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Question 1 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) The Earth is continuously bathed in solar radiation. On average, the Earth receives
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Question 1 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) The Earth is continuously bathed in solar radiation. On average, the Earth receives 345 W/m2 of solar radiation at the outer edge of the atmosphere. This quantity is called the "solar constant". However, the actual quantity that reaches the Earth's surface varies from place to place and day to day because of the orientation of the Earth with respect to the Sun and the spherical geometry of the Earth and its atmosphere. Insolation at the Earth's surface is the amount of radiant energy from the Sun that makes it through the Earth's atmosphere and impacts upon a unit surface area of the Earth over a given period of time. The amount of insolation received at the surface depends on a few variables, including 1) the zenith angle, 2) length of day, 3) path length through the atmosphere, and 4) atmospheric conditions (clear, foggy, hazy, cloudy, etc). Seasonal and daily temperature changes are largely controlled by changes in insolation. In the lectures, we discussed how to calculate zenith angle, which determines intensity of solar radiation reaching the top of Earth's atmosphere. Think about: Why is zenith angle so important, and why are we studying zenith angle in physical geography? Which of the following locations (at the TOP of the atmosphere) would show the greatest range in insolation between summer and winter? A. Singapore B. Sochi, Russa C. Berlin, Germany D. Saint Petersburg, Russia E. Barcelona, Spain F. Athens, Greece G. Soufrière Hills, Montserrat H. Kabul, Afghanistan I. Monrovia, Liberia Question 2 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) Please select TWO answers, one for each question. Suppose that you and Captain Jack Sparrow are planning to dock in Port Royal in Jamaica (18N) on June 7th, 1692. Scouts have alerted you that there is a low pressure system west of the island. What direction is the wind blowing in Port Royal, Jamaica? Wind directions are named for the direction from which they blow. A few minutesminutes before noon, a devestating earthquake destroys much of the city (you and Captain Sparrow narrowly escape with your lives). What is most likely the cause of this earthquake? A. Wind: North B. Wind: South C. Wind: Southeast D. Wind: West E. Wind: East F. Earthquake reason: The North American Plate being subducted under the Cuba Plate G. Earthquake reason: Undersea mountains from ocean floor spreading H. Earthquake reason: A transform fault along the Caribbean Plate I. Earthquake reason: The Kraken Question 3 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) Imagine that you are sailing across the Pacific from New Zealand (45S) to Hawaii (20N) with Captain James Cook. On December 21 when you take a sighting on the Sun (at noon) and calculate that the Sun is at an elevation angle of 49.5 degrees above the horizon. What is your latitude? Enter as a whole number, two digits, XX, plus either N or S for hemisphere (e.g. 03N, 28S, 53N). You must follow this pattern, no hand-grading will be done. Question 4 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) What two factors, both resulting from the earth's tilt, are most important in contributing to the seasons? Together, these two factors determine the total amount of solar radiation incident on the top of Earth's atmosphere. Please choose the TWO correct answers. You must get BOTH correct to score points - no partial credit. A. changes to length of day (sunlight hours) B. changes in zenith angles C. differences between perihelion/aphelion D. hemisphere is relatively physically closer to sun Question 5 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) You are setting up a solar observatory at a research station directly on the Equator. You are in charge of the installation of a large swiveling solar dish antennae that must be pointed at the noontime position of the Sun for the entire year. The dish cannot turn around, but rather hinges from one side to the other side. See picture below: What is the total degree arc that this antennae must accommodate? A. 47 degrees B. 23.5 degrees C. 0 degrees D. 70.5 degrees E. 12.5 degrees F. 70 degrees G. 35 degrees Question 6 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) What is the tilt of the Earth at the Equator? A. 47 degrees B. 30 degrees C. 98.6 degrees D. 66.5 degrees E. 0 degrees F 23.5 degrees Question 7 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) Suppose you and Lord Cutler Beckett are assembling an armada to eradicate piracy in the Caribbean. After having left Europe, somewhere in the Atlantic you note on June 21st, 1686 that the sun is 81.7 degrees above the horizon (at noon). What is your latitude? Assuming your compass was not Jack Sparrow's magical compass, would it give a reasonably accurate reading at this latitude and why? Please select two answers; one for each question. A. 31.8N B. 58.2N C. 15.2N D. 34.7N E. 8.3N F. The compass would be accurate because compasses are accurate all over the globe G. The compass would not be accurate because you would be in the Bermuda Triangle H. The compass would not be accurate because iron deposits in Earth's middle core would interfere with the compass needle I. Davy Jones' Locker J. The compass would be accurate only if the ship were facing due west. K. The compass would be accurate because it is not near the higher latitudes L. The ships would be beached on the island of Hispanola Question 8 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) Please watch the following video and then answer the questions below. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1dmE Two examples regarding processes in the Earth's crust were depicted in the video. First, what were they? Secondly, please select one appropriate example for each of these processes. You will pick TWO "Process options", and TWO "Example options". Incorrect answers will count against the score. A. Process option: Seafloor spreading/divergent plate boundary B. Process option: Transform fault C. Process option: Earthquake D. Process option: Subduction zone E. Example option: Mid-Atlantic Ridge F. Example option: Juan de Fuca Plate and North American Plate Boundary (Cascadia) G. Example option: Hawaii H. Example option: Himalayas Question 9 of 9 (worth 2.5 points) This is a TWO part question. Part 1) In lecture 25, Dr. Waylen talks about tides. Supposed you've been hired by National Geographic to assist a team of underwater film makers produce a documentary on coral reefs. You know that corals typically spawn during neap tides, and this would be a great event for the film makers to record. You would need to arrange a SCUBA trip to coral reefs at which time (please pick the correct letter)? Part II) What is the NAME of the tide indicated by C? A. Letter A B. Letter B C. Letter C D. Letter D E. Letter: None of these are correct. F. Name of C: Neap high tide G. Name of C: Neap low tide H. Name of C: Solar high tide I. Name of C: Solar low tide J. Name of C: Celestial high tide K. Name of C: Celestial low tide L. Name of C: Spring high tide M. Name of C: Spring low tide N. Name of C: Tide laundry detergent



