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• Review the Final Research Project instructions in Week Five, and identify two potential research topics. Keep in mind that you will choose just one for the Week
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


• Review the Final Research Project instructions in Week Five, and identify two potential research topics. Keep in mind that you will choose just one for the Week Three Annotated Bibliography assignment and the Final Research Project. Describe methods to use in identifying and narrowing your research paper topic. Ans: I have decided two topics to do research on – healthcare reform and capital punishment. To identify and narrow your research topic, it is the best way to start with several questions like when, where, who, which, etc. another way is to do brainstorming. On the basis of brainstorming, I have decided healthcare reforms for my research topic because health comes first than anything. It is truly said that health is wealth. Capital punishment is the best topic to do research on. • Examine and summarize information from at least two scholarly sources for one of the topics that may prove valuable as you seek to defend your claims regarding your chosen topic. Ans: Healthcare reforms are those practices which are done to make health care programs effective. These practices are those which encourage health and provide better medical facilities to the needy. Reforms are those actions which are taken to improve the facilities. As health is very important part of our life, so it must be handle very carefully. Following reforms can be done to take care of the health: • Do medical insurance of all • Provide medical facilities at lower cost • Try to release stress of life with some meditation exercises. (n.d. 2015) Healthcare reforms are very much important in today’s life because in this hush and rush life we have no time to take care of our health. So these reforms help us in that time. (n.d.2015) • Address why scholarly sources should be used to support your writing on the selected topic. Ans: Scholarly sources should be used to support writing on the selected topic as they provide us the material to write on and also provides the good matter with a knowledgeable stuff. REFERENCES • Federal healthcare reform in New York States. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.healthcarereform.ny.gov/summary/ on 2nd Sept. 2015. • Health Care Reform and the Affordable Care Act (PPACA). 2015. Retrieved from http://www.guides.nyu.edu.com on 2nd Sept. 2015.



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The China Medicine Corporation Website is taken for representing an example of a company which committed financial frauds between FY2011- 2014. The lawsuit has
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


The China Medicine Corporation Website is taken for representing an example of a company which committed financial frauds between FY2011- 2014. The lawsuit has been filled in the United States by the investors of China medicine Corporation who purchased the company’s shares during 30th Nov2006 to 23rd March 2011 in United States District Court. The lawsuit was filed against the company’s director and other personals for the violation of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. They claimed that the company y has reported false and misleading financial statement due to which the stock prices of the company got inflated during the class period. Company Information Company Name: China Medicine Corporation Website Ticker Symbol: CHME Sector: Medical Healthcare Company Head Office: China Date Filed: 18th July, 2011 Year of Filling Type of accounting fraud: Overstatement of Revenues & Profits The China Medicine Corporation was involved in the distribution and manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine in the Peoples Republic of China. The company is having a product range of about 2100 pharmaceuticals products as nutritional supplements, medicines, Chinese herbs and many more. The company was headquartered in Guangzhou, the People’s Republic of China. Company Details Firm Size (Market Capitalization): The Market cap of the company was 249.0 k according to the Bloomberg data. Total Assets: The company is having total assets of 66.8million US$ in financial year 2009. Industry SIC Code: The industry SIC code is 5122 which deals in Drugs, Drug Proprietaries, & Druggists Sundries Year of IPO: In Feb 2006, the company had acquired Konzem medicine and went public, The company stock was listed on the OTC board of NASDAQ. Auditor: During 2005-2010, the auditor for the company was LLP Frazer Frost, but the auditor decline for reappointment, then the PWC was appointed as the new auditor for the company in 2011 and was also auditing the previous financial statements from 2006-2011. Name of CEO and Gender: Mr. Senshan Yang is the CEO of the company and in a male gender. Financial Information: Income Statement: FY 2006- FY2009 Currency in As of: 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec Millions of US Dollars 2006 2007 2008 2009 Restated Reclassified Revenues 24 42.1 53.6 64.8 TOTAL REVENUES 24 42.1 53.6 64.8 Cost Of Goods Sold 15 29.7 38.1 45.8 GROSS PROFIT 9 12.4 15.6 19 Selling General & Admin Expenses, Total 1.6 3.3 3.7 5.3 R&D Expenses 0.3 0.7 1 1.5 OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES, TOTAL 1.9 4 4.6 6.7 OPERATING INCOME 7.1 8.4 10.9 12.3 Other Non-Operating Income (Expenses) -0.2 0 0.1 -0.1 EBT, EXCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 6.9 8.4 11 12.2 Merger & Restructuring Charges -0.9 -- -- -- Other Unusual Items, Total -- -- -- -7.2 Other Unusual Items -- -- -- -7.2 EBT, INCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 6 8.4 11 5 Income Tax Expense 1.2 1.6 2 3.5 Minority Interest In Earnings 0 0.1 0.1 0.3 Earnings From Continuing Operations 4.8 6.8 9 1.4 NET INCOME 4.8 6.9 9.1 1.7 NET INCOME TO COMMON INCLUDING EXTRA ITEMS 4.8 6.9 9.1 1.7 NET INCOME TO COMMON EXCLUDING EXTRA ITEMS 4.8 6.9 9.1 1.7 Balance Sheet: FY2006- FY2009 Currency in As of: 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec Millions of US Dollars 2006 2007 2008 2009 Restated Reclassified Assets Cash And Equivalents 0.4 5.8 2.8 0.5 TOTAL CASH AND SHORT TERM INVESTMENTS 0.4 5.8 2.8 0.5 Accounts Receivable 7 13.6 19.2 22.3 Notes Receivable -- -- 0.6 0 TOTAL RECEIVABLES 7 13.6 19.8 22.3 Inventory 1.9 3.9 4.7 2.7 Restricted Cash -- -- -- 1.8 Other Current Assets 3.2 6.1 6.3 3 TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS 12.5 29.4 33.7 30.3 Gross Property Plant And Equipment 1.5 2 4.7 15.8 Accumulated Depreciation -0.3 -0.6 -0.9 -3.8 NET PROPERTY PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 1.2 1.4 3.8 12 Deferred Charges, Long Term 1 -- 0.2 0.1 Other Intangibles 0.1 1.2 1.2 16.7 Other Long-Term Assets -- 0.7 5.9 7.8 TOTAL ASSETS 14.8 32.6 44.7 66.8 LIABILITIES & EQUITY Accounts Payable 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.3 Accrued Expenses 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.5 Short-Term Borrowings -- -- -- 9.5 Current Income Taxes Payable 0 0.1 0 0.7 Other Current Liabilities, Total 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 Unearned Revenue, Current 0 0.2 0.2 0.5 TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES 0.6 0.9 1.1 14.4 Minority Interest 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.5 Other Non-Current Liabilities -- -- -- 6.9 TOTAL LIABILITIES 0.6 0.9 1.1 21.3 Preferred Stock Convertible 0 0 -- -- TOTAL PREFERRED EQUITY 0 0 -- -- Common Stock 0 0 0 0 Additional Paid In Capital 4.4 12.6 13 13.4 Retained Earnings 9.3 16.2 25.3 27.2 Comprehensive Income And Other -0.5 2.1 4.4 4.4 TOTAL COMMON EQUITY 13.3 30.9 42.8 45 TOTAL EQUITY 14.2 31.8 43.6 45.5 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY 14.8 32.6 44.7 66.8 Cash Flow Statement Currency in As of: 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec Millions of US Dollars 2006 2007 2008 2009 Restated Reclassified NET INCOME 4.8 6.9 9.1 1.7 Depreciation & Amortization 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.9 Amortization Of Goodwill And Intangible Assets -- -- -- 0.1 DEPRECIATION & AMORTIZATION, TOTAL 0.2 0.3 0.4 1 Amortization Of Deferred Charges -- 0.3 -- -- (Gain) Loss From Sale Of Asset 0 -- 0 0 (Gain) Loss On Sale Of Investment 0.1 -- -- -- Other Operating Activities -- -- -- 7.2 Provision & Write-Off Of Bad Debts -- 0 0 0 Minority Interest 0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 Change In Accounts Receivable -4.5 -5.9 -4.8 -2.3 Change In Inventories -0.5 -1.8 -0.5 3.4 Change In Accounts Payable 0 -0.1 0 0.6 Change In Unearned Revenues 0 0.2 -0.1 0.3 Change In Income Taxes 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4 Change In Other Working Capital -3.1 -2.6 -0.3 4.6 CASH FROM OPERATIONS -2.2 -2.3 4.2 17 Capital Expenditure -0.8 -0.4 -2.7 -3.4 Sale Of Property, Plant, And Equipment -- -- -- 0 Cash Acquisitions -- -- -- -8 Sale (Purchase) Of Intangible Assets 0 -- -- -0.2 CASH FROM INVESTING -0.8 -0.4 -7.9 -13.5 Short-Term Debt Issued -- -- -- 6.6 TOTAL DEBT ISSUED -- -- -- 6.6 Short Term Debt Repaid -0.1 -- -- -10.6 TOTAL DEBT REPAID -0.1 -- -- -10.6 Issuance Of Common Stock -- 7.8 0.4 0.1 Repurchase Of Common Stock -0.2 -- -- -- Other Financing Activities 0 -- -- -1.8 CASH FROM FINANCING 3.5 7.8 0.4 -5.7 Foreign Exchange Rate Adjustments -0.2 0.3 0.3 0 NET CHANGE IN CASH 0.3 5.4 -3 -2.3 Ratios (Financial Indicators) as on 30th September, 2010 Profitability - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Return on Assets 7.82% Return on Equity 6.63% Return on Capital 8.15% Margin Analysis - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Gross Margin 33.46% Levered Free Cash Flow Margin -67.86% EBITDA Margin 20.39% SG&A Margin 12.18% Asset Turnover - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Total Assets Turnover 0.7x Accounts Receivables Turnover 4.1x Fixed Assets Turnover 5.9x Inventory Turnover 6.3x Credit Ratios - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Current Ratio 11.1x Quick Ratio 3.0x Long-Term Solvency - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Total Debt/Equity 3.22% Total Liabilities/Total Assets 6.36% Growth Over Prior Year - China Medicine Corp (CHME) Total Revenue -4.34% Tangible Book Value 35.65% EBITDA 2.53% Gross Profit 22.33% Receivables 15.59% Inventory -26.18% Diluted EPS Before Extra -101.81% Capital Expenditures -23.58% Cash From Ops. 29.76% Levered Free Cash Flow -1374.12%



