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Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952:158)
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Healthcare Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952:158) The attachment theory appears so obviously true that it is a wonder why it is necessary. Initially formalized by psychiatrist John Bowlby in the 1950s, it was a response to then dishevelment of thousands of youth displaced from their homes in the Western world by the ravages of war and social policy. In analyzing the causes of natural home breakup for these youth, Bowlby listed such causes as illegitimacy, economic conditions, illness, psychopathy of the parent (Bowlby, 73). Those causes resulting in the non-functioning of the natural home were such as war, famine, death of parent, divorce, full-time employment of the mother. Children deprived of a natural home life were also deprived of maternal love resulting in children who became isolated and withdrawn, unable to ‘develop libidinal ties with other children or with adults and consequently have no friendships worth the name.’ (Bowlby, 32). This is basis of Bowlby's theory, as provided in the opening quote: ‘[M]other-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ (Bowlby, 158). Commissioned by the World Health Organization, after World War II, to write a report on childcare and the mental health of homeless youth, Bowlby's influential report was published (first in 1951, then again ) in1952 as Maternal Care and Mental Health. Establishing the seeds of the attachment theory, the important conclusion of Bowlby's work was the observation that ‘the prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so on the whole of his future life’ (Bowlby, 46). In this 1952 classical study, Bowlby draws upon studies from four different countries. These studies all show deviant development and retardation effects upon children who had been placed in institutions at early ages. These effects were a laundry list of pathological depression schema. They included withdrawal, sadness, insomnia, lack of appetite, listlessness, agitated despair, excessive demanding, intense possessiveness, acute jealousy, bed-wetting, and violent temper tantrums. But these outward expressions of wants and needs, Bowlby explains, may be less ‘sinister than the case of the child who responds either by withdrawal or by an undiscriminating and shallow friendliness.’ (Bowlby, 26). Behavior differences of institutionalized youth would appear usually after a few weeks or a month. Bowlby reports on a study by Spitz and Wolf found a development quotient of grave retardation placed on a group of babies who were kept in an institutional environment for a year. (Spitz, 1945). Spitz had divided the babies into four groups, distinguished by social class. The 'unselected urban class' representing the babies who were institutionalized went down 52 points, from 124 to 72 points. Of the three groups with mothers, the one that did not show a rise in development quotient, but was yet at the highest level, was the social class of professional mothers, dropping two points (133 to 131). The peasant and delinquent mother classes went up one (107 to 108) and three points (101.5 to 105) respectively. (Bowlby, 18) Maternal deprivation affects the child under two and a half years of age. At this age the child is still living in the present. After five, the child can begin to conceptualize and record the differences from a mother returning and may become less manipulative to thoughts of absence. But repercussions begin to occur on the behavior of youth five to eight who had already experienced maternal deprivation. Even for the child returning to the care of mother after separation and experience with the effects of retardation in a mental institution, Bowlby underlines the change in the child's physical and mental being. His observations yield the piercing statement: ‘So painful, indeed are the agonies which these children suffer on separation that it may well be that those who have their care shut their eyes in self-protection.’ (Bowlby, 22). These effects, which Bowlby also draws out in a (personal) narrative, may later effect one's relationships with other people resulting in aggressive, extremely moody dealings which may effect, he explains, parenthood in later life. Substitute maternal care in the infant's second and third years does not occur without its psychological adjustment problems, some severe. Spitz & Wolf outlined a state 'agitated despair' which the infant may suffer. Showing signs of 'pathological development', a regression in behavior may result. Bowlby summarises an unpublished observation: ‘[the child] wets his bed, masturbates, gives up talking, and insists on being carried, so that the less experienced nurse may suppose him to be defective. (Bowlby, 23). This behavior is especially illustrative of children who have had maternal care. For less abrupt separations, Bowlby points out the study of Burlingham & Freud where infants aged one and a half to two and a