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Title FINAL LAB REPORT Name SCI 207: Dependence of man on the environment Instructor Date
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Title FINAL LAB REPORT Name SCI 207: Dependence of man on the environment Instructor Date WATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION Introduction Water is one of the vital resources for all living creatures on Earth. Water is required for meeting our day- to - day needs, such as food, growth, and the most important is for our survival. Water has also been instrumental in changing the topography of the Earth from time immemorial. Even though more than 70 % of the planet is covered in water, , a very small part of is potable. A major part of the water( 99%) has salt content in it, which makes it unusable for drinking. The cost of conversion of salt water into fresh water is extremely high. This leaves mankind with just 1 % of the water resource to live with. The most common source of water for human beings is either surface water or ground water. Surface water gets collected on the earth by a process known as precipitation. This water does no get evaporated into atmosphere and also does not infiltrate into the ground through the surface of the earth. It get accumulated in the rivers, ponds , reservoir and other bodies of water, from where it is easily accessible for use. The objective of this study is find out causes of contamination of water. Since the water resources are scarce and not enough for living beings, it is important to understand the meaning of conservation and explore in details the reasons for its contamination. A contaminated water body will not be fit for use and thus make the available resource more scarce. A thorogh study of the causes of water pollution would help in finding a workable solution for conserving the water. Effects of Groundwater Contamination Hypothesis # 1 Common items such as laundry detergent, oil, and vinegar can alter the color, smell, and taste of water. Water Treatment Hypothesis # 2 Water can be made potable by using Alum Drinking Water Quality Hypothesis # 3 Bottled water contains same chemical contaminants as tap water. Materials and Methods The experiments to conduct the verifiability of the above hypothesis provided information about use of some special materials such as alum, potted soil, tap water , bottled water and other scientific instruments. The first experiment was conducted to test the ability of soil to remove oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent from the environment before it reaches groundwater. The second experiment used a technique to test the effectiveness of one filtering method on the ability to purify contaminated water. In the third experiment, the quality of two separate bottled waters and the tap water was tested by measuring a variety of chemical components within the water. Results Tables: The outline of the results section should include all tables used in your experiment. All values within the tables should be in numerical form and contain units. For instance, if measuring the amount of chloride in water you should report as 2 mg/L or 0 mg/L not as two or none. Body Paragraph # 1: The outline of the results section should also describe important results in paragraph form, referring to the appropriate tables when mentioned. This section should only state the results as no personal opinions should be included. A description of what the results really mean should be saved for the discussion. For example, you may report, 0mg/L of chlorine were found in the water, but should avoid personal opinions and interpretations such as, no chlorine was found in the water showing it is cleaner than the others samples. Discussion Body Paragraph #1 - Hypotheses: The outline of the discussion section should interpret your data and provide conclusions. Start by discussing if each hypothesis was confirmed or denied and how you know this. Body Paragraph # 2 - Context: The outline of your discussion should also relate your results to the bigger water concerns and challenges. For example, based on your experiments you might discuss how various bottled water companies use different filtrations systems. Or, you could discuss the billion dollar bottled water industry. For example, do you think it is worth it to buy bottled water? Why or why not? Your outline should at least list some of the resources that you plan to utilize in your final paper to put your results into context. Body Paragraph #3 – Variables and Future Experiments: Finally, the outline of your results section should also address any possible factors that affected your results, such as possible contamination in the experiments or any outside factors (i.e., temperature, contaminants, time of day) that affected your results? If so, how could you control for these in the future? You should also propose some new questions that have arisen from your results and what kind of experiment might be proposed to answer these questions. Conclusions Body Paragraph #1: This section of your outline should briefly summarize the key points of your experiments. What main message would you like people to have from this report? References Include at least 4 scholarly sources and your lab manual here in APA format.



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scienceFood and Agriculture In the United States, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food. However, this abundance is largely due to advances in agricultural technology, which have in ...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


scienceFood and Agriculture In the United States, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food. However, this abundance is largely due to advances in agricultural technology, which have in turn created numerous concerns surrounding our food sources. Provide at least two modern examples of how the United States has increased its food production. Using at least two scholarly or reputable resources and your textbook, discuss how these changes have affected the environment, and what impact they have on food safety? Use of technology and research in Agriculture ensures that there is abundant supply of food in U.S.A. However, the technology used has also created worries in the minds of users and environmentalists. American agriculture is steeped in a chemical-intensive system that wastes money and pollutes the environment. But by making use of new technology and innovative approaches, farmers can boost production and profits — while at the same time improving soil quality, enhancing biodiversity, and protecting habitat (Kastner2011). The key lies in balancing the two, making profit and at the same time taking care of the environmental as well. For examples in California, farmers can go online and access detailed data on a website, which has a network of weather stations. It provides them information about optimal amount of water to apply on any given day so that they could irrigate the crops in their region. Study has concluded that growers could reduce the water consumption by as much as 13 percent and at the same time increasing their yields by 8 percent. Iowa State is the top producer of soybeans. Farmers can take part in a program that helps them in conducting research on their farms to improve the yields of soybean. Simultaneously, use of fertilizer and pesticides can also be curtailed and thus increase the profit margin. This environmentally beneficial program is expanding in the U.S., even though not many are taking advantage of the same. The sad part is that even though these programs demonstrate the use of technology in increasing profits, innovative farmers are the exception in American agriculture today. The reforms have not been applied universally and widely, even though it is a proven fact that these initiatives provide positive financial returns (Grunert1996). This has resulted in a system where sellers are focusing on use of more fertilizers, more herbicides and insecticides and more equipment, thus wasting money on excessive chemicals and nutrients. U.S. agriculture cannot afford to wait for a piecemeal adoption of better practices and solutions. References Kastner J. (2011) Food and Agriculture Security: An Historical, Multidisciplinary Approach ABC-CLIO, Grunert K.G. (1996) Market Orientation in Food and Agriculture Springer