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The title of the assignment, The student’s name, The professor’s name, The course title, and The date
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


The title of the assignment, The student’s name, The professor’s name, The course title, and The date POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE ELECTORAL PROCESS The electoral system in the United States works on plurality i.e. winner –take-all system. A candidate is declared as elected by gaining plurality, or more votes than any other candidate. There is no reward for the party or candidate that finishes second. Therefore, parties aim to be a large as possible. In this process, they try to smoothen out difference among candidates and voters. This is because there is no incentive to form a party the consistency gets votes but cannot win an election. Therefore, two parties generally dominate plurality electoral systems to the disadvantage of the smaller third parties, just as the Democrats and the Republicans dominate the American political system. While no person or organization prevents third parties from forming, but the plurality system itself usually hinders their efforts to win votes. The United States also has mostly single-member districts, meaning that each legislative district sends only one member to the legislature. There is no benefit to finishing second. Some countries use multiple-member districts, which makes it easier for minor parties to succeed because there are more members winning seats in the legislature. The electoral rules favor a two-party system, and minor parties have a very difficult time competing in such a system. Even successful third-party candidates often fail to get a single electoral vote. For example, in the 1992 presidential election, independent candidate H. Ross Perot received nearly 19 percent of the popular vote, but he did not get a single electoral vote. Other recent third-party candidates—including John Anderson in 1980, Perot again in 1996, and Ralph Nader in 2000—also failed to win electoral votes. The last third-party candidate to win any electoral votes was George Wallace in 1968’s tumultuous election. There are a few advantages of the American two-party system: • Stability: Two-party systems are more stable than multiparty systems • Moderation: The two parties must appeal to the middle to win elections, so the parties tend to be moderate. • Ease: Voters have only to decide between two parties. But there are also a few disadvantages to this system, including the following: • Lack of choice: Both parties tend to be very similar, limiting voters’ options. • Less democratic: A percentage of people will always feel marginalized by the system. Third parties face many obstacles in the United States. In all states, the Democratic and Republican candidates automatically get on the ballot, whereas third-party candidates usually have to get thousands of signatures on petitions just to be listed on the ballot. The state and federal governments, which make rules governing elections, are composed of elected Democratic and Republican officials, who have a strong incentive to protect the existing duopoly. Also, third-party candidates often face financial difficulties because a party must have received at least 5 percent of the vote in the previous election in order to qualify for federal funds. One can compare the function of Democrats and Republican with Coke and Pepsi. Each of them wants to have the largest market share but also recognize that it is in their mutual interest to keep out the third cola from entering in the market and sufficient share. Some of the important third parties that are in existence are Prohibition Party (founded in 1867). It has nominated a candidate for president in every election since 1972. Progressive Party is another one that was founded in the year 1912. It elected a number of candidates to state legislatures, Congress, and even the U. S. Senate. It deflected enough votes from Republican William Howard Taft to hand over the presidency to Democrat Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Other parties are American Independent Party (1968), Libertarian Party (1971) and Green Party (1984). All these parties met with some success by having some of their members win local elections. Third parties find favor with people due to their ideology. People who feel very strongly about a particular issue might be drawn to a third party that focuses exclusively on that issue. For example Green Party focused on the monetary system and the Prohibition Party highlighted the evils of consumption of alcohol. The Populist Party, on the other hand, grew out of the Populist movement, and the Republican Party developed primarily out of the abolitionist movement. Dissatisfaction with the status quo is another reason as to why third parties form when part of the major party breaks off in protest and forms a splinter party. For example, Theodore Roosevelt led a group of dissidents out of the Republican Party to form the splinter Progressive Party. Geographical location is also instrumental in the formation of third parties. These parties can remain closely tied to a specific region, which can increase their appeal. Chicago’s Harold Washington Party, for example, seeks to carry on the legacy of Harold Washington, the city’s first African American mayor. In spite of all the drawbacks and failures, third parties have been able to affect the American politics in a number of ways. Third parties propose many new government policies and practices. For example, the Populist Party introduced ideas that influenced some economic policies of the New Deal, whereas the Anti- Masonic Party was the first party to use a convention to nominate its candidate in the mid 19th century. Third parties are also known to force the major parties to address potential diverse problems. For example in 1992, neither Bill Clinton nor George H.W. Bush talked much about the budget deficit until independent Ross Perot emphasized it in his campaign. Third parties can also cost one party an election by playing as the spoiler. For instance if a third party draws enough votes away from a major party, it can prevent that party from winning. For example Ralph Nader’s attempt in the 2000 presidential election may have cost Al Gore the presidency by drawing off votes in key states such as Florida. Throughout most of the nation's history, political competition has centered on two parties. This two-party tendency is explained by the nature of America's electoral system, political institutions, and political culture. Minor parties exist in the United States but have been unable to compete successfully for governing power. To win an electoral majority, each of the two major parties must appeal to a diverse set of interests; this necessity normally leads them to advocate moderate and somewhat overlapping policies and to avoid taking detailed positions on controversial issues. Only during national crises are America's parties likely to present the electorate with starkly different policy alternatives. Political parties serve to link the public with its elected leaders and to organize political conflict. In the United States, this linkage is provided by a two-party system; only the Republican and Democratic parties have any chance of winning control of government. The first political parties evolved through Jackson's grassroots framework to the emergence of Lincoln's Republican Party in 1860. Since that time, the Republicans and Democrats have monopolized the system, alternating through victory and defeat. References Patterson T., Gary Halter (2011) the American Democracy McGraw-Hill Education, Streb M.J. (2011) Rethinking American Electoral Democracy Taylor & Francis, Fife B.L. (2010) Reforming the Electoral Process in America: Toward More Democracy in the 21st Century ABC-CLIO Maisel L.S., Mark D. Brewer (2011) Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process Rowman & Littlefield Publishers



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Tips for Writing Research Paper CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Tips for Writing Research Paper CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. You should however focus on a limited aspect. For example, narrow it down to “ Religion : from “ World Religion “ to “ Buddhism “ Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. FIND INFORMATION This can be easily done by surfing the net. Pay special attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable ,but then you should avoid political bias Check out Books and other print materials available in the Library: • Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries • Government Publications, Guides, Reports • Magazines, Newspapers • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. STATE YOUR THESIS Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY - This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION - Restate or reword your ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Plagiarism is out of question. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. CHECKLIST ONE: 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?