half experienced regressive behavior patterns in slow staged, 'managed', separation (from parents). (Bowlby, 24). Bowlby began to formulate this thesis as early as 1944 when he produced an examination of 44 cases of child thieves. (Bowlby, 1944). The negative symptoms of these youth he concluded were due to histories of maternal separation and deprivation (Bretherton, 4). These ideals would formulate into one of the major theses underlying his studies, that early maternal deprivation may effect future psychological character. He adduces: "[T]here is a specific connexion between prolonged deprivation in the early years and the development of an affectionless psychopathic character given to persistent delinquent conduct and extremely difficult to treat." (Bowlby, 35). In Western society, Bowlby noted, ‘...it is emotional instability and the inability of parents to make effective family relationships which are the outstanding cause of children becoming deprived of a normal home life.’ (Bowlby, 82). Bowlby emphasized the mother as the main provide of this maternal love relationship. But he also promoted the thought of the mother substitute with the idea being that this initial love requirement be continuous and nondisruptive. He worked to produce empirical evidence that children required a continuous close and loving relationship from their mothers, or mother substitutes, as infants to prosper with good mental health. Without such continuous care, his warning was the child's personality would develop as affectionless and psychopathic. In the seminal 1951 study he structured his finding and reviewed the work of other researchers to demonstrate that healthy emotional development of the child was largely based on the child's early years experience in the family. Becoming head of the Children's Department at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II, Bowlby concentrated his studies on mother-child separation. Other researchers who played important parts in the development of the attachment theory soon joined him. Most important of these was perhaps Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian. With expert parent-child investigations in Uganda and in Baltimore, Ainsworth would later work with Bowlby's to help development attachment theory and later add to it her important finding of the Strange Situation classification. The Strange Situation, formulated by Ainsworth involved a 20-minute play period with mother and infant that was invaded by a stranger and followed with the mother disappearing for a 3-minute period and then returning. Infant response revealed three patterns of behavior that later became codified into the Adult Attachment Interview (Steele, 2). Still widely used today the classifications, now expanded into four, are insecure-avoidant, secure, insecure-ambivalent, or insecure-disorganized (Washington, 1). At what age would maternal deprivation occur that would negatively affect the child? Bowlby writes: For the present, therefore, it may be record that deprivation occurring in the second half of the first year of life is agreed by all students of the subject to be of great significance and that many believe this to be true also of deprivation occurring in the first half, especially from three to six months. (Bowlby, 48-49). At what age canthe provision of mothering be (re-)introduced to offset some of the damages of deprivation. For one researcher, Bowlby points, it is two and a half years. But for him the upper age limit is 12 months. Babies must be adopted between six and nine months to defeat the provisions of maternal deprivation. (Bowlby, 49). As far as group foster homes, Bowlby concludes, ‘... group residential care is always to be avoided for those under about 6 years ... it is suitable for short-stay children between 6 and 12, and for both short-stay and some long-stay adolescents.’ (Bowlby, 137). Researcher Bretherton identifies a trilogy three of important works Bowlby wrote that led to consolidation of the attachment theory. (Bretherton, 18). In Attachment (1969), Bowlby developed a theory of motivation and behavior for his theory and distinguished it from Freud's work. His effort was to make his theory stand on its own. He defines attachment behavior as behavior that has proximity to an attachment figure as a predictable outcome and whose evolutionary function is protection of the infant from danger, insisting that attachment has its own motivation and is in no way derived from systems subserving mating and feed. (Bretherton, 20). Bowlby notes the fulfilling exchange between the mother and infant: When interaction between a couple runs smoothly, each party manifests intense pleasure in the other’s company and especially in the other’s expression of affection... when interaction between a couple runs smoothly, each party manifests intense pleasure in the other’s company and especially in the other’s expression of affection. (Bowlby, Attachment, p. 242) Bowlby's second and third volumes were Separation (Bowlby, 1973) and Loss (Bowlby, 1980). These volumes chiefly dealt