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Science Assignment 1 – Environmental Footprint TABLE A. Ecological Footprint Footprint Results (Answers to the following 2 questions will be given upon completion of footprint)
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science Assignment 1 – Environmental Footprint TABLE A. Ecological Footprint Footprint Results (Answers to the following 2 questions will be given upon completion of footprint) If everyone lived like you, how many planet Earth’s would we need? 4 To support your lifestyle, how many productive global acres area needed? 17.7 Ecological Footprint Breakdown (Values can be obtained by scrolling over pie chart generated at completion of footprint) Percent of emissions from Food 16 Percent of emissions from Shelter 8 Percent of emissions from Mobility 18 Percent of emissions from Goods 8 Percent of emissions from Services 50 TABLE B. Household Emissions Household Emissions Results (Answers can be found in bar graphs following completion of calculator) What are your current household emissions? 1479783 What are the U.S. average household emissions? 41500 What was your reduced emissions? 120132 Household Emissions Savings (Answers can be found above bar graphs If you took all actions you would reduce annual emissions by: 19 If you took all actions your potential dollar savings would be: 25553 Your new total annual estimated CO2 emissions: 120132 QUESTIONS 1. Based on your findings from the ecological footprint calculator, how many Earth’s would be needed to support the global population if everyone lived your same lifestyle? Additionally, describe the impacts on the Earth’s climate, biodiversity, and economic security if every individual in the world lived your same lifestyle and discuss why these impacts would occur. Answer = The figure obtained from the ecological footprint calculator is 4 which is quite a lot. It indicates that we all should take some drastic action to make sure that the ecological balance is maintained. The climate of the Earth would deteriorate if everyone follows the same lifestyle. There would be extensive imbalance in the biodiversity and economy security would be threatened. The reason why this impact would occur is because we are consuming the scarce resource of the Earth with no regard to savings for our future generations. The selfish mentality would take its toll and ecological damage would occur sooner than expected. 2. Based on your findings from the ecological footprint calculator, what are the 3 everyday products and practices that contribute most to your environmental footprint? Answer = The findings of the ecological footprint calculator provide all of us with food for thought for what all we can do to save the environment by conserving the resources. Use of gas guzzler automobiles, excessive use of oil for heating and unnecessary use of electricity for running air conditioner, washing machines and other sundry appliances are the major factors that contribute the most to the environmental footprint. 3. Based on the information from the reduce emissions section of the household emissions calculator, name at least 2 actions that you can take to limit your carbon emissions? Include in your answer the exact dollar savings and the weight of carbon dioxide that could be saved (from the calculator results) for each of these two actions. Answer = First, by simply turning down the heating thermostat by 10 degrees Fahrenheit on winter nights, would result in annual savings of $25,021, which is quite substantial. This also is contributing to 18 % of total emissions and lead to savings of 268,130 pounds of CO2. Secondly, if all the 15 nos. of 60 watt incandescent light bulbs in use are replaced by 13 watt energy saver lights, then there will be a reduction of 1036 pounds of CO2 every year. This also results in savings of $ 90 per annum. Savings in terms of dollar may not be much, but the amount of CO2 that is reduced is worth considering this action. 4. Does reducing the size of your ecological footprint necessarily mean reducing your quality of life? Why or why not? Are there ways of enhancing your quality of life while lowering your environmental impact? Answer = Reducing the size of the ecological footprint does not result in reducing the quality of life. On the contrary, one would feel happy that he has been able to help in saving the environment. Sacrificing a little bit of comforts by choice would help the nation in achieving its mission of achieving using less and less of traditional use of resources which are creating havoc with the environment. Moreover, this would also convey a lesson to fellow countrymen to take similar action and thus help in reducing the carbon footprint. Enhancing quality of life is just a perception. By reducing use of conventional incandescent lamps, or by using smaller sized automobiles does not reduce our prestige or reputation. On the contrary, this would make other also follow our actions. References Any sources utilized in your question answers should be listed here. Dodds W.K.2013) Humanity's Footprint: Momentum, Impact, and Our Global Environment Columbia University Press Penna A.N. (2010) The Human Footprint: A Global Environmental History John Wiley & Sons



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Biomes and Diversity Over the past few centuries, man has caused endless ecological devastation to Earth. This has resulted into the food chain supply being severally disrupted. The
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Biomes and Diversity Over the past few centuries, man has caused endless ecological devastation to Earth. This has resulted into the food chain supply being severally disrupted. The situation is becoming from bad to worse. The day is not far when basic demand of animal life (food and water) will be greater than the supply (Patterson et al 2012). In this situation, humans and animals will diminish from earth. While we humans use our intelligence to survive, our numbers will definitely reduce drastically. I think we should be concerned with the speeding rate of extinction. When we take a closer look at the number of species becoming extinct, we would realize our folly and how we are treating the environment with total disregards. We are inadvertently destroying the planet and the other animals, which are part of it. The day is not far when inevitably, we will be the next. Hopefully human will realize their error and make a conscious effort to create a change for the better. Since we share the world with several other species of plants and animals, it is our duty to consider the consequences of our actions. Since the past several years, increasing human thoughtless activity has resulted into rapid destruction of our ecological habitats all over the world. Therefore, it is vital to preserve all types of biomes since each one of them contains many unique forms of life (Sala et al 2001). However, the continued heavy exploitation of certain biomes, such as the forest, freshwater, and marine, may have more severe implications. Forests are equally important since most of diverse biotic communities in the world reside there. Within these biomes, exist a wealth of potential medicines and millions of unseen and undiscovered species. Furthermore, forest possess global climate – buffering capability, so their destruction may cause large scale changes in the global climate. Increased demand of homes, paper and other wood products have not allowed for much conservation of forests. Wiser use of the forests and efforts to re- plant trees have however helped to slow down the depletion of these damages caused by deforestation . Timber exploitation, slash and burn farming, and felling for industrial use or cattle ranching etc. are some of the major reasons for diminution of forest areas. Public attention to this exploitation has helped in alleviating this problem to some extent, even though there are many challenges to be faced by mankind. Freshwater and marine biomes are perhaps the most important of all the biomes. Water is the medium where they are found and it is also the basis of life. It supports life, and millions of species live in it or are a part of their lives. Freshwater biomes supply us with our drinking water and water for crop irrigation. The world's oceans have an even greater effect on global climate than forests do. Water has a high capacity for heat, and because the Earth is mostly covered with water, the temperature of the atmosphere is kept fairly constant and able to support life. (McKinney et al 2003) Freshwater biomes have suffered mainly from pollution. Runoff containing fertilizer and other wastes and industrial dumping enter into rivers, ponds, and lakes and tend to promote abnormally rapid algae growth. When these algae die, dead organic matter accumulates in the water. This makes the water unusable and it kills many of the organisms living in the habitat. Stricter laws have helped to slow down this thoughtless pollution. Overfishing and pollution have threatened to make oceans into ecological disaster areas. Industrial pollutants that are dumped upstream of estuaries have rendered many marine habitats unsuitable for life. Again, tighter regulations have been used to prevent further destruction of the ocean biomes. By educating people about the consequences of our actions, we can all gain a better understanding of how to preserve the Earth's natural biomes. The areas that have been destroyed the most will never regain their original forms, but conservation will help to keep them from getting worse. References Patterson B.D., Leonora P. Costa (2012) Bones, Clones, and Biomes: The History and Geography of Recent Neotropical Mammals University of Chicago Press Sala O.E., Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald (2001) Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment: Scenarios for the 21st Century Springer McKinney M.L., Robert M. Schoch (2003) Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions Jones & Bartlett Learning



