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Unit VI Case Study (1) Read the case study on page 456 of the textbook entitled “Southwestern University Traffic Problems.” As you read the case study, take notes on how the
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Unit VI Case Study (1) Read the case study on page 456 of the textbook entitled “Southwestern University Traffic Problems.” As you read the case study, take notes on how the concepts with Network Modeling can lead you to develop effective solutions to the two associated Discussion Questions. (2) Read the case study on page 494 of the textbook entitled “Southwestern University Stadium Construction.” As you read the Case Study, take notes on how the concepts of Project Management can lead you to develop effective solutions to the three associated Discussion Questions. (3) Read the case study on page 494 of the textbook entitled “Family Planning Research Center of Nigeria.” As you read the Case Study, take notes on how the concepts of Project Management can lead you to develop effective solutions to the three Associated Discussion questions located on page 496. You are to answer TWO of the three case studies in a minimum three- to four-page paper. Use any tables, graphs, or charts that you deem necessary to support your response. Use appropriate APA style to cite any outside sources. Unit VIII Scholarly Activity For this assignment you are to write a culminating quantitative research report on the concepts and topics that you learned in this course. For this paper, you need to critique two or more research papers/journals that use quantitative research methods for business. Your paper needs to include the following items: 1. Abstract 2. Scale of Data Measurement Was it quantitative or qualitative? How did the researcher go about collecting the data? 3. Variations within the data Include the implications this may have for business methods. 4. Concluding results Critique the findings. What type of errors occurred in the research that may affect the outcome of the data? Is there any missing information that should be included? Discuss how you would approach the research and what type of questions you may ask. 5. Your research report should be a minimum of eight pages with appropriate APA style and citation.



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Case #2 -- Due December 9 Prepare a memorandum that fulfills the following two requirements. Support for all calculations should be included at the end of the memorandum.
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Case #2 -- Due December 9 Prepare a memorandum that fulfills the following two requirements. Support for all calculations should be included at the end of the memorandum. Luca Pacioli Institute Alan Flesher has just been appointed director of accounting programs at LucaPacioliInstitute. The Institute annually gives a variety of accounting programs to a select group of certified public accountants. The programs are heavily subsidized by the national accounting firms. In addition, the Institute supports research, public service, scholarships, and other institutions. Below are the operating results and enrollment for 2009 to 2012: 2009 2010 2011 2012 Student enrollment 462 770 843 931 Tuition and fees 198,923 211,676 237,650 250,442 Other income 9,274 8,222 13,075 15,006 Auxiliary activities income 19,418 22,417 22,622 23,142 Total 227,615 242,315 273,347 288,590 Instruction 84,164 90,244 101,655 107,549 Research 2,752 3,206 5,189 5,253 Public service 1,663 1,820 2,232 1,656 Academic support 24,594 26,039 26,601 33,473 Student services 29,743 32,366 33,546 34,070 Institutional support 42,412 44,620 44,138 48,701 Scholarship and fellowship 1,144 1,411 2,188 1,700 Auxiliary activities 16,243 17,450 18,386 19,648 Total 202,715 217,156 233,935 252,050 Net Income 24,900 25,159 39,412 36,540 Requirement 1 -- 2013 Budget The national accounting firms want Alan to prepare a 2013 budget. The national accounting firms want Alan to plan for 900 students. Required: Using the least-square method, estimate the variable revenue (cost) per student and the total fixed revenue (cost) for 2013 for the Institute. Using Excel, compute the intercept, slope, and R squared for each revenue and expense items. Based on the computations, prepare a 2013 budget. Requirement 2 -- 2013 Actual Results Below are the actual results for 2013 for the Institute. The national accounting firms want Alan to evaluate the actual performance. Actual 2013 Actual student enrollment 916 Tuition and fees 263,685 Other income 9,824 Auxiliary activities income 24,403 Total 297,912 Instruction 106,142 Research 5,205 Public service 1,550 Academic support 32,417 Student services 35,619 Institutional support 50,485 Scholarship and fellowship 1,763 Auxiliary activities 20,520 Total 253,701 Net Income 44,211 Required: Prepare a performance report computing the activity variances, revenue and spending variances for each line of the budget.



