation? Social values and life lessons develop “character.” Character is associated with a host of sport values such as teamwork, loyalty, self sacrifice, perseverance, work ethic, and mental toughness. Two sets of values define character; social values and moral values. Social values are usually defined by coaches, administrators, and players. North American society seems to associate character more with social values rather than moral values. Coaches often define character socially due to the strong connection between the types of values that are cultivated in sport and what is valued in American culture (Rudd, 2005). Social values include teamwork, loyalty, self sacrifice, and perseverance. On the other hand, moral values include honesty, fairness, responsibility, compassion, and respect. Individuals with strong moral character can apply a set of moral values with a strong understanding of its worth despite surrounding peer or societal pressures. Also, moral individuals have the ability to act honestly when peers act dishonestly or when no one is around. Strong morals discourage conformity and promote a thought process. Both social and moral values have their place in society. First, social values are those deemed by society as being vital in reaching a desired end state; winning. Parents often believe a winner in sports will be a winner in life (Eitzen, 2001). Most research does not support that success in sports translates into work success or happiness in one’s personal life (Sabo, 1985). Second, moral values are vital to creating a fair and safe competition. Moral values are not fostered to achieve a specific end point. They are a thoughtful reasoning process; knowing, valuing, and doing, while social values are more about conformity (Rudd, 2005). Both values are important aspects of developing a well rounded character. Both can be learned through playing youth sports. Generally, the social values are enforced and given greater merit in sports, but the field is a great place to learn moral values. As a parent it is important to find a sport, team, coach, and other parents that believe in implementing each set of values. Sports are more than just about developing a winner. They are an avenue for a child to develop and implement compassion, competition, and be themselves. References Eitzen, S.D. (2001). Sport in contemporary society: An anthology (6th ed.). New York: Worth. Rudd, A. (2005). Which “character” should sport develop? Physical Educator, 62(4), 205-211. Sabo, D. (1985). Sport patriarchy and male identity: new questions about men and sports. Arena Review, 9(2).



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University of Phoenix Material Sociology Student Listening Inventory This inventory should help identify your listening strengths and weaknesses within
Posted On: Nov. 1, 2017
Author: Shipra


University of Phoenix Material Sociology Student Listening Inventory This inventory should help identify your listening strengths and weaknesses within the context of a college classroom. The word speaker can mean the instructor or another student. Remember that most of us overestimate how well we listen. Give some serious, realistic thought to each statement before responding. Use the following numbers to indicate how often you engage in these listening behaviors: 1 = almost never, 2 = not often, 3 = sometimes, 4 = more often than not, and 5 = almost always. Listening Behavior 1 2 3 4 5 1. When someone is speaking to me, I purposely block out distractions such as side conversations and personal problems. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I am comfortable asking questions when I don’t understand something a speaker has said. 1 2 3 4 5 3. When a speaker uses words I don’t know, I jot them down and look them up later. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I assess a speaker’s credibility while listening. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I paraphrase or summarize a speaker’s main ideas in my head as I listen. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I concentrate on a speaker’s main ideas rather than the specific details. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I try to understand people who speak indirectly as well as I understand those who speak directly. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Before reaching a conclusion, I try to confirm with a speaker my understanding of his or her message. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I concentrate on understanding a speaker’s message when he or she is explaining a complex idea. 1 2 3 4 5 10. When listening, I devote my full attention to a speaker’s message. 1 2 3 4 5 11. When listening to someone from another culture, I factor in my knowledge of cultural differences to interpret meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I watch a speaker’s facial expressions and body language for additional information about the speaker’s meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 13. I encourage speakers by providing positive nonverbal feedback – nods, eye contact, and vocalized agreement. 1 2 3 4 5 14. When others are speaking to me, I establish eye contact and stop doing other nonrelated tasks. 1 2 3 4 5 15. I avoid tuning out speakers when I disagree with or dislike their message. 1 2 3 4 5 16. When I have an emotional response to a speaker or the message, I try to set aside my feelings and continue listening. 1 2 3 4 5 17. I try to match my nonverbal responses to my verbal responses. 1 2 3 4 5 18. When someone begins speaking, I focus my attention on the message. 