with reworking Freud's fear and motivation theories, establishing and refining Bowlby's concepts of internal working models of self and attachment figures, and explaining his concepts of defensive, repressive, and dissociative phenomenon (Bretherton, 24-26). In Loss, Bowlby would also work out his overall models of the behavior system. The last years of his life, Bowlby worked on developing and reconciling psychotherapy into methods of the attachment theory. This project reestablished his interest in 'the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns' and importantly helped to distinguished attachment theory from hereditary and behavior models of psychology. Rsearchers today have worked to provide more empirical evidence to Bowlby's attachment theories. They have also sought to extend the identity of the attachment provider to other adult figures, the father, and the childcare network. But it is exactly the 'institution', boarding house, or foster-care provider whom Bowlby initially built his criticisms upon. Important questions are how would the attachment theory engage the issue of increasing divorce rates in many Western countries resulting in redefining of the nuclear family? How would they deal with the challenges of the teenage mother? Bowlby does deal with teenage pregnancy, but in the negative light of the 1950s moral quotient. Essential to his thought is: ‘... deprived and unhappy children grow up to make bad parents.’ (Bowlby, 82). He writes of a study in America where the girl with the illegitimate baby, ‘...often comes from an unsatisfactory family background and has developed a neurotic character, the illegitimate baby being in the nature of a symptom of her neurosis.’ (Bowlby, 93). How would such observations with the more and more acceptable single parent family unit of today? Of course, one would have to look at the youth, the children of these units. In many Western cities, the question is answered by the violence among such youth. These children of teenage parents who in city after city are given new meaning to violence and death. Are these youth missing the quotient of early maternal love that Bowlby has defined as necessary for positive mental health? In this aspect it is worthwhile to look at Bowlby's summarization of a study of unmarried young mothers. In all of them there appeared a strong unconscious desire to become pregnant, motivated sometimes by the need for a love-object which they had never had and sometimes by the desire to use the shame of an illegitimate baby as a weapon against their dominating parents... Running side by side with the need to use the baby as a weapon against the parents was the need to use it as a weapon against themselves. (Bowlby. 94). ************ Today attachment theory continues to affect social welfare policy and to provide an ongoing field of study for research. Encumbering the mother figure as it does, it encounters both debate and expanded supportive thought in feminist literature. (Washington, Franzblau). Yet its application today may be met by challenges from newly established life patterns and rhythms now accepted in today's world. These patterns define the working ma, the working single ma. They define homosexual couples trying to get into the adoption world. There is today a new positioning of the father figure and of the nuclear family. Just as there is a shaking up of forces in the current world economic malaise, it follows, perhaps, there will also be a shaking up of forces in the concept of family and childrearing. But this unfortunate thought could never reach truth. The nuclear family will always sustain itself as the working model. And Bowlby's conclusive thought will always ring true: The proper care of children deprived of a normal home life ... is essential for the mental and social welfare of a community. (Bowlby, 157) References Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1944) Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 25, 107-128 Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal Care and Mental Health. New York: World Health Organization Bretherton, Inge. (1992) The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Accessed March, 2009 at http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4294320/attachment-theory Burlingham, D. & Freud, A. (1944) Monthly report of Hampstead nurseries, May (unpublished) Franzblau, S. (1999) Attachment Theory. Feminism & Psychology, 9(1): 5-9. Spitz, R.A. & Wolf, K. (1945) Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early children. The Psycholanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74 Washington, Karla. MSW. (2008) Attachment and Alternatives: Theory in Child Welfare Research. Advances in Social Work, 1(9), 8-16. Accessed March, 2009 at http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/viewFile/174/167



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2. Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Was he right to imply that mothers of young children should not work because this would damage mother-child attachment?