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scienceFood and Agriculture In the United States, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food. However,
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


scienceFood and Agriculture In the United States, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food. However, this abundance is largely due to advances in agricultural technology, which have in turn created numerous concerns surrounding our food sources. Provide at least two modern examples of how the United States has increased its food production. Using at least two scholarly or reputable resources and your textbook, discuss how these changes have affected the environment, and what impact they have on food safety? Use of technology and research in Agriculture ensures that there is abundant supply of food in U.S.A. However, the technology used has also created worries in the minds of users and environmentalists. American agriculture is steeped in a chemical-intensive system that wastes money and pollutes the environment. But by making use of new technology and innovative approaches, farmers can boost production and profits — while at the same time improving soil quality, enhancing biodiversity, and protecting habitat (Kastner2011). The key lies in balancing the two, making profit and at the same time taking care of the environmental as well. For examples in California, farmers can go online and access detailed data on a website, which has a network of weather stations. It provides them information about optimal amount of water to apply on any given day so that they could irrigate the crops in their region. Study has concluded that growers could reduce the water consumption by as much as 13 percent and at the same time increasing their yields by 8 percent. Iowa State is the top producer of soybeans. Farmers can take part in a program that helps them in conducting research on their farms to improve the yields of soybean. Simultaneously, use of fertilizer and pesticides can also be curtailed and thus increase the profit margin. This environmentally beneficial program is expanding in the U.S., even though not many are taking advantage of the same. The sad part is that even though these programs demonstrate the use of technology in increasing profits, innovative farmers are the exception in American agriculture today. The reforms have not been applied universally and widely, even though it is a proven fact that these initiatives provide positive financial returns (Grunert1996). This has resulted in a system where sellers are focusing on use of more fertilizers, more herbicides and insecticides and more equipment, thus wasting money on excessive chemicals and nutrients. U.S. agriculture cannot afford to wait for a piecemeal adoption of better practices and solutions. References Kastner J. (2011) Food and Agriculture Security: An Historical, Multidisciplinary Approach ABC-CLIO, Grunert K.G. (1996) Market Orientation in Food and Agriculture Springer



VIEW FILE
Science Assignment 1 – Environmental Footprint TABLE A. Ecological Footprint
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science Assignment 1 – Environmental Footprint TABLE A. Ecological Footprint Footprint Results (Answers to the following 2 questions will be given upon completion of footprint) If everyone lived like you, how many planet Earth’s would we need? 4 To support your lifestyle, how many productive global acres area needed? 17.7 Ecological Footprint Breakdown (Values can be obtained by scrolling over pie chart generated at completion of footprint) Percent of emissions from Food 16 Percent of emissions from Shelter 8 Percent of emissions from Mobility 18 Percent of emissions from Goods 8 Percent of emissions from Services 50 TABLE B. Household Emissions Household Emissions Results (Answers can be found in bar graphs following completion of calculator) What are your current household emissions? 1479783 What are the U.S. average household emissions? 41500 What was your reduced emissions? 120132 Household Emissions Savings (Answers can be found above bar graphs If you took all actions you would reduce annual emissions by: 19 If you took all actions your potential dollar savings would be: 25553 Your new total annual estimated CO2 emissions: 120132 QUESTIONS 1. Based on your findings from the ecological footprint calculator, how many Earth’s would be needed to support the global population if everyone lived your same lifestyle? Additionally, describe the impacts on the Earth’s climate, biodiversity, and economic security if every individual in the world lived your same lifestyle and discuss why these impacts would occur. Answer = The figure obtained from the ecological footprint calculator is 4 which is quite a lot. It indicates that we all should take some drastic action to make sure that the ecological balance is maintained. The climate of the Earth would deteriorate if everyone follows the same lifestyle. There would be extensive imbalance in the biodiversity and economy security would be threatened. The reason why this impact would occur is because we are consuming the scarce resource of the Earth with no regard to savings for our future generations. The selfish mentality would take its toll and ecological damage would occur sooner than expected. 2. Based on your findings from the ecological footprint calculator, what are the 3 everyday products and practices that contribute most to your environmental footprint? Answer = The findings of the ecological footprint calculator provide all of us with food for thought for what all we can do to save the environment by conserving the resources. Use of gas guzzler automobiles, excessive use of oil for heating and unnecessary use of electricity for running air conditioner, washing machines and other sundry appliances are the major factors that contribute the most to the environmental footprint. 3. Based on the information from the reduce emissions section of the household emissions calculator, name at least 2 actions that you can take to limit your carbon emissions? Include in your answer the exact dollar savings and the weight of carbon dioxide that could be saved (from the calculator results) for each of these two actions. Answer = First, by simply turning down the heating thermostat by 10 degrees Fahrenheit on winter nights, would result in annual savings of $25,021, which is quite substantial. This also is contributing to 18 % of total emissions and lead to savings of 268,130 pounds of CO2. Secondly, if all the 15 nos. of 60 watt incandescent light bulbs in use are replaced by 13 watt energy saver lights, then there will be a reduction of 1036 pounds of CO2 every year. This also results in savings of $ 90 per annum. Savings in terms of dollar may not be much, but the amount of CO2 that is reduced is worth considering this action. 4. Does reducing the size of your ecological footprint necessarily mean reducing your quality of life? Why or why not? Are there ways of enhancing your quality of life while lowering your environmental impact? Answer = Reducing the size of the ecological footprint does not result in reducing the quality of life. On the contrary, one would feel happy that he has been able to help in saving the environment. Sacrificing a little bit of comforts by choice would help the nation in achieving its mission of achieving using less and less of traditional use of resources which are creating havoc with the environment. Moreover, this would also convey a lesson to fellow countrymen to take similar action and thus help in reducing the carbon footprint. Enhancing quality of life is just a perception. By reducing use of conventional incandescent lamps, or by using smaller sized automobiles does not reduce our prestige or reputation. On the contrary, this would make other also follow our actions. References Any sources utilized in your question answers should be listed here. Dodds W.K.2013) Humanity's Footprint: Momentum, Impact, and Our Global Environment Columbia University Press Penna A.N. (2010) The Human Footprint: A Global Environmental History John Wiley & Sons



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As a female, there have been many instances where my 'smile' can get me in trouble. As many of you know, I am in Afghanistan and a part of their culture
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