1 2 3 4 5 19. I try to understand how past experiences influence the ways in which I interpret a message. 1 2 3 4 5 20. I attempt to eliminate outside interruptions and distractions. 1 2 3 4 5 21. When I listen, I look at the speaker, maintain some eye contact, and focus on the message. 1 2 3 4 5 22. I avoid tuning out messages that are complex, complicated, and challenging. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I try to understand the other person’s point of view when it is different from mine. 1 2 3 4 5 24. I try to be nonjudgmental and noncritical when I listen. 1 2 3 4 5 25. As appropriate, I self-disclose a similar amount of personal information as the other person shares with me. 1 2 3 4 5 Add up your scores for all of the questions. Use the following guidelines to assess how well you think you listen. Your score only represents your personal perceptions about your listening behavior and skills. Score Interpretation 0-62 You perceive yourself to be a poor classroom listener. Attention to all of the items on the inventory could improve your listening effectiveness. 63-86 You perceive yourself to be an adequate listener in the classroom. Learning more about listening and listening skills could improve your overall listening effectiveness. 87-111 You perceive yourself to be a good listener in the classroom, but you could still improve your listening skills. 112-125 You perceive yourself to be an outstanding listener in the classroom. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.



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IMPACT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES ON SOCIAL INSTITUTION (FAMILY)
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra


SOCIOLOGy Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted IMPACT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES ON SOCIAL INSTITUTION (FAMILY) How does each theory affect the views of the individual who is part of the institution? How does each theory affect the approach to social change within the selected institution? Within the Sociological institution selected, how does each theory affect the views of society? Introduction Social institutions are the platform where interaction place with people. The process of interaction is continuous. These social institutions affect our daily life routine in several ways. This paper examines the impact of sociological theories namely Functionalism, conflict and interactionism, on social institutions and analyze the role of social institutions in shaping our personality. These theories explain clearly that it is the social Institutions that are responsible for the development of an individual. They have an impact on the society also. For example the most fundamental social institution in our life is the family. We are born in a family and grow in it. It nurtures us and prepares us for facing the hardships of life. Based on our upbringing only, we become the kind of person at a later date (adulthood) in our life. For the purpose of analysis and discussion it can be stated that sociological theories can provide right explanation for our behavior and our actions. Functionalism is one of the oldest theoretical perspectives of sociology. It lays stress on the scientific way of looking at things and providing explanation for our behavior and actions. The most common techniques used are social surveys and interviews. As a simple example functionalist theory symbolizes pain as the state of mind which looks at it a result of some bodily injury. It produces a belief that something is seriously wrong with the body and therefore the desire to be out of that state of mind would cause one to wince or moan (Ferrante 2012). Functionalism theory views society as a complex system whose constituents are joined together to promote constancy and cohesion. This approach looks at the society as a whole through macro- level consideration. The social structure and functions are examined at close levels. The constituents of society viz. norms, customs, traditions and institutions are considered as a whole and it is assumed that these are the one that affect the behavior of its people. One can draw a simile of a body having organs which work together in harmony for proper functioning of the body. Basically it emphasizes the effort put in to each and every constituent so that the whole system works in a cohesive and stable manner. The core concept of functionalism is that mental states of human beings which comprise of beliefs, desires, sufferings etc. are having direct relation with their functional role. These are produced as a cause and effect to other mental states and sensory inputs as well as behavior outputs. It links physical implementation with behavioral output. From the point of this theory, the family can be looked at one institution which protects the person and looks after him under all conditions. So from the practical point of view, it helps a person understand how this institution provides help. When examined from the family point of view, functionalism implies that each and every member of the family unit is interdependent as they contribute in an equal manner to the proper functioning of the family as one whole unit. Balance, peace and unity of the family can be attained only if all family members play their respective roles and have a positive attitude. If any one member is rebellious and does not perform his duty or own up his responsibility, duty towards the family, then it affects the entire family as it suffers from imbalance, stress etc. There is going to be disunity and malfunctioning. Functionalists are of the view that a family works best