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Healthcare 2. Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Was he right to imply that mothers of young children should not work because this would damage mother-child attachment? Explanation for change: In his writings, Bowlby himself did not directly state that mothers of young children should not work. Rather, he published a report for the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1952 which stated ‘what is believed to be essential for mental health is that the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother-substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment’ (p.11). Bowlby described cases in which a child is looked after by someone other than the mother as ‘maternal deprivation’ and claimed that this had negative consequences for the child (p.12), including problems with attachment (p.13). His work was taken by governments to imply that mothers of young children should not work, and was used as support for decreased funding of child care after the second world war (Franzblau, 1999). It is therefore more accurate to say that Bowlby implied rather than asserted that mothers of young children should not work. My apologies for providing you with an essay question which was slightly misleading. Additional References (cited above) Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal Care and Mental Health. WHO Report, Geneva. Retrieved on 25th February 2009 from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241400021_part1.pdf and http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241400021_part2.pdf Franzblau, S.H. (1999). Historicizing attachment theory: Binding the ties that bind. Feminism & Psychology, 9, 22-31. Some suggested reading Background: Module textbook, chapter 4; other books in library Barglow, P., Vaughn, B.E. & Moliter, N. (1987). Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample. Child Development, vol. 58, no. 4, pp.945-954. Belsky, J. (1988). Infant day care and socioemotional development: The United States. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 4, pp.397-406. Belsky, J. & Rovine, M.J. (1988). Nonmaternal care in the first year of life and the security of infant-parent attachment. Child Development, vol. 59, no.1, pp.157-167. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp.759-775. Clarke-Stewart, K.A. (1989). Infant day care: Maligned or malignant? American Psychologist, vol. 44, no. 2, pp.266-273. NICHD (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, vol. 68, no. 5, pp.860-879. Sagi, A., van IJzendoorn, M.H., Aviezer, A., Donnell, F. & Mayseless, O. (1994). Sleeping out of home in a kibbutz communal arrangement: It makes a difference for infant-mother attachment. Child Development, vol. 65, no. 4, pp.992-1004. Steele, H. (2002). State of the art: Attachment. The Psychologist, vol. 15, no. 10, pp.518-523. [NB not available from e-library; available here—search the archive on this webpage for ‘attachment’: http://www.thepsychologist.org.uk/archive/archive_home.cfm ]



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opening remarks one europe many tribes
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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Interactive Session: Technology: Can Airlines Solve Their Baggage Handling? Case Study Questions 1. What types of transactions are handled by baggage handling systems
Posted On: Oct. 28, 2017
Author: Shipra


Interactive Session: Technology: Can Airlines Solve Their Baggage Handling? Case Study Questions 1. What types of transactions are handled by baggage handling systems? Baggage handling system carry out certain primary types of transactions that include moving bags from check-in areas to departure gates and from one gate to another gate and then finally, moving them from arrival gates to baggage claim areas. This involves feeding a lot of input data, processing and then delivering the output data in a presentable format. Computers are used to scan the bar code stuck on a piece of baggage. This helps in quick processing of the data. The output of the data from the computer determines where the bags are to be sent. Once the scanning is completed, the system recognizes the location of the bags at any point of time. 2. What are the people, organization, and technology components of baggage handling systems? People: The data must be entered correctly by those who tag the luggage at the check-in counters. The tags contain information of flight details on a bar code which the computer in the system can read. Once the bags arrive at the gate, they enter a sorting station where airline employees use information available on the computer terminals to send bags to the correct plane. Delta Airlines recently added a service that allows passengers to track their checked bags right from scanning at check-in, to the flight they’re loaded on, and then arrival at baggage claim. Organization: One of the biggest sources of customer dissatisfaction throughout the industry was when people were quite often made to pay for spotty and unreliable baggage handling service. Baggage handling systems can be extremely expensive. However, the cost can be recovered easily if the system is implemented successfully. Lost and mishandled baggage contributes to a major expense for airlines, and therefore, reducing the incidence of lost and mishandled baggage would help in contributing to significant yearly savings. Technology: Baggage handling systems are among the most complex systems because they involve a wide variety of sensors, actuators, mechanical devices, and computers. The systems use over 3 million lines of software program code. Advanced technology used in these systems include destination-coded vehicles (DCV), automatic bar code scanners, use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and high-tech conveyors equipped with sorting machines. Because DCVs move at high speed and do not come to a full stop to receive baggage, the conveyors must be extremely precise, depositing bags where they are needed at just the right time for maximum efficiency. 