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Production and Operations Management Exam I Open book-open notes Please show all your work. Otherwise, I cannot give partial credit. If your answer to a question is incorrect and you do no...
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Production and Operations Management Exam I Open book-open notes Please show all your work. Otherwise, I cannot give partial credit. If your answer to a question is incorrect and you do not show your work, your score on that question will be zero. GOOD LUCK 1. Gator Depot Company (GDC) is a large chain of home improvement stores which owns several hundred retail stores in the Eastern United States. Hot&Cold Company (H&C) is the sole HVAC equipment supplier for GDC. The most popular HVAC unit that GDC sells is H&CPXX, where XX indicates the model year of the unit. For example H&CP08 would be the 2008 model of H&CP. H&C Company always introduces its new model in the December of each year and these models are available for sale in the GDC stores on January 1 of the following year. To be able to plan its production and place the necessary parts and components orders with its suppliers, H&C requires GDC to place its order for the entire year in the first week of December of the previous year. Although GDC places its order for the entire year, for inventory and working capital planning purposes, they need quarterly forecasts. GDC’s sales and marketing department provided the following quarterly sales data for H&CP, expressed in thousands of units. Year Quarter Sales( in 1000 units) 2009 1 50 2 28 3 82 4 70 2010 1 54 2 26 3 88 4 72 2011 1 58 2 30 3 91 4 71 2012 1 60 2 31 3 94 4 74 2013 1 61 2 33 3 95 4 76 a. Do the data exhibit any patterns? Please explain. b. Use an appropriate LINEAR REGRESSION method to forecast the H&CP sales for the first, second, third and fourth quarter of 2014. c. GDC buys each unit of H&CP for $4,500 and pays another $100/unit for transportation. Each unit is sold for $6,200. GDC uses the sum of the four quarterly forecasts for 2014 as the estimate of the mean of the normal distribution describing the annual demand for H&CP. Standard deviation of the distribution is estimated as 15% of the mean. Any H&CP not sold during the year is sold to a contractors’ discount store for $3,900. How many units should GDC order in order to maximize its expected profits? d. GDC’s VP for procurement suggested that the company should adopt a service level of 0.90 because the Company takes pride in high level of customer service and the long term cost of losing a customer is much more than the profit they would make on a single unit. i. What is the optimal order size associated with 0.90 service level? ii. What is the goodwill cost implied by the 0.90 service level? 2. Consider a retailer selling designer bags. Based on past experience, management estimates the relationship between demand, D, and price, P, by the linear function D = 2,400 – 0.6P. a. At what price is revenue maximized and what is this maximum revenue ? b. If the retailer charges the price you computed in part (a) above, how much money does the retailer leave on the table? c. What would be the total revenue if the retailer can introduce three pricing classes: 2,000, 2,400 and 2,700? d. Briefly describe a situation in which a retailer can charge three different prices for the same product. 3. The following process flow chart describes a process for making electrical panel boxes. The details of each operation are given below. Setup time Per batch processing time Operation Description (minutes) per unit(minutes) A Blanking I: cut cover to shape 30 2 B Blanking II: cut box to shape 20 7 C Cold Forming I: form the cover 40 3 D Cold Forming II: form the box 40 2 E Paint the boxes and covers 30 1 F Assemble covers to boxes 5 5 R/M: raw material (sheet metal) inventory WIP: work in process inventory F/G: finished goods inventory Assume that the batch size is 20 boxes and the indicated setups are needed before running each batch. Please note that Setup times are per batch and processing times are per unit. a. What is the (minimum) cycle time per batch? b. Assume that lots are released to the shop floor at time intervals of X minutes (where X is the cycle time you computed in [a] above), and the process is operating three 8-hour shifts per day. What is the daily capacity? c. If the company needs to increase capacity, to what stage of the process should capacity be added first? In parts d, e and f below assume that at each manufacturing stage the setup operations start when a lot arrives to that stage. d. What is the throughput time? e. What is the average Work in Process Inventory? f. What will be the impact of doubling the batch size on cycle time, capacity, throughput time and average Work in Process Inventory? Please be specific. g. Now assume that the idle time at the non-bottleneck stages are used for setup operations. That is, when the work for one batch is completed, the time until the next batch arrives is used for setup operations. Please answer parts (d) and (e) under this mode of operation. Is there any advantage to operating in this manner? Please explain. 4. Gator Car Wash (GCW) specializes in car cleaning services. The services offered by the company, the exact service time, and the resources needed for each of them are described in the table below. Service Description Time Resource Used A. Wash Exterior car washing and drying 10 minutes 1 automated washing machine B. Wax Exterior car waxing 10 minutes 1 automated waxing machine C. Wheel Cleaning Detailed cleaning of all wheels 7 minutes 1 employee D. Interior Cleaning Detailed cleaning inside the car 20 minutes 1 employee The company offers the following packages to their customers: Package 1: Includes only service A Package 2: Includes services A and B Package 3: Includes services A, B and C Package 4: All four services, A, B, C and D Customers of GCW visit the station at a constant rate of 40 customers per day (please ignore any effects of variability). Of these customers 40% buy package 1, 15% buy package 2, 15% buy package 3 and 30% buy package 4. The store operates 12 hours a day. a. What are the utilizations of the four resources? Are any of the resources a bottleneck? b. For the next summer, GCW anticipates an increase in demand to 80 customers per day. Together with this demand increase, there is expected to be a change in the mix of packages demanded: 30% of the customers are expected to ask for package 1, 10% for package 2, 10% for package 3 and 50 percent for package 4. The Company will install an additional washing machine to do service A. i. What are the expected utilizations of the four resources? Are any of the resources a bottleneck? ii. How many customers a day will not be served? 5. Dream Palace is a Las Vegas hotel with 400 rooms. For the day of a popular Rodeo event, they decided to sell a portion of their rooms on an advance reservation basis and keep a portion of the rooms for last minute travelers. For this particular day all reservations must be paid for at the time reservation is made. If a customer reserves at least a week prior to the event, the room rate is $250. Those customers who wait until the last week are usually less price sensitive, and they are charged $400. The hotel can sell as many rooms as they have at the $250 price prior to the last week. During the last week any customer who requests a room must pay $400. Demand for last week reservations is random and approximated by the following probability distribution. Rooms demanded during the last week Probability 0 0.05 4 0.10 8 0.15 12 0.20 16 0.20 20 0.15 24 0.10 28 0.05 How many rooms should be sold on advance reservation, and how many rooms should be kept for last minute travelers? Please provide computational support for your answer. 6. Back Country Ski Outfits (BCSO) is a retailer of high-end ski outfits. BCSO is in the process of ordering ski boots from their supplier for the upcoming ski season. BCSO buys its boots directly from the manufacturer, Great Boots Manufacturing Company (GBMC). BCSO pays $250 for each pair of boots and sells them for $430 during the ski season. In order to motivate BCSO to buy more boots, GBMC agrees to buy back the boots that are not sold during the season for $100 a pair and subsequently sells them to a discount retailer for $60 per pair. GBMC must incur a fixed cost of $12,000 before it can manufacture the ordered boots and GBMC’s variable costs are $180 per pair. BCSO estimates the following demand distribution for their ski boots during the ski season. Pairs of boots demanded Probability 400 0.15 500 0.15 600 0.20 700 0.25 800 0.10 900 0.10 1000 0.05 a. How many pairs should BCSO order to maximize its expected profits? At this order level what are the expected profits for BCSO and GBMC? b. GBMC offers to buy back each pair of unsold boot for $170, if BCSO agrees to give 10 percent of its revenues from the sale of boots to GBMC. What will be BCSO’s optimal order size, and BCSO and GBMC’s expected profits under this scenario? Should BCSO accept this offer? Please note that GBMC can still sell the returned boots to the discount retailer for $60. c. Now ignore the scenario given in (b) above and compare the following scenario to your answers in part (a) above. GBMC knows that if BCSO places an order for more than 700 pairs, due to economies of scale their variable cost per pair will drop to $150. Considering this, GBMC offers to increase its buy-back price to $210. What will be BCSO’s optimal order size, and BCSO’s and GBMC’s expected profits under this scenario? Who will benefit from this deal? Please again note that GBMC can still sell the returned boots to the discount retailer for $60. 7. A local grocery store chain is considering starting home deliveries. The company estimates that they will reach and stay at an operating level of 3,600 deliveries per day within a month of starting their delivery operations. They are considering two alternative distribution network designs. The first alternative involves opening one distribution center and making all the deliveries out of this distribution center. If they go with the one distribution center alternative, due to the longer distance that their delivery trucks will have to travel, each truck can make only 4 deliveries per hour. The daily cost of operating the distribution center is estimated at $28,000. The second alternative is to operate two smaller distribution centers, each with a daily operating cost of $20,000. Under this scenario, each truck can make 6 deliveries per hour. The grocery store can rent as many trucks with drivers as they wish from a local logistics company at a cost of $40/hour. Each truck will operate ( and therefore be paid for) 8 hours per day with only 6 of the 8 hours being available for delivery, and the remaining two hours being used for stocking the truck before leaving the distribution center and closing out when it returns. Also note that each truck can carry up to 40 orders. Assuming that the company will make 3,600 deliveries/day, please answer the following questions. a. How many trucks will be needed under each scenario? b. Which of the two options will you recommend? Why? 8. Power Toys Inc. produces a small remote-controlled toy truck on a conveyor belt with nine stations. Each station has, under the current process layout, one worker assigned to it. Stations and processing times are given in the following table. Station Task Processing time (seconds) 1 Mount battery units 75 2 Insert remote control receiver 85 3 Insert chip 90 4 Mount front axle 65 5 Mount rear axle 70 6 Install electric motor 55 7 Connect motor to battery unit 80 8 Connect motor to rear axle 65 9 Mount plastic body 80 a. What is the bottleneck in this process? b. What is the cycle time? c. What is the throughput time? d. What is the average work-in-process inventory? e. What is the capacity, in toy trucks per hour, of the assembly line? f. What is the direct labor cost for the toy truck if each worker receives $15/hour, expressed in dollars per toy truck? g. Now assume that work is organized in work cells and there are nine work cells, one for each worker. In each work cell the worker assigned to the work cell performs all of the nine tasks. Assume that the activity times would remain unchanged. What is the capacity, in toy trucks per hour under this scenario? h. What is the direct labor cost for the toy truck, expressed in dollars per toy truck? Now go back to the assembly line scenario. Because of a drastically reduced forecast, the plant management has decided to cut staffing from nine to six workers per shift. Assume that (i) the nine tasks in the above table cannot be divided; (ii) the nine tasks are assigned to the six workers in the most efficient way possible; and (iii) if one worker is in charge of two tasks, the tasks have to be adjacent ( i.e., one worker cannot work on tasks 1 and 3) i. How would you assign the nine tasks to six workers? j. What is the new capacity of the line (in toy trucks per hour)?