As a female, there have been many instances where my 'smile' can get me in trouble. As many of you know, I am in Afghanistan and a part of their culture believes that a woman's skin must be covered in order to protect them from a man's lust. According to Pamela Bone (1999) "It is for their own protection that women must conceal every inch of their bodies,... if they are beaten for allowing an arm to protrude from under a veil, it is only for their own protection"(p.19). When I first arrived in Afghanistan I was very interested in meeting the local Afghans in the area and since there were a couple of bazaars, or shopping markets, nearby it was the best way to meet local Afghans. When a few of us visited the bazaar I began to speak with one local. As we were speaking I was enjoying what we were speaking about and a couple of times I was laughing and smiling. When we were done speaking the Afghan asked for me to come back again and have lunch with him, I found it a bit odd and asked him 'Why?' He replied back with 'Well since you like me..' I quickly cut him off and explained to him that I apologize if I somehow confused him to believe that in any way our conversation surpassed anything past a friendship. Thankfully he understood and recanted his request. Because of my facial expressions and eye behavior, it led this specific local Afghan to believe that I had an interest in him. This situation could have been prevented if I was to have worn a burqa. In the future, I plan on minimizing conversations to a point where they are not led beyond their expectations. Like this situation, if I would have gone in and spoke about the items he was selling, our conversation would have been simple and wouldn't consist of anything else. But because it escalated to personal matters, then the situation went a different direction which involved me to feel uncomfortable. Also, the local Afghan should have been giving me signs of interest during our conversation. According to Professor Paul Preston (2005) I need to "watch others' reactions towards me", whether it is from positive to negative, the local Afghan was perceiving some type of affection towards me by the way I was speaking to him, the way my body was presented, and my facial expressions. -Zila Winstead Reference Pamela, B. (1999, November 25). Give us equality and we'll look after ourselves. The Age (Melbourne). p. 19. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/detail?sid=da56b3c0-c1f6-4626-9af4-b3fc3a8189f7%40sessionmgr12&vid=4&hid=105&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=n5h&AN=SYD-4YI2X7CJUIWRH9Z22O4. Preston, P. (2005). Nonverbal communication: do you really say what you mean?. Journal Of Healthcare Management, 50(2), 83-86. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=da56b3c0-c1f6-4626-9af4-b3fc3a8189f7%40sessionmgr12&vid=7&hid=105. Cultural difference plays a very big role in communication. What may be right in one culture may not be true or correct in other cultures. The incident narrated clearly shows that the Afghan misunderstood her reactions and way of talking etc. This is bound to happen and one has to take care while talking to strangers or even friends. Verbal and non-verbal communications have a meaning. Perhaps the Afghan is to be blamed equally for not understanding the meaning of what was being communicated and kept a distance. However the onus of proper communication lies on both the persona. It is more on females as they are at a disadvantage (wrongly of course) in some cultures.



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Do human beings have any obligations to animals in terms of their treatment? If it is wrong to treat animals cruelly, why is it not wrong to eat them? Explain if, and how, you think humans can find...
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Do human beings have any obligations to animals in terms of their treatment? If it is wrong to treat animals cruelly, why is it not wrong to eat them? Explain if, and how, you think humans can find a balance between treating animals ethically while also raising them for food and for other reasons, such as the testing of pharmaceuticals.I think we do have an obligation to treat all animals fairly. I think the difference between treating an animal cruel, and still eating the same animal, comes down to survival. It’s no different than the lion hunting its prey, or man hunts his. I think when suffering is involved with killing animals that’s where my problem lies. I think for the most part when raising these animals for consumers consumption, care should be given to these animals whether or not we know if they have a long or short term survival. Does it make it right for a person who does not eat meat to still eat eggs? Just because the chicken is not killed, the conditions the chicken is being raised in may be cruel. I think before we judge or try to convince others why eating meat is good or bad. I think we have to think of the conditions on how and where are food comes from, whether it’s an apple or a steak! Mosser, K. (2013). Philosiphy: A concise introduction. San Diego: Bridgeport Education, Inc. Our obligation to treat animals fairly is derived from the fact that we should respect life. But then there is another school of thought which says if all of us become vegetarian then what will happen to mankind ? The food will become scarce and people may not be able to satisfy their hunger. It is the survival that plays an important role while deciding how to treat animals. In a jungle also , it is again the survival of the fittest principle that holds good. Nature has made this rule and we have to follow it without any pangs of conscience.



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Lab 3 – Biodiversity Demonstration 1: Interdependence of Species Table 1: Interdependence of Species Results Round Species Missing (Bead Color and Name) 1 White bead represents lichen 2 Blue b...
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Lab 3 – Biodiversity Demonstration 1: Interdependence of Species Table 1: Interdependence of Species Results Round Species Missing (Bead Color and Name) 1 White bead represents lichen 2 Blue bead represents humans 3 Red bead represents flowers 4 Orange bead represents trees POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. Explain how the ecosystem was affected by the missing species for each round of the demonstration. a. Round 1 = Lichen is missing in this round. They are very important for creating soils from which plants can obtain nutrients. Just like all living, Lichen also need nutrients and energy to grow. Nutrients can be obtained from air, water, and from substrate organisms. Energy can be obtained through the process of photosynthesis. b. Round 2 = blue bead which represents humans is missing. Humans depend on bees for honey and also fruits that are pollinated by the bees. c. Round 3 = Missing of red beads indicates absence of flowers. These flowers depend on trees for shade and wind protection and soil for nutrition. d. Round 4 = in this round orange bead representing trees are missing. Trees depend on soil for food (nutrients). Fruit producing trees, in turn depend on bees as a means of pollination. 2. Provide one action we as humans engage in that leads to the extinction of each of these components. Action affecting Lichens = indiscriminate use of land Action affecting Trees = cutting and deforesting Action affecting Flowers = cutting of trees indirectly affect the growth of flowers Action affecting Bees = absence o flowers would affect the lives of bees 3. Provide three specific actions that humans can take to minimize our impact on the ecosystem and ensure the survival of lichens, trees, flowers, and bees. Action 1 = protect trees Action 2 = avoid or minimize use of automobile so that pollution can be curtailed Action 3 = plant more trees Experiment 1: Diversity of Plants Table 2: Number of Each Plant Species Present in Pot 1 and Pot 2 Species Observed Number in Pot 1(sunlight) Number in Pot 2(shade) Zinnia 3 2 Marigold 4 2 Morning Glory 6 3 Cosmos 5 2 Ryegrass 4 3 Total Number of Species in Pot: 17 12 POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. Develop a hypothesis on which pot you believe will contain the highest biodiversity. Hypothesis = Pot no 1 will contain the highest biodiversity 2. Based on the results of your experiment, would you reject or accept the hypothesis that you produced in question 1? Explain how you determined this. Accept/Reject = Accept. The results indicate clearly that the pot which is in sunlight has higher rate of survival for the plants, thereby increasing the chances of biodiversity. 3. If each pot was a sample you found in a group of wildflowers, would you determine based on the diversity of flowers that the ecosystem is healthy? Why or why not. Answer = Yes the observation would indicate the healthiness (or the absence of it). The reason for this is that plants grow in sunlight and they get all the nutrients. So if there is biodiversity, it indirectly indicates that the ecosystem is healthy. 4. How does biodiversity contribute to the overall health of an ecosystem? Provide specific examples and utilize at least one scholarly resource to back your answer. Answer = Biodiversity means variety of life on earth. Number of species of plants, animals, microorganism, various genes prevalent in these species, different ecosystem existing on the planet, are all part of a biologically diverse earth. An attempt should be made to conserve and put in place strategies that help in sustaining the development. This is part of an integral approach and will help in preserving the biodiversity. Almost all living creatures are borne out of biological diversity in some form or the other. For example a large no of plat species means a greater variety of crops. Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms. Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters.Another example is deforestation threatens many species such as the giant leaf frog References Any sources utilized should be listed here. Pimentel D., Laura Westra, Reed F. Noss (2000) Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation, and Health Island Press