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Tutor: Dr Chris Pike MPS 211 Further Research Methods Qualitative Research Report Anna Norma Sellifant
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Tutor: Dr Chris Pike MPS 211 Further Research Methods Qualitative Research Report Anna Norma Sellifant An Exploration of the Factors Influencing Impulse Buying and the Outcomes of this Behaviour An Exploration of the Factors Influencing Impulse Buying and the Outcomes of this Behaviour Abstract Impulse buying is an area that has been the subject of much research. The majority of this research has focused on the factors that lead to impulse buying and implications that this has for the retail industry. This study used an interview to explore factors that influence impulse buying, but also to look at the consequences of impulse buying has. The participant was a female, 20 year old degree student. The interview was analysed using the grounded theory method. The findings suggest that browsing, peer-pressure and mood are the main factors influencing impulse buying. Also that impulse buying can lead to financial and self-esteem issues, as well as improving mood. Some suggestions are made for further research areas. Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the issues surrounding female clothes shopping behaviour, in particular impulse buying and the factors that influence it. According to Beatty and Ferrell (1998) impulse buying is unplanned and involves the consumer experiencing an urge to buy. They also suggest that, when impulse buying, consumers act spontaneously and do not consider the effects of their behaviour. Beatty and Ferrell also refer to findings which suggest that positive moods (or affect) lead to people rewarding themselves more generously and engaging in behaviour that will maintain the positive affect (Cunningham, 1979; Isen 1984; Isen and Levin, 1972: cited in Beatty and Ferrell, 1998). However, negative affect may lead to an increase or decrease in impulse buying. They believe that impulse buying could be a method for trying to alleviate depression or improve mood, this could explain why negative affect can sometimes lead to impulse buying. Machleit and Eroglu (2000) suggest that the first response level when encountering an environment is affective and this response “guides the subsequent relations within the environment” (Ittleson, 1973; cited in Machleit and Eroglu, 2000). They propose that consumers can experience a large range of emotions, both positive and negative, during a shopping experience and that the impact these emotions will have on future shopping behaviour depends on whether the emotions are internally or externally attributed. Machleit and Mantel (2001) found that emotions would have a higher impact on shopping satisfaction when they are attributed to the store (external attribution) rather than to the individual. Consumers will also be more satisfied if positive feelings are viewed to be under the store’s control. Bellenger and Korgaonkar (1980; cited in Beatty and Ferrell, 1998) defined a subgroup of shoppers, which they referred to as ‘recreational shoppers’. This group of shoppers spend more time shopping and they gain more enjoyment from the process of shopping than from the items that they have purchased. These shoppers may be more likely to engage in impulse buying as part of the process of shopping. If they gain more satisfaction from the experience of shopping rather than the products purchased then they may not give full consideration to the merchandise, as this is not the main factor influencing positive affect. This links to Reynolds et al’s (2002) description of a subgroup of ‘Enthusiasts’, this group enjoys shopping and places a high value on entertainment facilities at shopping venues. This would support the view that this group of shoppers are more interested in the experience of shopping, rather than the actual purchases made. Beatty and Ferrell (1998) also suggest that browsing may be a mediating factor in impulse buying, they propose that browsing leads to an increase in positive affect, which in turn will lead to increased impulse buying. Time available may also play an important role, as well as the amount of money (actual or perceived) that the shopper has to spend. Hausman (2000) proposed a variety of other factors that can influence impulse buying. She suggests that impulse buying is a rational response to the vast range of products on offer, individuals may experience ‘information overload’ due to the range choice available and that this will encourage them to use more simple strategies for product selection. Hausman (2000) also claims that impulse buying provides hedonic rewards and satisfies individuals’ needs for “novelty, social interaction and ‘fun’” (p404), as well as being used to satisfy self-esteem, self-actualisation and social needs. She further adds that individuals do not view their behaviour as wrong and afterwards give positive evaluations of this behaviour. Taylor and Cosenza (2002) focused specifically on later aged female teens; they suggest that clothes shopping is used as a method of instant gratification and that it is used by this age range (16-19 years old) as a means of expressing their identity as well as gaining peer- and male-regard. They highlight fit, style and look as being the most important attributes for clothing and there is also an emphasis on wearing the correct brands. Taylor and Cosenza (2002) identified this age group as undertaking recreational shopping, for them shopping is “exiting, interesting and fun” (p400). Literature on impulse buying suggests a multiplicity of factors that may increase the probability of engaging in impulsive buying behaviour and also the outcomes of this behaviour. Much of the research in this area focuses on the implications of consumer behaviour for retailers and marketing companies, this study focused on the implications that this behaviour has for the individual concerned. The conceptual framework for this study was that impulse buying would be used as a method of product selection; factors influencing impulse buying would be positive affect as well as time and money available. From previous research, expected outcomes of impulse buying are positive affect, and realisation of self-esteem, self-actualisation and social needs. There is also the anticipation that the process of shopping will be more important than the actual purchases made. For a diagrammatic representation of this see figure 1. Research Questions RQ1: What are the most important factors influencing impulse buying behaviour? RQ2: What are the outcomes and effects (real and perceived) of impulse buying? RQ3: How do these outcomes influence subsequent buying behaviour? Method Participant The respondent was a 20 year old, female, year two psychology degree student, from a lower-middle class socio-economic background. Procedure The data collection method was a semi-structured interview; this took place in an informal setting in a quiet area of the university campus, the reason for this was convenience and so that the respondent would feel at ease. Preliminary Interview Schedule: - 1. Do you enjoy clothes shopping? How often do you go? 2. What type of clothes do you usually buy? Formal, casual, designer, etc 3. Do you have favourite brands/stores? Why or why not? 4. Do you usually have a set purpose in mind? If no, what are the reasons you go shopping? 5. Do you like shopping with your friends? How does this compare to shopping alone? 6. Do you prefer having information about the products you want? 7. How does time available affect your enjoyment of shopping? Being able to browse/feeling rushed 8. What are the main factors that influence whether you buy an item? 9. How do you usually pay for your purchases? Do you have money put aside? 10. Do you enjoy shopping because of the purchases you make or the experience of shopping? How do these factors interact? 11. How do you feel after shopping? Does this depend on whether you have bought anything? 12. How does shopping affect the mood you are in? Does this depend on time/money/purpose? 13. What, if anything, do you think your clothes reflect about you? 14. Do you think clothes shopping has an effect on other areas of your life? 15. What makes you more likely to return to a particular store? 16. If you have had a good day shopping are you more likely to go shopping again? What about if you have had a bad day? Questions one to nine were used to make the respondent feel more relaxed and also discern whether the factors mentioned in the literature as influencing impulse buying were salient for this respondent. Questions 10 to 14 were mainly used to gain data for answering the second research question, although they link to the first and third questions as well. The final two questions were aimed at explicitly answering the third research question. The data was subjected to grounded theoretical analysis. Using the grounded theory approach analytic categories are derived directly from the data, rather than being imposed upon it by preconceived concepts or hypotheses (Charmaz; cited in Smith et al, 1995). These categories can then be used to develop theoretical concepts or theories (Maxwell, 1996). The data was firstly coded line-by-line; this allowed the data to be looked at critically and analytically as well as highlighting the processes being discussed in the interview. Common codes were then grouped together using focused coding and further refined to create analytic categories. Analysis For reasons of anonymity the participant will be referred to as ‘the respondent’ or ‘JP’. Shopping Behaviour The first theme that emerged was shopping behaviour; this encompasses the factors that influence impulse buying and whether this respondent fits in with the shopper types discussed earlier. Extract 1: 1. I: Do you generally enjoy shopping? 2. R: Yeah, I like going shopping. 3. I: Roughly how often do you go? 4. R: I usually go a couple of times a week, when I’m in town.. but I don’t always buy anything. 5. I: What sort of clothes do you buy? 6. R: .. erm.. I usually just buy things I can wear to uni ‘cos I don’t go out often, so there’s not much point in buying dressy clothes ‘cos I wouldn’t wear them often. Sometimes I’ll buy smarter clothes if I’m going somewhere special. 7. I: Do you have favourite brands or stores? 8. R: I’m not really a brand person, I’d rather have something that looks nice than has a name written on it. This extract is from the beginning of the interview, it clarifies that JP enjoys shopping, also that she shops regularly, but not always to make purchases. This also outlines the sort of clothes that the respondent purchases, these are practical clothes that can be worn everyday, smarter clothes are only bought when needed for a special occasion. There is an emphasis on look rather than brand. Extract 2: 1. I: What about stores? 2. R: I do usually go in the same on[es.] 3. I: [Why] is that? 4. R: Because I like the sorts of clothes they sell, also if I see something I like I’ll know I might be able to afford it.. but if I go in the more expensive shops I’ll look at the price labels and think oh my god. 5. I: Do you usually have a set purpose [in mind?] 6. R: [No, most] of the time I just go to look around and see if there’s anything new I like. Sometimes I’ll go out for a specific outfit if I’ve got a party or a meal to go to. 7. I: Is shopping a necessity, or are there other reasons you like going? 8. R: I don’t usually go because I need to.. it’s relaxing and it’s something to do if I have to wait around for a while. 9. I: Do you like shopping with friends? 10. R: I like going with friends ‘cos it’s more interesting, you know, you go for lunch and make a day [of it.] 11. I: [ah-huh] 12. R: But I also like shopping on my own because I can go at my own pace and there’s no one pressuring me to buy things. Choice of shop is based on range of clothes available and the price. There is a search for new, or novel, items and perhaps from this, for variety. There are some occasions when JP will look for a particular outfit but mostly shopping consists of browsing, rather than having a set focus. This indicates that shopping is carried out for the process involved, it is viewed as a means of relaxing and passing the time. Shopping is also a social experience, an activity to be performed with friends, this links to Bellenger and Korgaonar’s (1980) concept of a “Recreational shopper” typology. There is also the suggestion that shopping is a segmented experience, there are different types of trips, which involve different factors, such as going with friends or alone. Extract 3: 1. I: [So are] you happier when you’re just browsing? 2. R: I think so ‘cos I’m not looking for a set thing.. but I might see something that I like ... that I haven’t thought about buying before, or something that I have thought about but wasn’t around when I wanted it. 3. I: Do you prefer to have information about the things that you want? 4. R: .. er not really with clothes, 'cos I'm not that worried about being fashionable so I don't really care whether I'm buying the latest trend.. I like having information about big things, like when I had to buy a computer and my new phone.. I looked stuff up about them … but I don't think clothes are like that, what's important is the fit and whether I like it on, and can afford it. 5. I: So are those the main things that influence whether you buy something? 6. R: Yeah I think so, it also depends on whether I need anything and if my friends are there I like to have their opinion on whether I should buy it or not. Again the idea of wanting novelty is expressed, also looking for things that have not been thought about in advance. The view is expressed that clothes shopping differs from other types of shopping and that it subsequently does not require research to be undertaken before purchases are made. The process of browsing could serve as a way of comparing available goods, and as the main reason for purchase is personal preference, impulse buying may be the best method for product selection. Knowing that you want and like a particular item of clothing may be more important than taking time to think about other alternatives and practicalities of the purchase. Clothing choice for a person unconcerned with brand may only need to be based on the simple fact of whether that person likes the item of clothing or not. Again the idea of practicality is revisited, purchases are made when there is a perceived need for the item. Extract 4: 1. I: What things make you more likely to return to a particular store? 2. R: I usually just go to the same stores anyway.. the only reason I’d return to a certain store specially is if they had something I wanted that I didn’t buy last time.. maybe to see if it’s in the sale.. or if I decided I wanted it after all. 3. I: If you’ve had a good day shopping does it make you want to go again? 4. R: um.. maybe.. it depends on how I’m feeling.. also if I’ve got any money left. 5. I: How about if you’ve had a bad day? 6. R: I think if I’ve had a bad day where I didn’t look good then as long as I’m feeling like that I don’t want to go again, but I tend to treat them separately, if I’ve had one bad day it doesn’t mean the next one will be as well. This extract suggests that shopping in a particular store is reliant in the range available rather than any particular loyalty to that store. Positive experiences do not directly impact repeat shopping, but neither do bad experiences, each shopping trip is treated as a separate event. Ambivalence The respondent appeared to have conflicting views about some aspects of shopping. One area where this was experienced was in regards to money; this area will be discussed later under the theme of spending behaviour. The other area was shopping with friends. Extract 5: 1. R: I like going with friends ‘cos it’s more interesting, you know, you go for lunch and make a day [of it.] 2. I: [ah-huh] 3. R: But I also like shopping on my own because I can go at my own pace and there’s no one pressuring me to buy things. 4. I: Do you find you get=pressured by [friends?] 5. R: [It depends,] if it’s something that I’m not quite sure about then if my friend says she likes it I’m more likely to buy it I=think than if I’d been on my own. 6. I: [Yeah?] 7. R: [Sometimes] I’ll buy things when I’m out and I’ll get home and think I never=would've bought that if I’d been on my own. The respondent likes shopping with friends but finds that she can feel pressured by them, an experience that she dislikes. A lot of emphasis is placed on peer approval, which makes purchasing more likely. However, this approval can lead to purchases being made that conflict with the clothes that JP would normally wear. Extract 6: 1. I: So are those the main things that influence whether you buy something? 