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BPG105 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SKILLS PORTFOLIO Submission Date: 7 September 2015
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


BPG105 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SKILLS PORTFOLIO Submission Date: 7 September 2015 Candidate Number Please indicate the PDP Stream that you are registered for: Stream One – PDP with Integrated Study Abroad Please state Partner Institution / durationof Study Abroad: Stream Two – PDP with Integrated Work Experience Please state Organisation / location / duration of Work Experience: Stream Three – PDP with Integrated Skills Workshops Please state the 3 Workshops (or equivalences) which you undertook during the third term: You will be expected to reference the skills you have learnt throughout the PDP and the particular stream you have followed when completing the Skills Portfolio. Completing the Skills Portfolio The skills portfolio is the capstone of the Professional Development Programme and as such is designed to enable you to demonstrate the personal skills, accomplishments, experience and attributes that you have acquired and developed as part of your MSc course. A key component of the Skills Portfolio is the reflective exercise you must complete to assess the competency stream you have followed in the third part of the Professional Development Programme. The skills portfolio should be evidence based and should include examples of the competencies you have developed andhow you have applied these to your studies. In addition you will need to demonstratehow you can articulate these transferrable skills to potential employers,and how both your course and the PDP have contributed towards your career goals. The skills portfolio should be an honest, in-depth reflection on your strengths and weaknesses and a detailed analysis of the skills and competencies you have acquired as well as of those which you still need to improve in order to maximise your personal potential. You will need to demonstrate how you have engaged with the principles of the Professional Development Programme through reference to the development of, or the need for further development of, the following competencies: Team working Presentation Skills Communication Skills Leadership Skills Influencing Skills Negotiation Skills Problem Solving Intercultural Competencies Self-reflection/awareness Self-management Analytical skills An understanding of ethics & corporate social responsibility Career Management skills in terms of your career planning and development of employability competences through engagement with Careers & Placements and Careers Workshops In order to meet the requirements of the Professional Development Programme, the Skills Portfolio will need to include the following: 1) An updated copy of your CV 2) A new or updated LinkedIn profile or proposal* (*if you do not wish to create a LinkedIn profile, please submit a mock profile which you will not upload) 3) A Reflective Essay(see below) Based on the work that you have already done, you mustanswer the following set of questions. Your answers should apply to the overall PDP in the context of both your academic programme andany extra-curricular achievements, and needs to be linked to establishing the core skills necessary for your projected career. Each answer should be a minimum of 300 words. Please answer the following questions in essay style, do not use bullet points or lists. WORD COUNT FOR THE SKILLS PORTFOLIO – Minimum 2,000 WORDS / Maximum 3,000 WORDS 1. What transferrable skills have you acquired whilst undertaking your course and the Professional Development Programme, and how have you applied them through the duration of your studies? Please refer to the list of skills on the previous page as a guide, but not a definitive list, of the types of transferrable skills that you should incorporate in your answer. (minimum 300 words) 2. What transferrable skills do you still need to develop further, and how do you intend to do this as you transition into work? (minimum 300 words) 3. How can you demonstrate to a future employer that you have acquired the necessary skills competencies for your chosen career? (minimum 300 words) 4. Depending on the PDP Stream you completed in Term 3, please complete one of the followingSpecific Reflective Reports: 4(a) Study Abroad (PDP Stream 1): Reflective Report The reflective report must be based on the following three aspects of the study abroad experience: 1. Cognitive Dimensions (knowledge acquisition of cultural norms, etc…) 2. Affective Dimensions (Flexibility to adapt, transference skills, open-mindedness….) 3. Behavioural Dimensions (resourcefulness, problem solving, communication skills…) The Study abroad reflective report is set to demonstrate the acquisition of the following: • Increased understanding of International and Cultural Issues • Increased flexibility • Increased open-mindedness and curiosity • Enhanced critical skills 1) Using specific examples, describe your increased awareness and enhanced understanding of some of the cultural norms of the country where you completed your study placement. 2) Describe specific incidents where you had to demonstrate flexibility/open-mindedness/transference skills in order to adapt to the situation, maybe an occurrence when your personal/cultural values were questioned. Expand on what you learnt from the experience. 3) Describe occurrences when your resourcefulness, problem-solving abilities and communication skills were called upon. How did this impact on you as a life experience? Students who completed PDP Stream 1 must submit a copy of the transcript from the partnerinstitution together with their Skills Portfolio. 4(b) Work-based experience (PDP Stream 2): Internship Report The Internship Report must include the following: 1) An outline of the background and specific business of the organisation and/or department in which you carried out your internship; 2) An outline of the work that you performed in the organisation 3) The ways in which the internship has improved your transferrable skills, please give examples of how you acquired or improved these skills through your work experience. 4) The ways in which you used your skills to add value, create impact or improve the efficiency of your internship organisation? Please give examples of how you applied your skills in a practical way. Students who completed PDP Stream 2 must submit a reference/short report from the employer or a LinkedIn recommendation. 4(c) Skills Workshops (PDP Stream 3): Reflective Report The Reflective Report must provide a detailed analysis of the skills set that you developed specifically during the workshops that you attended. 1) Briefly summarise the key learning outcomes from each of the separate skills workshops you attended in Term 3, using examples of the activities completed in the workshop(s). 2) For the workshop(s) you attended, define the skills you developed in terms of what you can now do differently. Explain how these skills can be demonstrated in the workplace, for example, someone with good team work skills would show an ability to support other team members. 3) How do you think you can use the skills developed in your Term3 workshop(s) to make a positive impact in your first post-course working role? 4) If you were running the workshop yourself, what would you do to develop or enhance it? Please provide a critical evaluation of the experience for each of the workshops attended.