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Describe at least two alternatives to oil that are currently available and discuss the barriers that keep these alternatives from replacing oil as our primary means of energy?
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Describe at least two alternatives to oil that are currently available and discuss the barriers that keep these alternatives from replacing oil as our primary means of energy? The first alternative that comes to mind is ethanol which is a fuel additive that comes in various blends. I actually used to run an ethanol plant for Archer Daniels Midland before joining the Air Force so this product is kind of partial to me. However, there are a lot of things holding ethanol back. The first being the cost to produce it, the only reason that the ethanol blends are the same price as a regular gallon of gasoline is because of the tax credits ethanol producers receive. Even worse is that ethanol is alcohol so it absorbs water wherever it can, even in pipes, which means that it cannot be piped across the country like gasoline. It has to be transported via trucks instead, which doesn’t speak well for its environmental footprint. Another fact is a gallon of ethanol contains less energy than a gallon of gasoline. For example, E85 has about 27% less energy per gallon than gasoline (mileage penalty lessens as ethanol content decreases) (AFDC, 2013). Which one would you want to buy when paying the same amount at the pump? Another alternative is Hydrogen which is currently being used in various locations for public transportation. It’s an environmentally friendly fuel that has the potential to dramatically reduce our dependence on imported oil, but several significant challenges must be overcome before it can be widely used (U.S. Department of Energy, 2013). Some of the larger barriers are: Expense of production, Cost of vehicles and the onboard hydrogen storage systems do not yet meet size, weight, and cost goals for commercialization (U.S. Department of Energy, 2013). Additionally, utilizing at least two scholarly or reputable resources and your textbook, discuss the role that government plays in ensuring a transition to such alternatives in a post peak-oil world? A basic definition of a peak in oil production would be that point where more than half of all of the oil that will ever be extracted from the Earth has already been produced (Turk & Bensel, 2011). I think the government must play a role by making it law to change over to alternative renewable fuels. Otherwise we’d never make the change because the big oil companies would pressure the auto industry into only making vehicles that run on gasoline. When the government makes the switch into law, the auto industry and big don’t have a choice. Just my two cents. The alternative fuels have been described very well by the writer. However the cost is prohibitive and that is why it is subsidized by the government by way of taxes. Another problem with this fuel is that of transportation. Since it absorbs water, it cannot be transported over long distances and thus is ineffective in use. It will take some more time to find out the right technology to make it more attractive for the users. Role of government is very vital in encouraging use of alternate fuel. This could be by way of providing subsidies in the form tax concession or help in developing technology also. Unless government puts pressure, it would be difficult for people to make a change.



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what specific policies might the United States enact to reduce its impact on global climate change?
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


what specific policies might the United States enact to reduce its impact on global climate change? 1) implement various carbon reduction measures, This is already being discussed in congress (New England Aquarium, 2013) 2) “Cap and trade. Set a limit on how much CO2 from fossil sources each business is allowed to emit (gradually lowering the cap every year, until it reaches sustainable levels), but let businesses that emit less than their "share" of that I've heard proposed would be to grant each individual *citizen* a CO2 sell the excess CO2 rights to less efficient companies. A variation of this allotment, which they could then either use themselves, or sell to power companies and other businesses “(Yahoo.com, 2013). 3) Reduce greenhouse gases, “These gases persist in the atmosphere for laong time periods. The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions proceed, the lower the risks of posed by climate change”(EPA, 2012)”. The economic impacts of any proposed policy. Harding, S.(2007) states that”The Stern Review showed that without immediate and relatively inexpensive action, climate change would lead to severe and permanent global economic depression by 2050”(Turk,2011) Several laws have been framed by the relevant ministries to control the impact of global climate change. If these are followed rigorously, we can make an impact on the climate change in a positive manner. Setting a limit on carbon emissions as per norms set by the government would act as a deterrent to people who flout the rules. This cap should be on both individuals and business houses as well. Reduction of emissions of green house is a very valid argument and should be encouraged. If it can be done voluntarily by educating people about its benefits, then it would be ideal. Forcing someone to avoid or minimize emissions may work to some extent but if they are made to realize its importance and if the feel it is for their own and their coming generations’ good, they would automatically adopt means to control



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In the United States, congress must enact legislation that puts strong limits on Carbon dioxide emissions in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas pollution
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


In the United States, congress must enact legislation that puts strong limits on Carbon dioxide emissions in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas pollution by at least 20% by 2020 and at least 80% by 2050 ( Kousky, C., & Schneider, S.H.2003). It can promote the development of clean energy jobs and technology across the country. Climate change involves vast uncertainties and has politically enormous distributional effects, neither of the standard market-based environmental policy is a viable approach, a tradable permit system would be inefficient and an emissions tax would be politically unrealistic, however a hybrid policy, combining the best feature of the two would be an efficient and practical approach the hybrid protocol and the Kyoto protocol ( McKibbin,W.J Wilcoxen,P.J. 2002). Kousky, C.,& Scheider, S.H.(2003). Global Climate policy: will cities lead the way? Climate policy, 3(4),359-372 McKibbin, W.J.,& Wilcoxen, P.J (2002). The role of economics in the climate change policy. The journal of economic perspective, 16(2),107-129 A judicious use of rules framed by the congress and education of users would help in reducing the impact of emissions. Climate change affects everyone and all of us are equally responsible for maintaining the balance between the what is acceptable and what is not. Rules would definitely deter people from doing wrong but it is important to make them realize on their own the ill effects. Unless and until the desire to control comes from within , no amount of rules can control



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In my belife the ultimate meaning of life is to live righteously with a faith in a higher being, giving unto others as a duty to the sacrifice that God has made and to believe
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


In my belife the ultimate meaning of life is to live righteously with a faith in a higher being, giving unto others as a duty to the sacrifice that God has made and to believe he exists. As stated in our texts, to think of a being, the greatest of beings, then that being must exist and that means God exist. To live righteously is to give to others who are in need however while also teaching them the lessons of life to ensure they can carry on in a manner that contributes to the positive exploration of the human race as well as other races. By giving to others and I do not mean monetary goods I mean anything from words of wisdom to guiadence to money or even just signs of affection to show another they are worth something in this life as God intended them to be. by giving, emotions are evoked and the emotions we as humans inparticular have, cause us to be who we are and have meaning, the meaning of life itself is an arguable stance, but if one could conclude that by our gracious intent to help others then that act gives meaning to life. Once we realize this, it is my opinion that the term evolution comes into play, because as we have for many of hundreds of years evolved in our emotional state and understanding of being able to conceptualize different acts dealing with emotions we have been able to come to terms with what is moral and ethical thus leading to the further evolution of the human race and furthermore leading to what gives human life meaning. I am unsure which philosopher best describes what I believe as many of the philosophers pose questions that simply can not be answered immediately. I agree with many standpoints of all philosophers, I would say I probably relate best to Socrates, but in being able to relate to him I also relate to Euthprhyo his teacher and Plato his student. In the end it is faith that one rely on for their own personal belife in what is just, righteous, and weather or not God truly exist. Personally I believe God exist and believe although I may not know how or why he came to be, it is not for me to question but rather to just believe and live righteous as to my interpretation of what the meaning of life is. Having belief is very important in our lives. It is important to note and learn that there is some divine force which is acting and guiding us. There are a number of events that cannot be explained by human beings. This clearly shows there is some supernatural power, which is in force. Since the logic of some events is beyond our comprehension, we take the help of divine power for explanation. We should be ready to give to others, not necessarily in monetary terms. Many a times we may not be in a position to donate money to needy. But we can always extend help in other ways e.g. by devoting our time, or using our skills to help others. When we believe that God exists, we cannot apply logic. It is just a belief and we have to accept it that is all.