when each and every member of the unit agree to do common things. Views of members are counted and respected which in turn produces consensus and not authoritarianism. The conflict theory was propagated by Karl Marx. He believed that people can be categorized in two ways. Capitalist and Working Class. The first one includes all those who have power of wealth and have complete access to the resources which help them to produce or manufacture items products. It is due to this fact that elite gain advantage and enslaves the working class. The whole idea is to make them depend on the elite for their income so that elite can continue to maintain their power position of the wealth. This theory also believes that an imbalance exists in the two classes viz. capitalist and working class people. They have sufficient statistical data to prove their assumption and accusation. The laws are introduced with the help of capitalist class judges with the sole purpose of benefiting their own well being (Bartos, et al 2002). The conflict theory explains the dispute that a person has with his other family members in the family he is living in. It also tries to explain the reason as to why things have gone wrong and the reasons for the same. The basic assumption of conflict theory is that human beings are social but at the same exposed to conflicts as well. The reason for conflict is attributed to inequality in society. This coerces them to act in a rebellious way and fight for gaining their rightful place in the society. As rebellion is at the base of conflict theory, it gives rise to conflicts. The conflict can take the shape of antagonism or resentment against being dominated. Additionally, people are guided by the desire to bring about reduction in the economic disparity in the society they live in. The simultaneous existence of solidarity amongst the have-nots brings about cooperation and further adds to group divisions and incite people to use tactical ways to combat and use resources in a tactful manner to resolve the conflicts. The basic assumption is that individuals or groups in a society continue to struggle to maximize their share of the limited resources at their disposal. These resources are required by humans for their bare existence. Since resources are limited and there is no chance of expanding the same, the ensuing struggle to regain control of these resources leads to conflict and competition amongst the members of the society. Such struggles and conflict can also bring about major changes in the institutions and societies as different groups attain power. It is a popular belief that conflict is a way of life at the work place. It is quite common to common across situations where people coming from different background and having different goals and needs have conflict of opinion and views. This invariably results into personal animosity. Conflict per se is not bad, especially if conscious efforts are made to resolve it in an effective manner. On the contrary, it can lead to personal as well as professional growth of people. An effective confliction resolution can lead to positive or negative outcomes of solutions. Resolution of conflict can solve several problems prevailing at the work place successfully before they take an ugly turn. There are several benefits of resolution of conflicts such as increased understanding, increased cohesion in the groups, Improvement in self knowledge etc. However if the conflict is not handled in an effective manner, then the final results can be destructive in nature. A conflict in goals can normally lead to personal dislikes and that can harm team work. Talent of the employees goes waste as they engage themselves in unnecessary fights and do not concentrate on the work at hand. All this leads to a vicious circle of negativity and recrimination. This downward trend of negativity has to be stopped if an organization is to work in an effective manner. There are several styles of dealing with conflict that vary in degrees of assertiveness and cooperation amongst the employees. Generally people prefer a conflict resolution style of working. These styles can be competitive, collaborative, compromising, accommodating and avoiding. Another way of resolving conflict is to adapt the concept of showing respect for individual differences and simultaneously helping people avoid becoming engaged in conflicting situations. This approach stipulates giving priority to maintain good relationships and at the same time keep people and problems separate. One also has to pay attention to the interests of people involved in the conflict. It is a good idea to focus of finding facts and then jointly explore options. These way discussions can be kept positive and constructive. This helps in preventing antagonism and dislike which is invariably the root cause of conflict and then the situation goes out of control. The Interactionists emphasize on the subjective aspects of life and not on the objective aspect of the social systems. The reason as to why they focus on interactionists’ base is they would like to look on the images of humans from theoretical perspective and not on their images in the society. This is the norm of functionalists (Smith 1973). This theory explains that the image perceived in the society of people is not what a person actual is. So perceptions need not be taken into account for the purpose of analysis of behavior of people in a family. Symbolic interaction theory describes the family as a unit of personalities who continuously interact with one another. The focus of this theory is to interact by way of words, gesture, rules, regulations