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INDIVIDUAL SELF REFLECTION – PART 1 ADVANCED SWOT ANALYSIS (TOWS STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES MATRIX)
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


INDIVIDUAL SELF REFLECTION – PART 1 ADVANCED SWOT ANALYSIS (TOWS STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES MATRIX) NAME: BrendaSUN: Lyimo COURSE:MSc in International Business External Opportunities (O) • Training and Development • Strategic Contact and Network • Expansion in the oil and gas industry External Threats (T) • Lack of experience • A lot of Competition • Constant innovation in technology Internal Strengths (S) • Team player • Communication • Leadership • Attention to Detail • Punctuality "Maxi-Maxi" Strategy (SO) Strategies that use strengths to maximize opportunities • My strength combined with the opportunities in the industry can help ensure that I get further in the industry a little quicker "Maxi-Mini" Strategy (ST) Strategies that use strengths to minimize threats • Attention to detail will help me cope with technological innovation. • Team working and leadership skills gives me an edge over competition. Internal Weaknesses (W) • Cant work under pressure • Emotional • Easily distracted "Mini-Maxi" Strategy (WO) Strategies that minimize weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities. • Through training and development I will build my confidence and skills thereby eliminating my disability to work under pressure. • Expansion in the oil and gas ensure diverse amount of jobs therefore helping me cope with distraction. "Mini-Mini" Strategy (WT) Strategies that minimize weaknesses and avoid threats. Internships and placements I can build on my concentration and experience. TOWS Matrix © 1982 Heinz Weihrich, Ph.D. Adapted from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_89.htm INDIVIDUAL SELF REFLECTION – PART 2 “Learning by doing” In order to help you reflect on the set of skills you have acquired and/or developed while completing activities such as assessed or non-assessed group work on coursework, case-studies, presentations (individual or in groups), please answer the following questions (maximum 500 words per answer): 1) How did having to work in a culturally diverse team influence your ability to interact successfully with others? How might this make you a more effective employee in an international organisation? Working in a culturally diverse team has helped me a lot, in the sense I have learnt to be more understanding and patient in order to be able to interact with my group members so that we can be able to do the work efficiently. I have learnt to develop a flexible work ethic which allows me to be able to work with anyone from different cultures. 2) Describe an experience in which you had to resolve a conflict or solve a problem while working in your multi-cultural team. What skills did you have to use and how/what did you gain from the experience? In my group, there was a very big problem with communication and writing skills that lead us to keep going back and forth within our assignments. What we thought would be easier was them to explain face to face what they meant by going through their sections that was allocated to them. Through this solution it helped improve my proof reading and editing skills. It also helped me gain experience in quick thinking, working with language barriers challenges. 3) What are the most important skills you feel you have acquired/developed while completing your studies? • Communication skills. • Editing /proof reading Skills • Leadershipskills. • Critical Thinking skills. • Problem solving skills. • Presentation skills • Research Skills



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Sean Lattimore(3 posts) American Intercontinental University Unit2 Discussion Board June 28, 2015
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Sean Lattimore(3 posts) American Intercontinental University Unit2 Discussion Board June 28, 2015 Simpson Brothers Manufacturing Company has been using a traditional overhead allocation method to allocate costs to products since the company began. Although operations have been running fairly smoothly, the owners have been wondering if they should investigate a new method known as ABC costing. Some of the company's products are highly labor-intensive, while others are manufactured using highly automated production lines. They like the sound of the name, but they don't understand in what way the method differs from the method they already use. The method they use allocates overhead based on labor hours used for each product. Since labor is certainly an "activity," they are having trouble understanding how their costing system would change. Discuss the main differences between ABC costing systems and traditional overhead allocation systems. Based on your knowledge and experience, which method you prefer and why? The main difference between ABC costing systems and traditional overhead allocations systems is that ABC is more complex whereas TCA is simple. ABC is more accurate and preferred over traditional overhead allocation systems. Organizations use ABC when the overhead is high and the numbers of miscellaneous products are large. Inaccuracy and undesirable errors are unwanted by any organization because of the competitive rates set by the competitors in the market. Because of the competition, organization want to have a more reliable and accurate cost management system for true cost. Traditional overhead allocation systems are not able to calculate the true and accurate cost because of the use of a single overhead pool. Based upon machine hours or labor, the costs of objects are allocated randomly. ABC costing knows it's product parts or labor whereas traditional systems accumulates expenses, depreciation, and salaries. Based on this information ABC is my preferred method of choice. How might your company benefit from using ABC? Describe any experience you have with ABC? An organization can benefit from ABC for more precise allocating of overhead and targeted reduction of overhead costs. An organization with a more complex environment that has a lot of products and machines and not so easy processes, will also benefit from using the ABC system. ABC system is a good fit for company's looking to eliminate unprofitable items from the product line as it increases profit without increasing prices. Are there any circumstances for which you would not recommend that your company switch to an ABC costing system? Some organizations who are biased towards manufacturing and labor and have little overhead, already know their cost and profit associated. An organization such as this doesn't need the implementation of ABC therefore making it a waste of time and resources. ABC is not recommended for an organization that does not have the monies and time for the implementation of the system. Substantial resources are required for the process of data collection and data entry, and could be costly to maintain. In your opinion, discuss why is overhead allocation necessary in most manufacturing environments? A portion of the manufacturing overhead must be allocated to each item produced for a manufacturer's financial statements to be in compliance. For an organization to know a true cost of manufacturing a certain item, manufacturing overhead allocation must be precise. An organization needs to know the true cost associated with an individual item. In addition to knowing the true cost to manufacture each individual item, organizations needs to know the other business functions involved with each individual item and the expenses. With the allocation of overhead an organization can know if each product is generating enough sales to cover the cost of manufacturing and selling the product. What problems are caused by the allocation of overhead? In your judgment, which of the problems associated with the allocation of overhead are overcome if ABC costing is used and do any problems remain? An inaccurate allocation could result in too much cost assigned to a product, therefore causing an organization to seek for a price increase on those products when the increase is not necessary. If customers react to the proposed unnecessary price increases by seeking bids from other manufacturers, an organization could possibly lose sales, customers and profits. If the organization does not increase the price or improve efficiency, the selling of the product could result in a loss. The ABC system simplifies the allocation of overhead costs to products in a more logical way. Marcia Lilley(4 posts) Marcia Lilley Marketing for Managers (ACG 610) Discussion Board 2 Discuss the main differences between ABC costing systems and traditional overhead allocation systems. Based on your knowledge and experience, which method you prefer and why? The main differences between ABC costing systems and Traditional overhead allocation systems are Traditional costing is more simplistic and less accurate than ABC. Traditional costing assigns manufacturing overhead based on the volume of a cost driver, such as the amount of direct labor hours needed to produce an item. A cost driver is a factor that causes cost to incur, such as machine hours, direct labor hours and direct material hours. Activity-based costing allocates the costs of manufacturing a product according to the activities needed to produce the item. Managers should understand the advantages and disadvantages of both systems to meet the needs of their business. The method that I prefer is the ABC costing system because the cost allocations are more accurate. We have to allocate for every dollar spent on jobs that are assigned. In addition, we have to allocate for all materials that are used on the job from paint, locks, lumber and the hours each employee is getting paid for being on the job. How might your company benefit from using ABC? Describe any experience you have with ABC? This method is more beneficial to our organization in that it sets aside a budget for overhead and profit outside of the cost of the job being done. Using the ABC method a budget sheet is assigned to each job and its allocates each expense from insulation, general demolition, job overhead, labor only and other cost associated with the job. This accurate breakdown is a major advantage of the activity based costing because of it's ability to estimate the cost of individual products and services precisely. By transferring overhead costs to individual units of products or services, ABC helps identify inefficient or non-profitable products or activities that eat into the profitability of efficient processes or highly profitable products. Making possible equitable and scientific pricing by reducing prices of products that use less activity resources and increase prices of products that consume more of the firm’s activity resources. Are there any circumstances for which you would not recommend that your company switch to an ABC costing system? The only circumstances that I would not recommend my company not swith to an ABC costing system is if the funds are not available to implement it.The process of data collection and data entry requires substantial resources, and remains costly to maintain. The major disadvantage of activity based costing is that although activity based costing is a scientific approach, the method of implementation is complex, time consuming, and costly. In your opinion, discuss why is overhead allocation necessary in most manufacturing environments? In order for a manufacturer's financial statements to be in compliance with GAAP, a portion of the manufacturing overhead must be allocated to each item produced. Even when allocations are arbitrary and inaccurate, the totals of the amounts reported as inventory and cost of goods sold on the financial statements can still be reasonably correct. However, if management wants to know the true cost of manufacturing an individual item, it is essential that the manufacturing overhead be allocated in a precise and logical manner. In addition to knowing the true cost of manufacturing each item, management needs to know the true expense of all of the other business functions involved with an individual item. In this way, management will know if each product and each customer is generating enough sales revenue to cover not only manufacturing costs but also selling, general and administrative, interest expense, and some profit. What problems are caused by the allocation of overhead? In your judgment, which of the problems associated with the allocation of overhead are overcome if ABC costing is used and do any problems remain? When information is inaccurate as to how much funds are being spent on a product it can cause increases in areas that can cause the company to lose out on money. These increases can include selling price. If a customers price point goes up they can lose out on business which in turn causes loss in profit. Overhead allocations are assigned to all products, regardless of volume. ABC makes costing methods more accurate and simplified. The costs allocations are easier to be detected using the ABC method saving an organization on loss of money. Significant understatement of the actual profits of each business that has had sales above the budgeted number may cause the company to under reward unit managers who surpass their sales budgets. References: Averkamp, Harold Manufacturing Overhead http://www.accountingcoach.com/manufacturing-overhead/explanation/2 Johnson, Rose (2015) Traditional Costing vs Activity Based Costing http://smallbusiness.chron.com/traditional-costing-vs-activitybased-costing-33724.html Kaplan, Robert, S, & Anderson, Steven, R. Rethinking Activity Based Costing. Harvard Business School. Retrieved from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4587.html