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Discuss how the syntax for a class in C++ is similar to the syntax for structures in C. Use this syntax to create your own programmer-defined class. Answer of student mark
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Discuss how the syntax for a class in C++ is similar to the syntax for structures in C. Use this syntax to create your own programmer-defined class. Answer of student mark A class in c++ is very similar to a struct in c. You can create your own abstract data type using either. You can use functions and also make the member variables private in both. The main difference is that with the C++ class, you can create it in a separate file and use it in many programs, which makes it more portable. Structs are avaiable in C++, but you can use a class in its place if you wish. A class can be created without creating any functions, etc. So it would be virtually equal to a normal struct. This is an example of a c++ class: class person{ private: string name; int age; public: person(string n, int a){//constructor name = n; age = a; } person(){//constructor with no parameters, sets name to "" and age to 0 name = ""; age = 0; } void setName(string f){ fname = f;//set f = to fname and returns nothing } string getName(){ return name;//return the name } void setAge(int a){ age = a;//sets the age to a and returns nothing } int getAge(){ return age; //returns the age } } This is a simple person class which probably won't be of much use, other than inheritance Good post Mark. You've provided an example that is easy to read. From what I understand in terms of comparing C and C++, the latter has more libraries to choose from so the programs, I would imagine, are more flexible for developing applications, although a C program can be compiled with a C++ compiler. I even read up on the performance of C and C++, where this seems to be a debate whether one is faster than the other. I think it really oils down to the application as they can range from simple to complex. Reply from Mark to the student above I agree. I read once that most operating systems are coded in c and c++ (both of them). What I gather from that was that they both have their strengths and weaknesses and using both maybe the only way to overcome them. Of course it could also mean that it was initially written in c and they didn't want to do a complete rewrite, so they upgraded to c++. I couldn't find a clear reason. below is thereply for your answer I believe we briefly talked about the features of class and struct in my last course and would like to understand this a bit more. So basically, when using struct, the code or variables within the struct is more flexible as one can define whether they are private or public class. Is this correct? I see that the class makes variables private by default, but when used in a struct, the variables are automatically public even if they are declared under class. My answer: Yes you are right that when using struct, the code or variables within the struct is more flexible as one can define whether they are private or public class but Classes are reference types and structures are value types. Reference types are allocated on the heap, and memory management is handled by the garbage collector. In general, value types are cheaper to allocate and deallocate. All members of a class-data and methods--are private by default. Private members can be accessed only within methods of the class itself. Public members can be accessed through any object of the class. Reply to ur post by Maggie In this DQ we are actually discussing the differences between C structs and C++ classes. Structs in C can only contain data and not functions. Unlike C structs, classes may contain data types as well as functions. In comparing structs and classes within C++, structs are pretty much the same except that the default limitations for classes is private and for C++ structs is public. I am not sure if a C struct can be private or public. I searched on the Internet but can't find any reference to C (not C++) and private. Another reply from another student after Maggie post I actually found one forum discussing the topic and C structs cannot use access modifiers, but structs in c++ can. They can use public, private and protected. It would have pretty much the same structure as a class minus the portability. Reply to maggir from another student Maggie I am still a little confuse about structs and classes. The structs were available in the C language. The use of the struct was originally available in the C language before C++ became widely used. A struct in C++ is functionally replaceable by a class. Basically any actions that a struct could perform a class could also achieve the same results. The class default to a private and the struct default to public which the class can be call throughout the program by using the correct format. My New Answer: Don’t get confused MAGGIR it’s very simple like in C language structures are available so later it ‘ll be added in C++ .The variables in classes are PRIVATE by default where in Structures variables are PUBLIC. Classes are extensions of the C structures, which cannot contain functions .In other words we can say that C++ is a structure is a class defined with the struct keyword.Its members and base classes are public by default. A class defined with the class keyword has private members and base classes by default. My Last Comment: Like Structures are available in C language but as we know the structures was originally used in C language before the C++ language. Hence structures in C++ is functionally replaced by CLASS. The variables in classes are PRIVATE by default where in Structures variables are PUBLIC. A class defined with the class keyword has private members and base classes by default and structures are defined by struct keyword. All members of a class-data and methods--are private by default. Private members can be accessed only within methods of the class itself. Public members can be accessed through any object of the class. Ques 2 Discuss how the syntax for a class in C++ is similar to the syntax for structures in C. Use this syntax to create your own programmer-defined class. The C++ class is an extension of the C language structure. Because the only difference between a structure and a class is that structure members have public access by default and class members have private access by default, you can use the keywords class or struct to define equivalent classes. Example The class X is equivalent to the structure Y: Class X { int a; Public: int f() { return a = 5; }; }; struct Y { int f() { return a = 5; }; Private: int a; }; If you define a structure and then declare an object of that structure using the keyword class, the members of the object are still public by default. In the following example, main () has access to the members of obj_X even though obj_X has been declared using an elaborated type specified that uses the class key class: # Include <iostream> Struct X { Int a,b; }; Class X obj_X; Int main() { } My Comments: C is the basic language of C++ and the syntax of C++ is same as the syntax of C in structures hence C++ is a structure and class are the same except a class is private by default and a structure is public by default. There's no comparison with a C structure because it can't have methods, just members. All members of a class are private, unless you use the words `protected:' or `public:' inside it. All members of a structure are public, unless you use the words `protected:' or `private:' inside it. If you do use those words, then anything between the start of the definition and the first time you use one of those words is private for a class, public for a structure. Maggie posted her answer to the question above. If you wish u can reply to it. Discuss how classes in C++ provide support for abstract types. Provide at least one example. I saw a reference to an abstract type in my last class. I did not get the full meaning of what is an abstract data type until now. An abstract data type is a set of associated data items and functions that are independent of other data. An abstract data type is defined by the developer. “Some authors describe object-oriented programming as programming abstract data types and their relationships.” In an object oriented program, a class (in C++) is considered an abstract data type. For example, suppose your boss comes to you and requests a program that takes keeps record of books that are ordered and shipped. In my case, they would be firing tables (books of aiming data). These books may be characterized with the properties – Nomenclature, weapon system, and projectile. The functions or actions that are executed are ordering and shipping. This may be defined in C++ as class CFiringTable { private: char nomenclature[11]; char weapon[10]; char projectile[10]; public: void GetString(); void Order(); void Shipping(); }; This is not a very good example because this can be handled in other ways that would be more efficient. But I am sure you get the idea. My Answer: Abstract data type is where you cannot declare a variable as an abstract class. Usually, they are used to provide interfaces between concrete classes that implement the functionality, and the user of a library who we may not want to have access to how it was implemented. Example: An abstract data type defines a public interface for others to use while hiding the private implementation. In c++ an abstract data type will typically have a signature like this: class MyAbstractClass public: ………………………….. private: ……………………………. My last Comment: The only difference between a structure and a class is that structure members have public access by default and class members have private access by default, you can use the keywords class or struct to define equivalent classes. An abstract data type defines a public interface for others to use while hiding the private implementation. In c++ an abstract data type will typically have a signature where we define a class with class name then define the variables in Public, Private section. In other words Abstract data type is where you cannot declare a variable as an abstract class.