2. R: Yeah I think so, it also depends on whether I need anything and if my friends are there I like to have their opinion on whether I should buy it or not Despite her dislike of peer pressure, JP still has a need for her choices to be supported by her friends. The respondent may need to balance her want to shop alone with her need for peer approval for her purchases. Spending Behaviour Money available was mentioned in the literature as one factor that had an influence on impulse buying. In the interview this emerged as a major concern for the respondent. Extract 7a: 1. I: [Do] you have money put aside for [clothes?] 2. R: [Only] occasionally.. most of the time=I just see something I like=so I'll get money out of my bank to [get it.] 3. I: [So do] you always know you can afford [it?] 4. R: [I us]ually have the money in the bank just after I've been paid, but I don't always budget for the rest of the month so sometimes I'll be short of cash at the end of the month. 5. I: And what do you do then? 6. R: If I'm really short and I can't afford my bus fare or something I'll take money out of my loan. 7. I: Your student loan? 8. R: Yeah, I'm trying not to spend it. JP often engages in unplanned spending without considering the consequences that this will have on other areas of her life. Her student loan is used as a safety net to protect her from the effects of her impulse buying. Again the theme of ambivalence is apparent, her desire to impulse buy conflicts with that of saving her student loan. Extract 7b: 9. I: Do you find you have to take money out of [it often]? 10. R: [um not] that often an' I usually think.. oh.. that's alright I can pay it back=[later..] 11. I: [hmn]= 12. R: =but I don't think about whether I will have enough money=an' then I end up getting stressed 'cos I'm short of cash. 13. I: Do you find that money is a big problem? 14. R: … um, I don't know.. I mean I've still got enough money to get by= 15. I: =Yeah 16. R: but I sometimes worry about if I needed my loan for something in the future and it's gone. 17. I: Do you think clothes shopping causes your money worries? 18. R: um.. not really. When I'm out shopping I usually don't worry about money, but I think if I didn't spend so much on clothes then I wouldn’t be so short of cash, but there are other things I spend too [much money] on. JP avoids the problem of unplanned purchasing by delaying thinking about the problem. This eventually leads to stress as she has not budgeted enough money to pay for the purchases. JP does not view her spending explicitly as a problem, although her indecision on this matter suggests that she may realise that her behaviour is leading to stress but does not want to attribute this to clothes shopping. JP is also concerned about having enough money for the future. Extract 8: 1. I: So does shopping make you feel better? 2. R: Yes.. and no. It makes me feel better while I'm doing it, but later when I'm thinking about money it makes me more stressed, because I think of all the things I've bought but didn't really need.. so it's like I've wasted my money, but I'll still go out next time and spend too much. 3. I: Do you think your spending's a problem? 4. R: I don't know.. I've still got enough money to live on 'cos I've got my loan, but at the same point I think I'd be happier if I could control my spending a bit more, I'd like to have more money 'cos then I could buy what I want without having to worry about being short of cash. In retrospect JP worries about money and views her impulse buying as wasteful, but still repeats the behaviour next time she goes out shopping. JP uses her loan to prevent her from needing to moderate her spending, there is also evidence of a perceived lack of control over her behaviour. She resorts to fantasy solutions for her problems rather than focusing on proactive behaviour such as decreasing spending or finding a viable way to increase her income. Extract 9: 1. I: Do you think shopping effects other areas of your life? 2. R: No.. it’s just something else I do.. I don’t think it has much of an effect on anything else I do. This comment was made near the end of the interview and reinforces the interpretation that JP is unwilling to attribute her problems to her spending behaviour. Even though earlier she says that spending on clothes shopping causes her to be short of money for other things, such as bus fare, and that money worries cause her stress, she does not accept the impact that her spending has on other areas of her life. Positive and Negative Affect Affect emerged in the literature as an important cause of impulse buying, however impulse buying can also have a modifying influence on affect. Extract 10: 1. R: … but there are other things I spend too [much money] on. 2. I: [What are those?] 3. R: Things like nail varnish and make-up, it gives me a buzz and makes me feel a bit better if I'm feeling down or I'm stressed.. I also buy a lot of food when I'm going through a stressful period. 4. I: So does shopping make you feel better? 5. R: Yes.. and no. It makes me feel better while I'm doing it, but later when I'm thinking about money it makes me more stressed, because I think of all the things I've bought but didn't really need.. so it's like I've wasted my money, but I'll still go out next time and spend too much. Shopping to induce a positive mood state is not confined to clothes alone, other items are also used for this purpose, change in mood can take the form of increasing happiness or relieving stress. There is the suggestion of shopping for instant gratification, buying improves mood whilst it is being carried out although the after effects may be negative and increase stress levels. Extract 11: 1. I: So how do you feel after you've [been shopping?] 2. R: [erm.. I] think it depends=on what sort of a day I've had= 3. I: =[uh-huh] 4. R: [if I've] had a good day then it makes me feel better=and I just feel like I've got more energy.. and I want to go out an' do more [things] 5. I: [So it] makes you feel better if you've had a good day shopping? 6. R: Yeah=I'm livelier an' I just feel like everything's gonna be good. Having a positive shopping experience improves mood, as well as increasing energy levels and making JP want to engage in more activities. It also gives her a more optimistic outlook on future events. Extract 12: 1. I: How does shopping affect your mood? 2. R: If I’m already feeling happy then it doesn’t have much of an effect, unless I have a bad day then it can make me feel worse. In the following part of the interview JP claims that shopping does not have an effect if she is already in a good mood, contrary to her previous answers. It could be that a positive shopping experience enhances the positive mood so the change is less profound than when a negative experience causes a depression in mood. Extract 13: 1. I: Do you think that affects you for the rest of the day? 2. R: Yeah it makes me feel very down and not want to do things ‘cos I’m worried about the way I look. 3. I: Does shopping ever make you feel better if you’ve had a bad day? 4. R: Sometimes if I’ve had a stressful day I’ll go shopping to chill out, but not if I’m upset about the way I look.. I think shopping only cheers me up if I’m having a bad day ‘cos of something else.. not because I’m feeling down in myself. 5. I: So do you think it helps you deal with other things in your life? 6. R: Yeah, I s’pose it does, I’ve never really thought of it like that before, but it does help me feel better if something’s going wrong in another area of my life.. it’s a way of escaping.. it distracts me from problems. 7. I: Do you think that’s a good thing? 8. R: It’s nice to have something I can do to chill out.. so yeah.. I do think it’s a good thing. Having a bad experience shopping can lead to negative emotions and make JP less likely to want to do things. However, she states that shopping can improve a bad mood, if the negative emotions arise from an externally attributed source rather than from internal dissatisfaction. JP also uses shopping as a means of escapism, of distracting herself from problems in another area of her life, this is another coping method that does not require her to deal with the source of the problem, she would rather put it to one side than think of a solution. JP views shopping as relaxing and gives a positive evaluation of her behaviour. Image During the interview self-image surfaced as an important mediating factor in impulse buying. Extract 14: 1. I: What influences whether you have a good day? 2. R: .. um.. I think a lot depends on if I look good when I'm trying things on= 3. I: =mmn= 4. R: =if I think I look nice and thin when I try things on it makes me feel more positive for the day.. even if I don't actually buy anything! Whether JP had a positive experience relied heavily on a positive evaluation of her image, increased self-esteem can also lead to more positive emotions. Extract 15: 1. I: What would you say a bad day is? 2. R: It’s when I’m rushed, so I haven’t got enough time to look at things properly=I worry that the things I’ve bought aren’t the best ones I could have got= 3. I: =Yeah= 4. R: =I also have fat days sometimes when everything I try on looks crap. 5. I: How do you feel then? 6. R: It’s really depressing.. it can be very.. soul-destroying.. it’s not about whether I’ve bought anything, just trying things on and not looking good. 7. I: Do you think that affects you for the rest of the day? 8. R: Yeah it makes me feel very down and not want to do things ‘cos I’m worried about the way I look. She is concerned with buying the best items available, this perhaps being linked to wanting peer approval for purchases. Days when JP has a negative self-image can lead to a pessimistic outlook for the whole experience of shopping on that day. The use of the term ‘soul-destroying’ suggests that a negative experience whilst shopping can have an intense affect on self-image. This can lead to self-consciousness, which can impact on other areas of life, making her less inclined to participate in activities, an opposite reaction to that experienced after a positive shopping experience. Extract 16: 1. I: Do you think your clothes make a statement about who you are? 2. R: Not really.. I mean I like to go out looking nice but I’m not fussed about brand names or anything. 3. I: Do you think your clothes reflect your personality? 4. R: Maybe.. but I’ve got a fairly normal personality so my clothes aren’t weird or anything.. just normal really. I like to know I look okay when I go out but that’s all that matters really.. I don’t wear anything too outrageous. Whilst JP does not use clothes to make a statement about her identity, she does take pride in her appearance and places emphasis on looking nice and having an acceptable appearance. Her comments about ‘weird’ clothes suggest that she dresses in a way that integrates her into her group and conforms to their expectations of dress. She uses clothes as a way of identifying herself with others rather than distinguishing herself. Discussion From this interview the factors that influenced impulse buying were browsing, and having enough time to do this, peer pressure and mood. Money had a limited effect on impulse buying as it was not a factor considered during purchasing. However, as an effect of impulse buying it was an important variable. The respondent in this study was not particularly concerned with brands or fashion, a wider scale study could research whether this is common for women of this age, or whether this respondent was part of a smaller subgroup that is more concerned with fit, style and maintaining a conventional appearance. The main outcomes of impulse buying were changes in mood, which could either be positive or negative and problems with money, which was not acknowledged by the respondent. Mood was generally affected by self-perception, whether this was positive or negative depended on JP’s evaluation of her image whilst shopping. Because purchases were mainly unplanned this lead to cash flow problems, resulting in increased stress levels. Miltenberger et al (2002) studied factors that contributed to compulsive buying, the study suggested that negative emotions were usually one cause of compulsive buying and that engaging in compulsive buying lead to a decrease in these negative emotions. Prior research found that compulsive buying can lead to high levels of debt, as well as stress due to the perceived failure to manage spending (Black, D. W., 1996; cited in Miltenberger et al, 2002). These themes also emerged from this study in conjunction with impulse buying; further research could look at the differences in individuals who shop to relieve depression. In particular why some of these individuals stay within their available resources while others engage in compulsive buying that leads to financial difficulties. Previous research has produced mixed results on the impact of negative affect on impulse buying (Clark and Isen, 1982; cited in Beatty and Ferrell, 1998); this could be mediated by whether the emotions are internally or externally attributed, as well as their importance for shopping. An individual who is worried about money or image is unlikely to engage in impulse buying to improve their mood, as both of these factors could be exacerbated by the experience of shopping. However, if negative affect is caused, for example, by stress at work or a general depression then impulse buying may serve to distract from these problems and thereby improve mood. Research could also be conducted to explore in more detail how negative experiences when shopping affect self-image; the data from this study suggests that it can have a very intense effect on how individuals see themselves. Another area to investigate could be emotions experienced when faced with a product that is wanted, but unobtainable due to its cost (Line 12, Appendix 1), whether this has an impact on perceived self-worth. Research could also look at why impulse buying leads to an increase in positive affect, do individuals use it to compensate for something that is missing in other areas of their life or could it be viewed as a measure of individual success, being able to buy any item that is desired could be seen as a level of achievement in life. The respondent viewed price as an important factor when deciding on which shops to visit and whether to make a purchase, however she also acknowledged that she overspent when clothes shopping. Perhaps less expensive shops give a subconscious impression of being more affordable and so individuals feel they can buy whatever they want because it is ‘cheap’, this may also be experienced in sales. Research could be conducted into whether shops with a lower price range, or sales, encourage shoppers to think less about the amount of money they are spending because they are obtaining ‘bargains’. Although the study looked at impulse buying there was no explicit reference to this during the interview. However, the respondent mentioned unplanned purchases (Lines 38 and 40, Appendix 1), shopping without a purpose (Line 16, Appendix 1) and not considering the consequences of her spending (Lines 40, 46 and 48, Appendix 1). These suggest that the respondent does engage in impulse buying and therefore that the findings of this study are valid to a discussion of impulse buying. The interview was successful in that the respondent was relaxed enough to talk freely about the subject and did not appear overly distressed at any point, however some answers could have been followed up (Lines 12, 18, 24, 78 and 96, Appendix 1) and this would have lead to a greater understanding of the subject area as well as the meanings that the respondent ascribed to the experience. References Beatty, S. and Ferrell, M. E. (1998) ‘Impulse Buying: Modelling Its Precursors’ Journal of Retailing, 74(2), 169-189 Hausman, A. (2000) ‘A Multi-method Investigation of Consumer Motivations in Impulse Buying Behaviour’ Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(5), 403-419 Machleit, K. and Eroglu, S. (2000) ‘Describing and Measuring Emotional Response to Shopping Experience’ Journal of Business Research, 49(2), 101-111 Machleit, K. and Mantel, S. (2001) ‘Emotional Response and Shopping Satisfaction: Moderating Effects of Shopper Attributions’ Journal of Business Research, 54(2), 97-106 Maxwell, J. A. (1996) Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach London; Sage Miltenberger, R. G., Redlin, J., Crosby, R., Stickney, M., Mitchell, J., Wonderlich, S., Faber, R. and Smyth, J. (2002) ‘Direct and Retrospective Assessment of Factors Contributing to Compulsive Buying’ Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, (2003) 34, 1-9 Reynolds, K. Ganesh, J. and Luckett, M. (2002) ‘Traditional Mall vs. Factory Outlets: Comparing Shopper Typologies and Implications for Retail Strategy’ Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 687-696 Smith, J. A., Harré, R. and Van Langenhove, L. (1995) Rethinking Methods in Psychology London; Sage Taylor, S. and Cosenza, R. (2002) ‘Profiling Later Female Aged Teens: Mall Shopping Behaviour and Clothing Choice’ Journal of Consumer Marketing 19(5), 393-408