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Question 1 A camera company produces and sells cameras, film, and other imaging products. A condensed 2000 income statement (in millions) includes the following:
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Question 1 A camera company produces and sells cameras, film, and other imaging products. A condensed 2000 income statement (in millions) includes the following: Sales 20,991 Cost of goods sold 12,028 Gross margin 8,963 Other operating expenses 5,641 Operating income $3,322 Assume that $3.6 million of the cost of goods sold is a fixed cost representing depreciation and other production costs that do not change with the volume of production. In addition, $5 million of the other operating expenses are fixed. 1. Compute the total contribution margin for 2010 and the contribution margin percentage. Explain why the contribution margin differs from the gross margin. 2. Suppose that sales for the camera company were predicted to increase by 10% in 2011 and that the cost behavior was expected to continue in 2011 as it did in 2010. Compute the predicted operating income for 2011. By what percentage did this predicted 2011 operating income exceed the 2010 operating income? 3. What assumptions were necessary to compute the predicted 2011 operating income in question 2? Question 2 Assume that a commercial airplane manufacturing company's annual fixed costs for the widebody passenger jet are $1,425 million, and its variable cost per airplane is $90 million. The price for a 240-passenger plane with a range up to 4,010 miles is about $105 million per plane. 1. Compute the company's break-even point in number of widebody passenger jets and in dollars of sales. 2. Suppose the company plans to sell 99 widebody passenger jets in 2012. Compute the company's projected operating profit. 3. Suppose the company increased its fixed costs by $126 million and reduced variable costs per airplane by $4 million. Compute its operating profit if 99 widebody passenger jets are sold. Compute the break-even point. Comment on your results. 4. Ignore requirement 3. Suppose fixed costs do not change, but variable costs increase by 5% before deliveries of widebody passenger jets begin in 2012. Compute the new break-even point. What strategies might the company use to help assure profitable operations in light of increases in variable cost? Question 3 The Smith Company has accumulated the following data concerning a mixed cost. The company is using the units produced as the activity level. Units Produced Total Cost August 10,000 $14,940 September 8,600 $13,450 October 7,100 $11,200 November 7,700 $12,200 December 8,200 $12,660 1. Using the high-low method, compute the variable and fixed cost elements. 2. If the company produces 8,000 units, estimate the total cost. Question 4 Once individual annual budgets have been prepared, they are combined into a larger budget called the master budget. Some of the budgets included in the master budget are sales, purchases, operating expenses, capital, and cash budgets. Choose a company in the manufacturing industry, and describe some items that one would expect to find on each of the above-listed individual budgets. Question 5 James LaGrande had recently been appointed controller of the breakfast cereals division of a major food company. One of Jim's first assignments was to prepare the financial analysis for a new cold cereal, KrispieKrinkles. Mr. LaGrande discussed the product with the food lab that had designed it, with the market research department that had tested it, and with the finance people who would have to fund its introduction. After putting all the information together, he developed the following optimistic and pessimistic sales projections: Optimistic Pessimistic Year 1 $1,800,000 $1,000,000 Year 2 3,800,000 1,400,000 Year 3 5,200,000 1,200,000 Year 4 8,200,000 1,000,000 Year 5 10,200,000 600,000 The optimistic predictions assume that the introduction of a popular product is successful. The pessimistic predictions assume that the product is introduced but does not gain wide acceptance and is terminated after 5 years. LaGrande thinks that the most likely results are halfway between the optimistic and pessimistic predictions. LaGrande learned from finance that this type of product introduction requires a predicted rate of return of 16% before top management will authorize funds for its introduction. He also determined that the contribution margin should be about 50% on the product, but could be as low as 42% or as high as 58%. Initial investment would include $3 million for production facilities, $2.5 million for advertising and other product introduction expenses, and $1.5 million for working capital (e.g., inventory). The production facilities would have a value of $800,000 after 5 years. • Prepare a capital-budgeting analysis to determine whether to launch the product. Question 6 A company located in Munich makes Christmas nutcrackers and has an annual plant capacity of 2,400 product units. Its predicted operating results (in German marks) for the year are the following: Production and sales of 1,500 units, total sales DM 180,000 Manufacturing costs Fixed (total) 90,000 Variable (per unit) 31 Selling and administrative expenses Fixed (total) 50,000 Variable (per unit) 15 In your groups, compute the following, ignoring income taxes: 1. There is a special order of 400 units to be sold at DM 50 per unit. Compute the new net income. You can state your assumptions about what costs are relevant and irrelevant. There is no one correct set of assumptions. 2. Ignore the requirement regarding the special order in part 1. Now the company wants a target net income of 30,000 DM. It wants to understand how and if it can achieve it. o For each method, compute the following: A. Compute the number of units the company must sell to make the targeted net income it desires. (Show calculations.) B. Explain what would happen in this situation if the variable costs increased or decreased. C. Explain what would happen in this situation if the fixed costs increased or decreased. D. What would happen in this situation if the sell price increased by 10% and all of the other costs stayed the same? (Show calculations.) o Discuss the limitations; do not limit the computations to what you think. 3. Assume that capacity and sales can be doubled to 4,800 units. Again, compute the new net income if facilities costing 500,000DM are added at 5-year life. This is a straight-forward computation.