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In the homework assignment for this week, you matched three of Haykawa’s criteria
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Task for Week 5 In the homework assignment for this week, you matched three of Haykawa’s criteria with three quotes from the Van Gogh letters. Little did you know (evil laugh) that this was a master plan for your main body paragraphs! Once you know which criteria you’re writing about (topic sentence) and you have matched that with evidence from Van Gogh (the support) you can write each paragraph. To help you with the process of writing the main body, I have broken down the sample paragraph I posted last week into its parts. Please check out the sample. Break each main body paragraph into manageable parts. Focus on: The topic sentence Each paragraph will begin with a clear topic sentence. Since we are working with Hayakawa’s criteria, the three criteria will turn into the three topic sentences for your three main body paragraph. Each paragraph will focus on one criterion from Hayakawa. I would suggest summarizing Hayakawa’s criterion in your own words, but yes, you can also quote him directly, either in full sentence form or using phrases of his. Again, refer to the sample paragraph. The support (body of each paragraph) The body of the paragraph is the support or “proof” of the theory we’re testing: does Van Gogh fit Hayakawa’s definition of creativity (this is our research question)? So, our “proof” comes from the letters of Van Gogh—straight from the painter’s mouth. The main goal of the body of the paragraph is to use your direct quote(s) from Van Gogh. Yes, you can use more than one, but don’t overburden your paragraph with too much source information. This leads to our next focus… The analysis The analysis of our research question comes from your own thoughts and opinions on our research question (see the previous section). The analysis of the paragraph is where you will interpret/explain Van Gogh’s quotes in your own words. It is not immediately obvious what he is saying—he is a very poetic writer—AND it is not obvious how what he says fits with the topic of your paragraph, Hayakawa’s criterion. The analysis is where you do your own writing—I call it writing around the quotes. Structure There are basically five paragraphs to this essay. For now, just focus on the main body, which is the hard part! We will fine tune thesis statements, citations, etc. next week after we tackle the main body. The overall structure of the paper will look like this: Intro Main body paragraph #1 1st Hayakawa quote (topic sentence) Matching Van Gogh quote + analysis Main body paragraph #2 2nd Hayakawa quote (topic sentence) Matching Van Gogh quote + analysis Main body paragraph #3 3rd Hayakawa quote (topic sentence) Matching Van Gogh quote + analysis Conclusion SO THE GOAL IS… For the rest of this week, work on drafting your main body paragraphs. There are no homework points attached to this process…your POINTS will be attached to your final grade for the paper. Aim to have the main body paragraphs written for Monday. I can always check paragraphs at any point (it’s best to just attach or paste them to an email.)



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RECYCLING OF PLASTIC Recycling of plastic is the process in which used and waste plastic is reprocessed to get new plastic material. The two types of plastic that can be recycled easily are
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science RECYCLING OF PLASTIC Recycling of plastic is the process in which used and waste plastic is reprocessed to get new plastic material. The two types of plastic that can be recycled easily are 1. PETE (POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PLASTICS) such as soda bottles, plastic wrap 2. HDPE (HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYENE PLASTICS) such as trash bags, milk containers. The benefits of recycling are: • It reduces emissions of greenhouse gases • It can be used to make toys again. The process of recycling is as follows: 1. Sorting Firstly the sorting is done. Here the products made of hard plastic and soft plastic are put into two different categories. Because different types of plastics, need different temperature to recycle. 2. Cleaning Then these plastics are cleaned. They are put into large a washing machine that eliminates debris. However, if the labels and markings remain on them then they are removed through chemical processes. 3. Chopping and melting Once this cleaning is done, the plastic is chopped into smaller pieces and these smaller pieces might be washed again to remove the last remnants of dirt. Then these plastic pieces are melted and sent to the industries that make use of it in manufacturing plastic products. 13



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MAKING OF PLASTIC Plastic has many properties which encourage us to use it as a raw material such as
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science MAKING OF PLASTIC Plastic has many properties which encourage us to use it as a raw material such as • Cost of production • Light weight • Strength • Easy process of manufacturing Plastic is made by combining monomers into polymers under great heat and pressure. The process of making plastic is called POLYMERIZATION. The following is the procedure of making plastic: Acetone is a commonly used painting thinner. 11 Open the acetone container and pour some out of it. Break the blocks and mix it with acetone. If you are not using it immediately then cover the container in which you put plastic. Acetone is a very dangerous substance so use it carefully. Polystyrene is a polymer made from monomer styrene. By this process you can easily made plastic at home also. 12



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CONTENTS 1. What is plastic………………………………………………………..1 2. History of plastic……………………………………………………….4 3. Uses of plastic…………………………………………………………6 4. Demerits of plastic…………………………………………………7 5. Maki...
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science CONTENTS 1. What is plastic………………………………………………………..1 2. History of plastic……………………………………………………….4 3. Uses of plastic…………………………………………………………6 4. Demerits of plastic…………………………………………………7 5. Making of plastic…………………………………………………...11 6. Recycling of plastic………………………………………………..13



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The word “plastic” come from Greek word “Plastikos” meaning “to form”. It is a
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Science WHAT ARE PLASTICS? The word “plastic” come from Greek word “Plastikos” meaning “to form”. It is a material which can be heated and molded so that it does not change when it is cooled. Plastic is a generic name for certain synthetic or semi synthetic material that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or filaments or used for making.



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