3. What is the problem these baggage handling systems are trying to solve? Discuss the business impact of this problem. Are today’s baggage handling systems a solution to this problem? Explain. The problem baggage handling systems are trying to solve is customer dissatisfaction and to promote customer goodwill as well as reduce costs. Business impact: Overall the airline industry rate for lost luggage has improved by 38 percent over similar figures from two years ago when nearly 2.5 million bags were lost or delayed. Lost and mishandled baggage is a major expense for airlines. Reducing the problem would lead to significant yearly savings. The global airline industry price tag for mishandled baggage is $2.5 billion per year. Present baggage handling systems seem to be an ideal solution to the problem. US Airways lost nine bags for every 1,000 travelers in 2007. After implementing a new system, that number dropped to three bags for every 1,000 travelers. Even though the company spent $16 million on the system, the airline saved $25 million a year that gave a boost to customer satisfaction. Between 2008 and 2010, Delta Airlines installed optical scanners to read baggage tag bar codes, widened and extended its system of baggage conveyor belts, and installed a central control room to monitor conveyor belts and baggage carousels in Atlanta and most of its other airport terminals. The airline recorded a top-notch baggage handling record of just 2.93 mishandled bags per 1,000 passengers. Bags now take less than 10 minutes to travel from terminal to terminal. The process used to take as long as 30 minutes with the older system. 4. What kinds of management reports can be generated from the data from these systems? All data input into the baggage handling systems are recorded in transaction processing systems. From there, a variety of Management Information Systems (MIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS), and Executive Support Systems (ESS) reports can be generated. MIS reports may include information about the number of bags at any given point of time in any given place; how long it takes to move a bag from point A to any other point in the system; the number of bags processed through the baggage handling system that are outside the norms. Equipment management reports can be generated that provide information about the maintenance status of the various system components. DSS reports can be generated that advise managers when to carry out maintenance of equipment or whether equipment should be moved to alternate locations based on baggage loads. These kinds of reports can also provide information to managers about whether the system is meeting its goals and how it can be improved. ESS reports can advise executives about cost factors and if the system is providing the targeted return on investment. Information about the efficiency of the system is also available to executives based on data generated by the baggage handling systems.



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Brand extension and flanker branding are common strategies for large corporations. Access the following websites; identify the various brand extension strategies and flanker brands used by each co...
Posted On: Oct. 28, 2017
Author: Shipra


1. Brand extension and flanker branding are common strategies for large corporations. Access the following websites; identify the various brand extension strategies and flanker brands used by each company. Brand extension and flanker branding are two most common strategies adopted by large and established organizations to take advantage of the established brand name. In brand extension, the company uses the brand name of the established product and launches a new but a bit different product in the same product category. In flanker branding, the company launches a new brand in the market in the same product category where an established brand already exists. It competes with the existing brand but aims to achieve a larger total market share for its products. a. Marriott Hotels (www.marriott.com) Residence Inn Miami Aventura Mall and Residence Inn Orlando Altamonte Springs/Maitland are examples of brand extension where the amenities are the same but there is a price difference between the two. Residence Inn St. Petersburg Clearwater and the Ritz-Carlton, Amelia Island are the examples of brand extension strategy. b. Proctor & Gamble (www.pg.com) Tide is a very successful brand in the product category of laundry detergent. To appeal to people who desire a low- cost detergent , P & G introduced Cheer which is a slightly a product of slightly lower quality at a value price. Sale of Tide dropped slightly with the launch of this new brand but combined sales of Tide and Cheer went up. (Example of flanker branding). Crest is a trusted brand of tooth paste. Under this brand name P & G has tooth pastes by the names Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste and Crest Cavity Protection Gel Toothpaste, which is an example of Brand extension. The product category is the same but by bringing change in composition of the ingredient; the company has been able to introduce a new variety of the same brand. c. Sara Lee Corporation (www.saralee.com) Sara Lee Delightful and Sara Lee Smooth are examples of flanker branding. Sara Lee Hill Shire Farm Beef Hot Links and Sara Lee Hill Shire Farm Baked Honey Cured Ham are the examples of brand extension. d. VF Corporation (www.vfc.com) Lee and Rustler are examples of flanker branding strategy. While Lee is expensive and caters to high end customers, Rustler is for price conscious customer. Wrangler Hero and Wrangler are examples of brand extension. 