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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Chapter 1 Discussion Question 2 Strategic management involves the process of formulation and implementation of an organization’s decision process that are targeted towards ...
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Chapter 1 Discussion Question 2 Strategic management involves the process of formulation and implementation of an organization’s decision process that are targeted towards achieving the company’s objectives. Strategic planning has different and unique characteristic as compared to other methods of planning in the firm. This course will help in understanding these significant differences that are crucial to the organization. The levels of strategy are divided into corporate, business and functional. These levels are dependent on the hierarchy of the manager in the firm. It’s with these levels that the characteristic of the strategic management will vary. The corporate level account for the long term planning, and the functional level has a small time horizon. By taking this course, the student can learn how to engage in any level of decision-making. Similarly, one can ascertain the risks involved in the strategic management hence the manager can anticipate challenges and be flexible enough to counter them. Question 3 In ordinary cases, employees at the management level will start from the junior level as they gradually advance to the top management level. Most of the concepts of the strategic management are employed at the top management levels. However, it is crucial that even the junior management staff learn the concepts of strategic management. It enables the smooth implementation of the decisions made. For this reason, a junior manager will strategic management skills is more likely to advance to the top management within a short period. It is, therefore, important that all business majors should study strategic management.



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Diagnosing and Improving Motivation Student’s name Name of the Institute Diagnosing and Improving Motivation
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Diagnosing and Improving Motivation Student’s name Name of the Institute Diagnosing and Improving Motivation Question 1 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of Jessica’s existing sales force. Answer – Jessica’s existing sales force was having belief in the leadership of Jessica. They had the view point that when they will have any kind of a trouble or an issue then Jessica will surely be helping them. They were passionate and enthusiastic and just needed guidance and instructions to perform. They try to achieve the targets, performance and the required objectives and goals for the company. The weakness was that they were not self driven or self motivated. They needed an external force to get motivated and achieve the required target. Question 2 – Describe the changes that the company processes that would help better motivate the sales force. Answer – When the company develops the strong processes that are strictly to be adhered, the people get aligned with it for the achievement of the goals and objectives that have been set. The company processes should also help the individuals in getting comfortable and flexible towards their work in the company. It is a mutually symbiotic relationship. The processes set by the company when work and remain flexible as per the approach and perspective of the employees then they do not resist in implementing or applying them thereby motivating the sales force and even achieving the required targets and the objectives for the company. This could better be explained by giving the example of the feedback process that Jessica had implemented in the company where the sales force was given feedback on their performance and the skills. This was by improving the process; the company motivated the staff to bring about improvement in them by bridging the gap on the required and the current performance levels (Pritchard & Ashwood, 2008). Question 3 – Feedback was identified as a significant force in the sales team’s motivation level. Explain how Jessica could have enhanced her feedback process to improve team’s productivity and sales numbers. Answer – Feedback plays a great role in taking the idea on the level of performance that any individual has been doing. It helps in knowing the areas where the improvisations have to be brought about. When we know the specific areas then the working becomes quite easier. Jessica identified that there were few members in her team who were performing but not aware of the mistakes and the loopholes that existed with their work. This was due to the reason that they were never given the feedback of their performance. They could not bring about changes in the levels of work to what is being required. She implemented the plan of Feedback process through which each and every employee will work as per their required targets and in case they are not able to achieve then the leader will definitely help them in bridging the gap in the skills and the competencies so that they could achieve them. This not only helped the team in giving enhanced productivity but also helped in increasing the sales numbers (Janz et al, 1997). Question 4 - Describe how Jessica changed the sales force’s customer service emphasis. Answer - Jessica wanted that all the customers should remain satisfied with the company and its products and that she knew will happen only when the company will take care of all the needs of them. She started giving a lot of emphasis on the customer service. She trained and instructed her team to resolve the queries and problems of the customers on priority. This would help customers get a lot of confidence and loyalty for the company which will in turn help the company in achieving more business. Question 5 - In the end, two team members (Marius and Jose) were promoted off of Jessica’s team. Explain how she can maintain her positive momentum with their replacement team members. Answer – Jessica has really been a great leader and motivator for her team members. She always took the employees issues and resolved them on priority. This made the team very proud and understanding for Jessica. Even Jessica was able to achieve more than her team’s target for productivity and business volumes. She could maintain her positive momentum with the replacement team members who have been promoted by the following ways: • Training and developing the team with the market and competitive skills and competencies. • Resolving the employee issues and problems on priority. • Regularly giving the feedback to the employees on the areas that they need to improve upon and even providing the consultancy on how they could work on these weaknesses and overcome them (Leedom & Simon, 1995) References Janz, B. D., Colquitt, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (1997). Knowledge worker team effectiveness: The role of autonomy, interdependence, team development, and contextual support variables. Personnel psychology, 50(4), 877-904. Leedom, D. K., & Simon, R. (1995). Improving team coordination: a case for behavior-based training. Military Psychology, 7(2), 109. Pritchard, R., & Ashwood, E. (2008). Managing motivation: A manager's guide to diagnosing and improving motivation. Psychology Press.



Critical Thought in Post Modern World Student’s name Name of the Institute Essay Outline
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Critical Thought in Post Modern World Student’s name Name of the Institute Essay Outline In the olden or modern times, people used to believe in what their ancestors or the other people used to say. In the post modern era, the critical thought has replaced the lack of substance. When a person predicts or explains anything then unless the other person finds out the validity, authenticity, substance and proof of its existence, he does not easily believe it. In this essay we will define on what actually are the critical thought, post modern era and substance in a thought. We will present this concept and explain the logic and reasoning behind this with the help of few examples. We will take this statement against as well as for and explain up to which level it is correct. Introduction References McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. Psychology Press. Soja, E. W. (1989). Post Modern Geographies: the reassertion of space in critical social theory. Verso. Lankshear, C., & McLaren, P. (Eds.). (1993). Critical literacy: Politics, praxis, and the postmodern. SUNY Press. Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. Psychology Press. Schanck, P. C. (1991). Understanding postmodern thought and its implications for statutory interpretation. S. Cal. L. Rev., 65, 2505.