and role play. The symbolic interaction perspective is based on the assumption of how human beings develop a complex set of symbols so that a suitable meaning can be given to the proposed actions. These meanings are a direct evolution of interactions in the environment in which people work and come into contact. It is the symbols which play an important subjective role in interpreting the actions. Thus it is very important to understand the true meaning of these symbols to understand human behavior. Individuals are greatly influenced by societal processes. The self concept and self realization takes place only thorough social structures and interactions. Society puts into place the constraints by setting norms and values which in turn affect the behavior of people. Behavior is also affected by self concept. Individuals develop self concept and their identities through societal interactions. Our learning is influenced by interpreting and giving meaning through our interactions with the world and society at large. People are not born with self concept but develop it through social interactions. It is developed by interaction and communication with fellow human beings. Our perceptions and reactions to perceptions play an important role in this. Once a self concept is developed in a human being, it plays an important role in motive for a particular type of behavior. Family members react to a situation by their interpretation of the situation. Hence it is extremely important to understand the symbols that the family uses to understand their behavior and intentions. Families share their experience by a complex set of meanings through. All the four theories focus on the impact the social institution, Family has on an individual. Whichever way we look at and try to explain, the ultimate effect is on an individual only and the way his life shapes up later on as an adult. Even in the adult stage also, the Family leaves a big impact on him. So, one can say that the Family as an institution has a great impact on shaping the future and molding a person. The difference in theories is the way it is perceived and applied (Jacoby 2008). Individuals are part of the institutions, Family and their opinions are affected by these theories. We all are products of environment we live in. Youngsters get socialized as per the values and norms which their parents or social institutions deem fit. It does not matter which country we grow in, the social principles that govern our lives are the same. Through study of sociological theories, we can understand the differences and similarities. All human beings feel that they are different from others in terms of their thoughts and feelings. However as per Einstein, these are only optical delusions of our consciousness. We all know that the world in which we live in, everything is interrelated. That is why it is believed that all theories point out to one subject and that is development of human beings (Anderson 1996). Functionalists believe that development of society takes place only when there is equilibrium and hence in the family also a kind of harmony is maintained by elderly people who are at the helm of affairs and mentor as well as guide. It is due this reason the seniors or elderly people in a family remain unchallenged. The make all efforts to retain the status quo. Their main objective is to make sure that society keeps running smoothly in spite of inequalities (Tischler 2010). The believers of conflict theory propagate that it is conflict and tension that acts as a motivating factor. Therefore, in a family also, unless there is a tussle and disagreement, things won’t move smoothly. It is due to conflict only that people would take steps to do things in a different manner. Since the root cause of conflict, as per conflict theorists, is interaction between society and institution, the family members are always at loggerheads. People work against society norms and that is what moves them ahead. Going further by the same logic, it is the youngsters in the family who would bring about change in the lifestyle and will always keep on protesting against the set styles of parents or elderly persons in the family. The Interactionists believe in perceptions and focus on the interactions of people. The situations are dealt with on a piece meal basis i.e. as and when they arise and an action is taken depending on the circumstances prevailing. This is considered to be the most practical way of life and dealing with circumstances. Depending on what is relevant and practical, a decision is taken by the family members. Conclusion It can be concluded that the theories mentioned above provide excellent way of understanding the behavior of people living in the family. They also provide us an opportunity to look into this aspect in details and thus arrive at a logical conclusion. The major cause of conflict is change. While it is produced by change, the conflict is also influenced by power. It is through power that the society develops a pattern of conflict. References Joan Ferrante (2012) Sociology: A Global Perspective Cengage Learning Anthony D. Smith (1973) the concept of social change: a critique of the functionalist theory of social change Routledge, Otomar J. Bartos, Paul Ernest Wehr (2002) Using conflict theory Cambridge University Press. Jacoby T. (2008) Understanding conflict and violence: theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches Taylor & Francis Anderson N.H. (1996) A functional theory of cognition Routledge Tischler H. L. (2010) Introduction to Sociology Cengage Learning



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