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The Impact of Mother’s Employment
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Research paper The Impact of Mother’s Employment Introduction: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of who contributes to the quality of the relationships. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952,Pg.158) The attachment theory appears so obviously true that it is a wonder why it is necessary. Initially formalized by psychiatrist John Bowlby in the 1950s, it was a response to then dishevelment of thousands of youth displaced from their homes in the Western world by the ravages of war and social policy. In analyzing the causes of natural home breakup for these youth, Bowlby listed such causes as illegitimacy, economic conditions, illness, psychopath of the parent (Bowlby, 73). Those causes resulting in the non-functioning of the natural home were such as war, famine, and death of parent, divorce, full-time employment of the mother. Children deprived of a natural home life were also deprived of maternal love resulting in children who became isolated and withdrawn, unable to ‘develop libidinal ties with other children or with adults and consequently have no friendships worth the name.’ (Bowlby, 32). This is basis of Bowlby's theory, as provided in the opening quote: ‘Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ (Bowlby, 158). Commissioned by the World Health Organization, after World War II, to write a report on childcare and the mental health of homeless youth, Bowlby's influential report was published (first in 1951, then again) in1952 as Maternal Care and Mental Health. Establishing the seeds of the attachment theory, the important conclusion of Bowlby's work was the observation that ‘the prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so on the whole of his future life’ (Bowlby, 46). Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Children: In this 1952 classical study, Bowlby draws upon studies from four different countries. These studies all show deviant development and retardation effects upon children who had been placed in institutions at early ages. These effects were a laundry list of pathological depression schema. They included withdrawal, sadness, insomnia, and lack of appetite, listlessness, agitated despair, excessive demanding, intense possessiveness, acute jealousy, bed-wetting, and violent temper tantrums. But these outward expressions of wants and needs, Bowlby explains, may be less ‘sinister than the case of the child who responds either by withdrawal or by an undiscriminating and shallow friendliness.’ (Bowlby, 26). Behavior differences of institutionalized youth would appear usually after a few weeks or a month. Bowlby reports on a study by Spitz and Wolf found a development quotient of grave retardation placed on a group of babies who were kept in an institutional environment for a year. (Spitz, 1945). Spitz had divided the babies into four groups, distinguished by social class. The 'unselected urban class' representing the babies who were institutionalized went down 52 points, from 124 to 72 points. Of the three groups with mothers, the one that did not show a rise in development quotient, but was yet at the highest level, was the social class of professional mothers, dropping two points (133 to 131). The peasant and delinquent mother classes went up one (107 to 108) and three points (101.5 to 105) respectively. (Bowlby, 18) Maternal deprivation affects the child under two and a half years of age. At this age the child is still living in the present. After five, the child can begin to conceptualize and record the differences from a mother returning and may become less manipulative to thoughts of absence. But repercussions begin to occur on the behavior of youth five to eight who had already experienced maternal deprivation. Even for the child returning to the care of mother after separation and experience with the effects of retardation in a mental institution, Bowlby underlines the change in the child's physical and mental being. His observations yield the piercing statement: ‘So painful, indeed are the agonies which these children suffer on separation that it may well be that those who have their care shut their eyes in self-protection.’(Bowlby, 22). These effects, which Bowlby also draws out in a (personal) narrative, may later effect one's relationships with other people resulting in aggressive, extremely moody dealings which may effect, he explains, parenthood in later life. Studies which support Bowlby’s Theory: Substitute maternal care in the infant's second and third years does not occur without its psychological adjustment problems, some severe. Spitz & Wolf outlined a state 'agitated despair' which the infant may suffer. Showing signs of 'pathological development', a regression in behavior may result. Bowlby summarizes an unpublished observation: ‘[the child] wets his bed, masturbates, gives up talking, and insists on being carried, so that the less experienced nurse may suppose him to be defective. (Bowlby, 23). This behavior is especially illustrative of children who have had maternal care. For less abrupt separations, Bowlby points out the study of Burling ham & Freud where infants aged one and a half to two and a half experienced regressive behavior patterns in slow staged, 'managed', separation (from parents). (Bowlby, 24). Bowlby began to formulate this thesis as early as 1944 when he produced an examination of 44 cases of child thieves. (Bowlby, 1944). The negative symptoms of these youth he concluded were due to histories of maternal separation and deprivation (Bretherton, 4). These ideals would formulate into one of the major theses underlying his studies, that early maternal deprivation may affect future psychological character. He adduces: "There is a specific connection between prolonged deprivation in the early years and the development of an affectionless psychopathic character given to persistent delinquent conduct and extremely difficult to treat." (Bowlby, 35). In Western society, Bowlby noted, ‘...it is emotional instability and the inability of parents to make effective family relationships, which are the outstanding cause of children becoming deprived of a normal home life.’ (Bowlby, 82). Bowlby emphasized the mother as the main provide of this maternal love relationship. But he also promoted the thought of the mother substitute with the idea being that this initial love requirement is continuous and no disruptive. He worked to produce empirical evidence that children required a continuous close and loving relationship from their mothers, or mother substitutes, as infants to prosper with good mental health. Without such continuous care, his warning was the child's personality would develop as affectionless and psychopathic. In the seminal 1951 study he structured his finding and reviewed the work of other researchers to demonstrate that healthy emotional development of the child was largely based on the child's early years experience in the family. Becoming head of the Children's Department at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II, Bowlby concentrated his studies on mother-child separation. Other researchers who played important parts in the development of the attachment theory soon joined him. Most important of these was perhaps Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian. With expert parent-child investigations in Uganda and in Baltimore, Ainsworth would later work with Bowlby's to help development attachment theory and later add to it her important finding of the Strange Situation classification. The Strange Situation, formulated by Ainsworth involved a 20-minute play period with mother and infant that was invaded by a stranger and followed with the mother disappearing for a 3-minute period and then returning. Infant response revealed three patterns of behavior that later became codified into the Adult Attachment Interview (Steele, 2). Still widely used today the classifications, now expanded into four, are insecure-avoidant, secure, insecure-ambivalent, or insecure-disorganized (Washington, 1). At what age would maternal deprivation occur that would negatively affect the child? Bowlby writes: For the present, therefore, it may be record that deprivation occurring in the second half of the first year of life is agreed by all students of the subject to be of great significance and that many believe this to be true also of deprivation occurring in the first half, especially from three to six months. (Bowlby, 48-49). At what age can the provision of mothering be (re-) introduced to offset some of the damages of deprivation? For one researcher, Bowlby points, it is two and a half years. But for him the upper age limit is 12 months. Babies must be adopted between six and nine months to defeat the provisions of maternal deprivation. (Bowlby, 49). As far as group foster homes, Bowlby concludes, ‘... group residential care is always to be avoided for those under about 6 years ... it is suitable for short-stay children between 6 and 12, and for both short-stay and some long-stay adolescents.’ (Bowlby, 137). Researcher Bretherton identifies a trilogy three of important works Bowlby wrote that led to consolidation of the attachment theory. (Bretherton, 18). In Attachment (1969), Bowlby developed a theory of motivation and behavior for his theory and distinguished it from Freud's work. His effort was to make his theory stand on its own. He defines attachment behavior as behavior that has proximity to an attachment figure as a predictable outcome and whose evolutionary function is protection of the infant from danger, insisting that attachment has its own motivation and is in no way derived from systems sub serving mating and feed. (Bretherton, 20). Bowlby notes the fulfilling exchange between the mother and infant: When interaction between a couple runs smoothly, each party manifests intense pleasure in the other’s company and especially in the other’s expression of affection... when interaction between a couple runs smoothly, each party manifests intense pleasure in the other’s company and especially in the other’s expression of affection. (Bowlby, Attachment, p. 242) Bowlby's second and third volumes were Separation (Bowlby, 1973) and Loss (Bowlby, 1980). These volumes chiefly dealt with reworking Freud's fear and motivation theories, establishing and refining Bowlby's concepts of internal working models of self and attachment figures, and explaining his concepts of defensive, repressive, and dissociative phenomenon (Bretherton, 24-26). In Loss, Bowlby would also work out his overall models of the behavior system. The last years of his life, Bowlby worked on developing and reconciling psychotherapy into methods of the attachment theory. This project reestablished his interest in 'the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns' and importantly helped to distinguished attachment theory from hereditary and behavior models of psychology. Present Mother Child Attachment : Researchers today have worked to provide more empirical evidence to Bowlby's attachment theories. They have also sought to extend the identity of the attachment provider to other adult figures, the father, and the childcare network. But it is exactly the 'institution', boarding house, or foster-care provider whom Bowlby initially built his criticisms upon. Important questions are how would the attachment theory engage the issue of increasing divorce rates in many Western countries resulting in redefining of the nuclear family? How would they deal with the challenges of the teenage mother? Bowlby does deal with teenage pregnancy, but in the negative light of the 1950s moral quotient. Essential to his thought is: ‘... deprived and unhappy children grow up to make bad parents.’ (Bowlby, 82). He writes of a study in America where the girl wichmentth the illegitimate baby, ‘...often comes from an unsatisfactory family background and has developed a neurotic character, the illegitimate baby being in the nature of a symptom of her neurosis.’ (Bowlby, 93). Of course, one would have to look at the youth, the children of these units. In many Western cities, the question is answered by the violence among such youth. These children of teenage parents whom in city after city are given new meaning to violence and death. Are these youth missing the quotient of early maternal love that Bowlby has defined as necessary for positive mental health? In this aspect it is worthwhile to look at Bowlby's summarization of a study of unmarried young mothers. In all of them there appeared a strong unconscious desire to become pregnant, motivated sometimes by the need for a love-object which they had never had and sometimes by the desire to use the shame of an illegitimate baby as a weapon against their dominating parents... Running side by side with the need to use the baby, as a weapon against the parents was the need to use it as a weapon against them. (Bowlby. 94). Conclusion: Today attachment theory continues to affect social welfare policy and to provide an ongoing field of study for research. Encumbering the mother figure as it does, it encounters both debate and expanded supportive thought in feminist literature. (Washington, Franzblau). Yet its application today may be met by challenges from newly established life patterns and rhythms now accepted in today's world. These patterns define the working ma, the working single ma. They define homosexual couples trying to get into the adoption world. There is today a new positioning of the father figure and of the nuclear family. Just as there is a shaking up of forces in the current world economic malaise, it follows; perhaps, there will also be a shaking up of forces in the concept of family and childrearing. But this unfortunate thought could never reach truth. The nuclear family will always sustain itself as the working model. And Bowlby's conclusive thought will always ring true: The proper care of children deprived of a normal home life ... is essential for the mental and social welfare of a community. (Bowlby, 157) References 1. Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. 2. Bowlby, J. (1944) Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25, 107-128 3. Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal Care and Mental Health. New York: World Health Organization 4. Bretherton, Inge. (1992) The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Accessed March, 2009 at http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4294320/attachment-theory 5. Burling ham, D. & Freud, A. (1944) Monthly report of Hampstead nurseries, May (unpublished) 6. Franz Lau, S. (1999) Attachment Theory. Feminism & Psychology, 9(1): 5-9. 7. Spitz, R.A. & Wolf, K. (1945) Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early children. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74 8. Washington, Karla. MSW. (2008) Attachment and Alternatives: Theory in Child Welfare Research. Advances in Social Work, 1(9), 8-16. Accessed March, 2009 at http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/viewFile/174/167