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Answers must be original, as they will be scanned for plagiarism. Adequate answers for the entire examination should run approximately ten (10 -12)
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Answers must be original, as they will be scanned for plagiarism. Adequate answers for the entire examination should run approximately ten (10 -12) double-spaced pages (not much more) with one-inch margins and 12-point font. You must provide a separate bibliography for each question following APA style recommendations. The bibliography for each question is outside the scope of the 10 -12 double-spaced pages and should be placed at the end of each question. Question 1 Select two Vulnerability Analysis tools used in research and/or commercially available and describe their main features and functionality. Compare and contrast their relative strengths and weaknesses when used in the three (3) scenarios described below: a. The system to be developed is intended to be operational in a large enterprise environment and the system itself when fully developed will be of a size typically found in large enterprise deployments such as DOD, large banks or similar sized operations where integration and deployment includes use in a networked environment. b. The system to be developed is intended to be operational in a midmarket sized firm which has branches located countrywide. Familiar examples might include a fast food chain of outlets such as Burger King, a nationwide clothing store or similar set of replicated stores where integration and deployment includes use in a networked environment. c. The system to be developed is intended to be operational in a small market firm or small business firm or even in home usage. Familiar examples might include an income tax preparation package by a small tax consulting firm. Be sure to frame your answer in logical argumentations and referenced research results using the text and credible outside sources. Ensure that your answer is written in the contexts of security and trusted systems. Question 2 “‘Recall that criteria creep’ is the process of refining evaluation requirements as the industry gains experience with them, making the evaluation criteria something of a moving target. (See Section 21.2.4.2.) This issue is not confined to the TCSEC, but rather is a problem universal to all evaluation technologies”. (Bishop, 2003, pp. 609 – 610) With this in mind address the following requirements: a. Analyze the benefits and drawbacks of the Common Criteria (CC) methodology for handling criteria creep. b. Provide recommendations for ensuring that the benefits can be realized; and for mitigating the drawbacks. Question 3 This question is about using Formal Methods in Trusted Systems This is a hyperlink to a paper in PDF entitled: “File Systems Deserve Verification Too!” by Keller, Murray, Amani, etal. (2013). This paper was published in the Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Programming Languages and Operating Systems (PLOS 2013), 2013, Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, Pennsylvania, USA, November. IEEE Security and Privacy Journal Volume 10 Issue 2, March 2012 Pages 67-70. This next hyperlink is to a related paper in PDF entitled: “Towards a Verified Component Platform” by Fernandez, Kuz, &Andronick (2013). This paper was published in the Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Programming Languages and Operating Systems (PLOS 2013), 2013, Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, Pennsylvania, USA, November. You will see by the dates that these two papers are representative of recent research taking place in the field of Information Communications Technology Security and Trusted Systems. Question 3 Requirements: a. You are to choose one of the above two papers (not both) and analyze: the problem being addressed; the approach taken to arrive at a solution(s), as well as the results to date along with a discussion of anticipated results as we move into the future. b. Explain what the impact of this research will have on the future of Formal Verification of trusted operating systems and trusted software in general. Provide at least two examples of aspects or areas where we may see improvements in system trust in general. Please frame your claims in logical argumentations and referenced research results using the text and credible outside sources. Note:- In addressing the question requirements for your chosen paper you may find the following hyperlinked PDF of assistance as it covers some fundamental topics in the domain: “Formalisation of a Component Platform” by Fernandez, M., Kuz, I., & Klein, G. (2012). This article was published as Poster Presentation at the 10th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 12), 2012, Hollywood, California, USA, October.



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MBA 640 Exam 1 Spring 1, 2014 When answering the questions, the work that you submit for grading must be your work. Any plagiarism will result in a grade of zero for the exam. If you have
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