2. How can a label support an IMC program or advertising campaign? A label is defined as an item used to identify something or someone. It could be a small piece of paper or cloth attached to an article to designate its origin, owner, contents, use, or destination The purpose of label is to indicate several things such as brand name, price, and size of the packing. It also helps as a protective device and is used for protecting the contents of the item being sold. It creates awareness and communicates brand identity. It also communicates each brand uniquely to distinguish it from the rest and create a niche target segment. It helps in creating a brand recall value. At every stage label is a part of communication design. Use of a label goes a long way in helping the advertising a product and increasing its appeal to the target customers. 3. For each of the following goods or services, identify the various benefits that consumers may derive from the good or service. Can you think of an advertisement or other marketing communication that has used the benefit as the central part of its appeal? a. Seafood restaurant— Customers can get a relaxed feeling by visiting seafood restaurant and enjoying the food in a cozy atmosphere. (seafood - fresh fish/catch) b. Auto insurance---- in case of accident or damage, consumers can lodge a claim and minimize their losses to a large extent. (Your safety and well being is our concern.) c. Optometrist or eye care clinic-----A good optometrist would help you in providing a suitable pair of spectacles for protection of your eyes which is not only useful for eyes but fashionable to wear (eye care at your door step.) d. Soft Drink===A drink which quenches your thirst. It also helps in digestion (soft drink - feel good factor) e. Aspirin or other pain reliever------ looks for a pain reliever which gives you quick relief from all types of pains and also does not have any side effects. (Just one is enough to down your worries.) 4. What is GIMC? Why is it important for multinational firms? The world is converging and becoming a global village. The demands for standardized products and services are increasing. Due to travel/exposure people are aware of what is happening in the rest of the world. All this makes people aware of what they want. This also gives a boost to the knowledge to a global consumer. It puts the MNC on their toes to design a suitable communication programs to convey the correct message to their target customers. So, GIMC helps retain the same brand personality and identity to communicate to similar consumer segments world wise. It is also more cost effective as the same method of communication can be used for different market segments. A small amount of change may be necessary to suit the local market conditions. 5. What generational cohorts have marketing experts identified? A generational cohort is defined as "the group of individuals (within some population definition) who experience the same event within the same time interval". The concept of a group of people bound together by the sharing of the experience of common historical events developed in the early 1920s. The chosen target segments are grouped together and identified for marketing activities. For example for the baby boomers, the commonality is the desire to try newer things. With this common aspiration, marketers make an all out effort to seek the best for their business. This is done with the objective of taking care of target customer’s needs The generation X and the generation Y have different need. They are more inspirational. They are not satisfied with older models or styles. They need newer things to try out. Marketers identify this need and have become more innovative in their approach. But now of late - new segment that is identified and very crucial is gen D, which is digital generation. This generation was born and brought up in the digital era. They have experienced new technology which fast, and user friendly. Marketers are coming up with latest gadgets with newer features such as i-pods or i- phones and digital cameras to satisfy the need of such people. References http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/index_en.htm accessed on July 14th 2011 http://www.multimediamarketing.com/mkc/marketingcommunications/ accessed on July 14th 2011 http://www.ehow.com/facts_7304408_global-integrated-marketing-communication.html accessed on July 14th 2011 http://www.uiowa.edu/~nrcfcp/training/documents/Participant%20Packet%20Intergen%20Dynamics.pdf accessed on July 14th 2011 Meredith G.E. Charles D. Schewe, Janice Karlovich 2002. Defining markets, defining moments: America's 7 generational cohorts, their shared experiences, and why businesses should care USA. 1st Ed. John Wiley & Sons Schultz D.E. Stanley I. Tannenbaum, Robert F. Lauterborn 1993. 1st Ed. USA. Integrated marketing communications McGraw-Hill Professional Baker M.J. Susan Hart. 2007. The Marketing Book 6th Ed. UK. Butterworth-Heinemann



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