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Tips for Writing Research Paper CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic
Posted On: Nov. 11, 2017
Author: Shipra


Tips for Writing Research Paper CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. You should however focus on a limited aspect. For example, narrow it down to “ Religion : from “ World Religion “ to “ Buddhism “ Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. FIND INFORMATION This can be easily done by surfing the net. Pay special attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable ,but then you should avoid political bias Check out Books and other print materials available in the Library: • Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries • Government Publications, Guides, Reports • Magazines, Newspapers • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. STATE YOUR THESIS Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY - This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION - Restate or reword your ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Plagiarism is out of question. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. CHECKLIST ONE: 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?



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Why student need homework help in research papers in marketing assignment
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


Why student need homework help in research papers in marketing assignment The research papers in marketing assignments need a lot of leg work. All marketing work need to be supported by data and to collect data , one has to prepare questionnaire, or take interviews etc . Only on the basis of such interviews or questionnaire, the relevant data can be collected. Once the data is collected , the real work starts. The data for marketing assignment is collected and analyzed and their results are presented in a tabular or presentable form to the person who has to take a decision . the marketing manager needs relevant data and its findings have to be concurrent with the present day situation and relevant to the environment conditions. The research papers serve a useful purpose to the marketers. The homework help is needed by students as they do not get sufficient time to do research on their own. So they need to consult experts for this work. The expert would do the leg work and collect relevant information and help the students in his area of work. The homework is done on behalf of the people for whom the information is being collected. Marketers can make use of these research papers in several ways in different kinds of fields such as sales promotion , sales restructuring , fixing compensation for the sales person, deciding on the type of training required etc. it can also be used to find out about the competitors and their moves .



Why student need homework help in research papers in marketing assignment The research papers in marketing assignments need a lot of leg work. All
Posted On: Nov. 5, 2017
Author: Shipra


Why student need homework help in research papers in marketing assignment The research papers in marketing assignments need a lot of leg work. All marketing work need to be supported by data and to collect data , one has to prepare questionnaire, or take interviews etc . Only on the basis of such interviews or questionnaire, the relevant data can be collected. Once the data is collected , the real work starts. The data for marketing assignment is collected and analyzed and their results are presented in a tabular or presentable form to the person who has to take a decision . the marketing manager needs relevant data and its findings have to be concurrent with the present day situation and relevant to the environment conditions. The research papers serve a useful purpose to the marketers. The homework help is needed by students as they do not get sufficient time to do research on their own. So they need to consult experts for this work. The expert would do the leg work and collect relevant information and help the students in his area of work. The homework is done on behalf of the people for whom the information is being collected. Marketers can make use of these research papers in several ways in different kinds of fields such as sales promotion , sales restructuring , fixing compensation for the sales person, deciding on the type of training required etc. it can also be used to find out about the competitors and their moves .



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Title of paper CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted
Posted On: Nov. 4, 2017
Author: Shipra


Introduction Modern authors of history are of the view that the present conflict between the West and Islamic nations is that of distinctive difference between the two civilizations. Gelvin (2011) quotes Samuels P. Huntington that these differences are irreconcilable. Their approach to worship, society, and norms are clashing and conflicting. Previously, the reason cited for conflicts between the Western developed countries and the developing countries was economic disparity. It was believed to be a clash between the haves and the have-nots. However, this does not appear to be so. The clash is due to the cultural difference between the two societies that are totally in disagreement with one another. This incongruity is clear but is beyond correction of reconciliation. It is for this specific reason that the conflicts are taking place even today and will continue to do so in future also. The politics of the world has entered into a new stage, where academicians and thinkers have openly shared their vision of what will be the state of affairs in future, with stress on rivalries between nation states and fall out of pulls of tribalism and globalism. These visions are likely to become real in the near future(Huntington 2011). However, in all of these predictions, what is missed out is the central pull of global politics. I support the argument of Samuels P. Huntington that “the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic.” There is going to be a big difference among people on the basis of cultural conflicts. While importance of nation states will not be diminished, as far as world affairs are concerned, but the major conflicts are likely to arise between nations and groups of varying civilizations. This spar of civilization will dictate global politics. For almost two centuries, the conflicts of Western nations were confined to princes, monarchs. These monarchs were making attempts to expand their empires by expanding armies, bureaucracies, and economic strength by expanding their territories. This gave rise to nation states where the boundary lines of conflict were restricted to between nations. Later on, the war of kings got over and the war of people began, that lasted till the end of World War I. Subsequently, Russian Revolution and the response against it gave rise to the conflict of ideologies. These were initially confined among communism, fascism and liberal democracy. Later on, it got restricted to between communism and liberal democracy only. The Cold War is an example of the same, when struggle between two super powers was witnessed and manifested in proxy warfare in different areas spread across the globe. These conflicts were restricted to Western civilization. The same was true of the Cold War as well as the World Wars and other wars of the previous centuries(Hunter 1998). Once the Cold War ended, the focus of international politics moved to a different arena, from its Western influence to interaction between Western and Eastern civilizations. The people of non- Western civilizations were not mere spectators of the history or targets of the colonization strategy of the Western countries. They considered themselves as equal partners in shaping their own future and of the country they belonged to. The clash of civilizations The Cold War saw division of the world politics into distinct segments. These so called divisions are no longer relevant in the present scenario. It is much more common to group’s countries in terms of their culture, civilization and norms instead of their level of economic progress(Davidson 2013). It is important to understand the meaning of civilization. It is a cultural unit that exists at different levels such as villages, regions, ethnic groups, religious groups and moving to nationalities as well. They all have a distinctive culture of their own which is heterogeneous in nature. The culture of a village in southern France may not be the same as that of a village in the northern part of France, but both are likely to have the same culture that is can be differentiated from that of a village in Italy. By extending the logic, the people in European nations will share some common cultural characteristics that make them stand apart from the Arab or Chinese communities. None of them are part of any common cultural unit. However, they all are part of civilizations that are distinctive. Thus, civilization can be understood as a grouping of persons that have common identity in terms of language, history, religion, customs and norms. People identify themselves with these traits and characteristics. Residents of a particular country would identify themselves as Roman, Italian, Catholic or a Christian. They also introduce themselves in a broader context as European or a Westerner. This is the broadest level of distinction by which an individual identifies himself. It is possible to redefine one’s identity as a sequel to the change in boundaries of civilizations or its composition. Civilization is not restricted to the number of people, for example China has a large population and has its own cultural identity. On the other hand, Anglophone Caribbean is very small number of people but belong to a distinct civilization. A particular civilization may include several number of nation states such as Western, Latin American or Arab civilizations. It could also be one as in the case of Indian or Japanese civilization. A special feature of civilization is that they are dynamic in nature and blend or overlap. Islam has Arab, Turkic and Malay subdivisions. Same is the case with Western civilization where one can find two variations viz. European and North American. At times the differences among civilization is not so sharp but they are real and do exist. Civilizations also die during the course of time, as is evident in the case of Harappa or Indus Valley Civilization. Westerners tend to consider nations states as one that play important role in global affairs and politics of the world. Their thinking is confined to their knowledge of civilization for only a couple of centuries. However, civilizations have been in existence for as long as human mind can decipher or historians have recently realized. According to Toynbee (1987), out of 21 major civilizations, only six of them exist in the modern world. Identification with a particular civilization is on the rise and it is predicted that the world politics will be influenced by intermingling of these major civilizations. The most important amongst the same are Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and to some extent, African civilization. Most of the clashes of the future will be restricted along the cultural lines that separate these civilizations from one another. The reason for the same is obvious. The differences among the civilizations are fundamental and not imaginary. As explained earlier, civilizations are differentiated on the basis of their history, language, culture, tradition and religion as well. The last one is the most important factor that binds the civilization together. Even though God almighty is one, the ways to approach Him are different. This is where the different views on the relations between God and man come into play. People perceive religion from different aspects in terms of rights and responsibilities of the members of its society, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences have not arisen overnight but are on the contrary, developed over centuries. It is for this reason, historians believe, that they will not vanish so soon. Since the differences are based on religious beliefs, they are fundamental and basic unlike political ideologies that are open to debate and reasoning. It is important to understand that these differences do not essentially mean that they lead to conflict. Similarly, conflicts do not necessarily lead to violence. However, it has been observed over the centuries, that differences among civilizations have by and large resulted violent and long-drawn-out conflicts. Furthermore, with the advent and spread of technology, the world is becoming a smaller place and therefore, interactions between the people of different civilizations are on the rise and have become simpler. The interaction among people of different civilizations has created awareness about the common features and differences among the same. For example investments by Japanese companies in the United States are disapproved by Americans but the same is not the case with large investments by Canadian or European countries. These interactions among people of different civilizations have given rise to consciousness among them and thus stimulate further differences and animosities among the same. There has been tremendous change in the way people live due to economic modernization and social change(Hinchcliffe et al 2003). This has resulted in removal of local identities and act as a weakening agent to the concept of nation state as a source of individual identity. Religion has moved in to fill this void, which has taken the form of fundamentalist. These movements are prevalent in all cultures such as in Western Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as in Islam. By and large people engaged in fundamentalist movements are educated and young and mostly belong to the middle-class. It is the revival of religion that provides a basis for identity and obligation to people across national boundaries and thus unites civilizations. In the past, West has always dominated due to its power in terms of economic and technological advancement. However the consciousness towards owning up and claiming of belongingness to one’s own civilization has made people return to their roots among non-Western civilizations. This can be seen by a trend to turn inward and giving importance to own culture by Asian and non- Western countries. Western countries are in confrontation with the non-Westerns who are equally enthusiastic to have their own way, and desire to shape their destinies and future in non- Western ways. Previously elite staying in non- Western countries were influenced by the type of education they obtained while studying in reputed institutions such as Oxford, Cambridge etc. The time spent in these institutions helped them in imbibing the values and beliefs of the Westerns. However, the majority of population of non- Western countries was still instilled with indigenous culture. Now a reversal of the relationship is taking place whereby elites are realizing the importance of indigenization and becoming familiar with local customs and followings of religious leaders. It is easier to compromise and resolve political and economic difference. However, the same cannot be said about cultural differences. In any conflict arising due to difference in class of ideology, the moot point is which side is one supporting or in favor of ? It is possible to change opinions and thus change sides However, when conflicts arise between civilizations, the moot point is that one belongs to a particular civilization and cannot change that. Religion is known to bring about sharp discrimination among people. There is also a rise in economic regionalism. These regional economic blocs are expected to increase in future. The formation of European Common market is a result of shared foundation of a common culture and Christianity. The same cannot be said about Japan as its civilization is distinctive. Even if Japan is able to develop strong trading partners and investment associations with countries in the same region, its cultural differences with countries of these region restrain it from promoting regional economic integration like those of the North American Free Trade Area ( NAFTA) where a union of Mexican , Canadian and American cultures is taking place. On the other hand, it is the common culture of China and Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore that is making it possible for these countries to develop amicable relations among themselves. It is quite evident that Chinese- based economy is taking the lead for industry, finance and commerce. It is due to a combination of large pool of financial capital, excellent communication network and entrepreneurial marketing and servicing expertise. Large endowments of land, resources and labor are acting as a catalyst for growth in this region. As more and more people start identifying themselves in terms of ethnic and religion, they are likely to start comparing the relations as “we” and “them”. Quite often, difference in policies being followed by countries is based on differences in culture and religion. The issues have a wide range right such as human rights, commerce, environmental conditions, trade blocks, immigration , to name a few. Territorial claims give rise to conflicts amongst nations. At the same time, Western countries are trying to promote the superiority of democracy and broadmindedness as common universal values. These efforts are basically to gain military predominance and also promote their economic interests in other countries. However, this has caused counter response from other civilizations who have strongly resented this act of the West. Since governments and groups with vested interests find it difficult to form coalition on the basis of ideology alone, they will attempt to mobilize support by appealing to the commonality of religion and maintaining identity of civilization. The clash of civilization takes place at micro and macro level. In the former, the struggle is for the control of territory of adjoining nations. In the latter, the struggle is for gaining military and economic power and promote own ideology and religious values(Freedman 2010). Earlier the conflict was on the basis of political and ideological differences, as is evident during the Cold War. However, the end of Cold War saw disappearance of ideological and cultural division among the Christianity in Europe. However, the difference between Christian ideology and Islam became more prominent. The people being governed by Ottoman Empire were untouched by the events of the Europe and were also not advanced economically. They also could not develop a stable democratic political system. The conflict among Western and Islamic civilizations is going on for more than 1300 years. It was only in the 19th and early 20th century, when Ottoman power declined, that Western countries started gaining control over the Middle East. It was only at the end of World War II that the colonial empire started losing their influence and Arab nationalism and later on Islamic fundamentalism raised its head. Since West was heavily dependent on the Gulf countries for its energy requirement, the oil rich Muslim nations gained money power, which subsequently led to buying sophisticated weapons. These were used by Muslim nations to settle score among themselves and also against the Western nations. The interaction between Islam and the West is a clear case of clash of civilizations. The conflict of civilization is not confined between the Christians and Muslims. Elsewhere in Asia, India to be more specific, the historic clash between Muslim and Hindu is manifested frequently leading to war between Pakistan and India and frequent skirmishes between the two communities in the country. Militant groups of both communities are raising their heads, thereby leading to increase in tension in that region. The difference between China and the United States is witnessed in the areas of human rights, trade and weapons acquisition. The cultural differences are manifested between Japan and the United States leading to economic conflict. There are allegations on each side that have racial and cultural flavor. The difference is basically in terms of values, attitudes and behavioral patterns of the two societies. While economic issues between the United States and Europe have gained prominence recently, the do not have the same political intensity or emotional passion because the difference between the two civilizations is not so much prominent as in the case of Japanese and American culture. It is but natural for ethnic groups belonging to one civilization to get involved in war with people belonging to a different civilization as they try to gather support from other members of their own civilization (Wa Baile2011). Post Cold War, it is the shared ethics and civilization camaraderie, which is replacing the political ideology. It is becoming the principal factor for cooperation and coalitions among the nations. The argument presented in this thesis do not subscribe to the view that nation states will cease to exist and their identities will be manifested on the basis of civilizations. However the evidence supports the fact that differences between civilizations exist and need to be taken into consideration while examining the state of current affairs in the world. There is an increased realization of differences in civilization and the fact that the conflict between civilizations will displace other forms of conflict, such as ideological and economic conflicts. Non- Western nations will play an increasingly important role in the international relations. There is a likelihood of developing within the civilization, political, security and economic institutions. This would give rise to conflicts between groups in different civilization. It does not mean that the conflicts between is desirable. It only sets forth the hypothesis as to what the future state of affairs is most likely to be. This is a very reasonable hypothesis and has a far reaching implication on the Western policy. It is in the interest of Western nations to promote more cooperation and unity within its own civilization. Western civilization is clearly more modern and non- western civilizations have always attempted to become more modern, without the drawbacks of becoming Western. The race to acquire wealth, gain technology competence, skills among non- Western civilizations will continue, as these are part of what is considered being a modern civilization. The problem will be attempting to reconcile with this modernity with their traditional values and cultural practices. Economic and military strength will continue to increase, and may also surpass Western nations. It is therefore, in the interest of Western nations to accommodate these non- Western modern civilizations into their own fold, even if their values and interests differ considerably with those of the West. The task is not so simple and it will require the West to develop a more thoughtful and deeper understanding of the basic religious and philosophical supposition of these civilizations. They have to look at these civilizations by their parameters and those of Western parameters. An effort will have to be made to find harmony and common points between the Western and other civilizations. In times to come, there will be no universal civilization, but a world of different civilizations, which have to find out how to coexist with others and become tolerant. References http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48950/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations accessed on July 4, 2014 Huntington S.P.(2011) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order Simon & Schuster, Hunter S.(1998) The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations Or Peaceful Coexistence? Greenwood Publishing Group Davidson L.(2013) Islamic Fundamentalism: An Introduction ABC-CLIO, Edwards B.M.(2013) Islamic Fundamentalism Routledge Hinchcliffe P., Beverley Milton-Edwards(2003) Conflicts in the Middle East since 1945 Taylor & Francis Freedman L.(2010) A Choice of Enemies: America Confronts the Middle East CreateSpace Wa Baile M.(2011) Beyond the Clash of Civilizations: A New Cultural Synthesis for Muslims in the West iUniverse



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Date of submission There Is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Research paper Your Name Instructor’s Name Class Information Date of submission There Is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research There are two words in this topic which are necessary to be understood by our readers. One is the word “Perfect” which means something with no faults or flaws, but in reality there is no such thing. And other word is the “Research” which refers to the study of collecting information from books, journals, magazines, people, etc. Research is conducted to gain new insights of the topic. Research includes gathering of data, facts and information for increasing one’s knowledge. It is the systematic investigation done in order to gain knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles. Research is the methodical investigation of a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory or to develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered. (Research, Microsoft Encarta Dictionary, 2009). Research “is any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to increase knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles”. (Research Council of Nispissing University, 2008) There is no such thing as perfect research because results can vary depending upon the data collected at the time of conducting the research. Two researchers can claim different results on the same topic due to the differences in their environment. No research can be called perfect because of the following reasons: • Chances of errors • Assumptions may be wrong • Misunderstandings • Impact of surroundings • Changes in personnel’s views Research always has some imperfections because it is done by human beings and it is said that to err is human, so no research can be perfect. Research is generally of two types: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research is also known as the descriptive research where the perceptions and behavior of the target audience is studied on the specific issue. On the other hand quantitative research, as the name indicates deals with quantity or numbers. It is used to measure the number of people who think or act in different way for the same event. Let us take an example: J.J.Thomson laid down his atomic model resembling like the watermelon and he compared the seeds of the watermelon with the electrons. But later on Bohr proved that electrons are always in motion. He concluded that the Thomson model is inappropriate. (Particle physics; Ezhela, 1996) Take another example of research in motivational field: Two theories are proposed by Mc Gregor. One is Theory X which emphasizes that human beings work only for money and security and other Theory Y lays emphasis on higher level needs for one’s satisfaction. (Later on Abraham Maslow developed the theory of motivation on the basis of hierarchy of needs. (R.K.Singhla, 2011). All the above discussions prove that there is no hope of doing perfect research as humans can never be perfect. Works cited Research Microsoft Encarta. Dictionaries. Microsoft Encarta 2009 (DVD). Redmond, W.A: Microsoft Corporation, 2008 Nispissing University (2008, Jan) Definition of Research used by the University Research Council. Retrieved 30 Mar 2010) Particle Physics: One hundred years of discoveries: an annotated – page34 by V.V.Ezhela, 1996 The Human Side of Enterprise; Douglas McGregor, 1960



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Article Analysis Student’s Name University Affiliation Article Analysis The article by Rexing et al provides an intricate analysis of the issues surrounding the airline schedule pl...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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GLOBALIZATION AND DIVERSITY Abstract In today’s competitive environment global businesses are experiencing tremendous challenges. It has now become necessary for the listed companies (i.e. ...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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Title of the paper Analysis of a sports motion picture RAGING BULL Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Introduction Raging bull is an American classis biog...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
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Hi Ravs, Things the tutor needs to keep in mind: I. Can u tell her to pls read in detail word by word what the requirement for the assignment is as he is very particular about his requirement. ...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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The sociological Framework Name Instructor Course Institution Anthropology Anthropology is a scientific discipline which entails the study of human beings holistically, across space a...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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CHILDREN ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR LOOKING AFTER THEIR PARENTS There is an ongoing debate on a controversial topic, whether “children should be asked to look after their parents, especially when t...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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Title of Paper Your Name Course/Number Date Instructor Name (Doctoral students must include the following on the title page instead: title, author’s name, and institution name) Title of Pa...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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PGBM30 APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS ASSIGNMENT WORD LIMIT: 3000 words Issue Date: Friday 15th July 2011 Hand in date: Tuesday 13th September 2011 Suppose you were asked to investigate how well the...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
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ARTICLE CRITIQUE: TALKING STYLES The article “Shared Talking Styles Herald New and Lasting Romance “is quite interesting and Thought provoking. Bruce Bower, of Science News presents v...
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
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