MBA 640 Exam 1 Spring 1, 2014 When answering the questions, the work that you submit for grading must be your work. Any plagiarism will result in a grade of zero for the exam. If you have questions, please consult with the instructor. The evaluation of the work,especially the qualitative questions depends on the organization of the material and the depth of the answers. The quantitative questions should show the computations/process not just an answer. 1. In the context of this course, you will be asked to address the issues/questions below for The Container Store, www.containerstore.com. When addressing the issues/questions, be sure to do so in the context of this course and The Container Store. You have been appointed as the special assistant to the CEO, William Tindell, who has asked you to address the following five situations: (7pts) a) Lynn University needs new office chairs for its new building. The purchasing director at Lynn University has inquired about the “Flat Bungee Office Chair with Arms.” The regular price is $199 but the sales price is currently $149. The purchasing director has asked if 100 of these chairs could be purchased for $110. Discuss whether or not this would be feasible, as the full cost of the chairs is $130. (7pts) b) The Container Store currently sells a “Bento Salad Bowl,” which it is currentlymanufacturing in South Carolina. A representative from a company in Vietnam is offering to sell them for 15% less than the manufactured cost. Discuss the issues that you would consider in deciding whether or not to accept. this order. (20pts) c) The CEO wishes to develop an incentive plan for the store managers. Before this is put into place, the CEO wishes you to make sure that budgeting in the stores is done correctly. He has asked you to submit a document discussing the key points that you have learned in MBA 640. Be as thorough as possible. (7pts) d) The Container Store has only used absorption costing. The CEOhas asked you to explain the merits of using variable costing under certain circumstances. (7pts) e) The CEO has asked you to explain how target costing would be used in The Container Store’s pricing policies. (8 pts.) 2. Deep Blue manufactures floatation vests in Charleston, South Carolina. Deep Blue's contribution margin income statement for the most recent month contains the following data: Sales in units 31,000 Sales in revenue $434,000 Variable expenses: Manufacturing $186,000 Marketing and administrative 110,000 Total variable expenses 296,000 Contribution margin 138,000 Fixed expenses: Manufacturing 130,000 Marketing and administrative 92,000 Total fixed expenses 222,000 Operating income (loss) $(84,000) Suppose Boats-n- More wishes to buy 4,600 vests from Deep Blue. Acceptance of the order will not increase Deep Blue's variable marketing and administrative expenses. The Deep Blue plant has enough unused capacity to manufacture the additional vests. Boats-n-More has offered $8 per vest, which is below the normal sale price of $14. Required: a) Determine whether Deep Blue should accept this special sales order. b) Identify long-term factors Deep Blue should consider in deciding whether to accept the special sales order. (8pts) 3. Smith Inc. manufactures and sells fan belts. The selling price for these fan belts is $7.00, which is what Smiths competitors charge, as the fan belt is a commodity. Facts for Smith are as follows: • Smith desires a 12 percent return on its total assets which are $3,000,000. • Smith has a current sales volume of 500,000 units. • Variable costs are $4.50 per unit, $3.00 for manufacturing and $1.50 for marketing and administrative costs. • Fixed costs are $950,000. Required: a) Can Smith achieve its desired profit? b) Suppose that Smith follows a strategy of one of its competitors which is to spend $200,000 on advertising so that there is more brand awareness. This would permit them to raise the selling price to $9 but their sales volume would decrease to 425,000 units. Will Smith achieve its desired profit? (15pts) 4. Suppose Ritz-Carlton has a 400-room hotel in a tropical climate. Management expects occupancy rates to be 90 percent in December, January and February, 85 percent in November, March, and April, and 65 percent the rest of the year. The average room rental is $300 per night. Most of the costs of running the hotel are fixed. The variable costs are only $50 per occupied room per night. Fixed salaries (including benefits) run $650,000 per month, depreciation is $475,000 per month, other fixed operating costs are $225,000 per month, and interest expense is $500,000 per month. The tax rate is 40 percent. Required: a) Determine the net income for the month of December and for the month of June. b) If an advertising campaign, costing $350,000, could increase the occupancy rates by five percentage points each month in the off-season (that is, from 65 to 70 percent in May through October), should Ritz-Carlton undertake the campaign? Assume that all off-season months have the same operating income as June. (15pts) 5. DDD Grills, Inc. makes a single product-a handmade specialty barbeque grill that sells for $350. Data for last year’s operations follow; Units in beginning inventory 0 Units produced 30,000 Units sold 25,000 Units in ending inventory 5,000 Variable costs per unit Direct materials $ 90 Direct labor 120 Variable manufacturing overhead 70 Variable selling and administrative 20 Total variable cost per unit $300 Fixed costs: Fixed manufacturing overhead $900,000 Fixed selling and administrative 350,000 Total fixed costs $1,250,000 Required: a) Compute the unit product cost for one barbeque grill for each of the costing methods described in Chapter 9. b) Prepare an income statement for the year using the absorption approach. c) Prepare an income statement for the year using the variable costing approach. (8pts) 6. For many years, Sigma Company has produced a small electrical part that it uses in the production of its standard line of diesel tractors. The company’s unit product cost for the part, based on a production level of 70,000 parts per year, is as follows: Per Part Total Direct materials $5.00 Direct labor 3.75 Variable manufacturing overhead .50 Fixed manufacturing overhead, traceable 4.00 $250,000 Fixed manufacturing overhead, common (allocated on the basis of labor-hours) 3.25 $175,000 Unit product cost $16.50 An outside supplier has offered to supply the electrical parts to the Sigma Company for only $12.00 per part. One-half of the traceable fixed manufacturing cost is supervisory salaries and other costs that can be eliminated if the parts are purchased. The other half of the traceable fixed manufacturing costs consists of depreciation of special equipment that has no resale value. The decision to buy the parts from the outside supplier would have no effect on the common fixed costs of the company, and the space being used to produce the parts would otherwise be idle. Required: Prepare computations showing how much profits would increase or decrease as a result of purchasing the parts from the outside supplier rather than making them inside the company. (15pts) 7. Wonderful! Not only did our salespeople do a good job in meeting the sales budget this year, but our production people did a good job in controlling costs as well, “ said Kim Clark, president of Martell Company. “ Our $18,000 overall manufacturing cost variance is only 1.5 % of the standard $1,200,000 standard cost of products sold during the year. That’s well within the 3 % parameter set by management for acceptable variances. It looks like everyone will be in line for a bonus this year.” The company produces and sells a single product. A standard cost card for the product follows: Standard Cost Card - Per Unit of Product Direct materials, 2 feet at $8.45 ……………… $16.90 Direct labor, 1.4 hours at $8 ………………… 11.20 Variable overhead, 1.4 hours at $2.50 ……….. 3.50 Fixed overhead, 1.4 hours at $6 ………………8.40 Standard cost per unit………………… $ 40.00 The following additional information is available for the year just completed: The company manufactured 30,000 units of product during the year. A total of 64,000 feet of material was purchased during the year at a cost of $8.55 per foot. All of this material was used to manufacture the 30,000 units. There were no beginning or ending inventories for the year. The company worked 45,000 direct labor-hours during the year at a cost of $7.80 per hour. Overhead is applied to products on the basis of direct labor-hours. Data relating to manufacturing overhead costs follows: Denominator activity level (direct labor-hours) ….. 35,000 Budget fixed overhead costs (from the overhead flexible budget) ………………$210,000 Actual variable overhead costs incurred ………….. 108,000 Actual fixed overhead costs incurred …………….. 211,800 Required: a) Compute the direct materials price and quantity variances for the year. b) Compute the direct labor rate and efficiency variances for the year. c) Compute the variable overhead spending and efficiency variances for the year. d) Compute the fixed overhead budget and volume variances for the year. e) Total the variances you have computed, and compare the net with the $18,000 mentioned by the president. Do you agree that bonuses should be given to everyone for good cost control during the year? Explain. (8pts) 8. Fort Worth prepared a budget last period that called for sales of 10,000 units at a price of $10 each. The costs per unit were estimated to amount to $5 variable and $2 fixed. During the period, production was exactly equal to actual sales of 12,000 units. The selling price was $9.50 per unit. Variable costs were $6 per unit. Fixed costs actually incurred were $21,000. Required: a) Prepare a report to show the difference between the actual contribution margin per the static budget and the budgeted contribution margin per the flexible budget. b) Explain the significance of the comparisons.



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Page 1 ADMG 302 Notes to Accompany Chapter 9 – Financial Statement Analysis IMPROVING A COMPANY’S FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY IMPROVING WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Page 1 ADMG 302 Notes to Accompany Chapter 9 – Financial Statement Analysis IMPROVING A COMPANY’S FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY IMPROVING WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT These pages are meant to replace the “Accounts Receivable Analysis” and “Inventory Analysis” sections of your textbook on pages 331-334. Working Capital Management is a powerful tool for improving the efficiency of a company’s operations, thereby allowing the company to become more independent and to save money. Working Capital Management begins with an analysis of elements of a company’s balance sheet, then takes coordination among managers from almost every department within a company, as we’ll see later. Typically, to improve a company’s financial performance, managers focus on increasing sales or reducing costs. In other words, typically, the focus is on the Income Statement. However, there are three areas on the Balance Sheet (where you will not find revenues and expenses), that managers can focus their efforts to improve the company’s financial performance. One is Inventory management, another is Accounts Receivable management, and the third is Accounts Payable management. Improving each of these areas will improve the company’s cash flow. The company will become more efficient at producing and/or selling goods and collecting cash for those sales. Companies that can generate more cash in less time have greater freedom—they are not as dependent on outside investors or lenders for their cash needs. OPERATING CYCLE Inventory period Accounts Receivable period Accounts payable period Cash Conversion Cycle Study this diagram of a merchandising company’s Operating Cycle. Although the Operating Cycle is often shown as a circle, here it is shown as a timeline, (in fact, two timelines happening at the same time). The top row shows the Inventory period (the time a company holds products in inventory before selling the inventory) and the Accounts Receivable period (the time it takes to collect from customers after the company has sold products to the customer). The bottom portion of the timeline shows the Accounts Payable period (the time between the company purchasing products for resale and paying for those products), and the Cash Conversion Company sells products to customer Company pays for products Company collects money from customer Company purchases products (inventory) DPO DII DSO Page 2 Cycle (the time between when the company pays for the products and when the company collects from customers for the sale of those products). In order to improve financial performance, a company should reduce the Cash Conversion Cycle as much as possible without endangering other aspects of the company. I say this because there are often conflicting interests in Working Capital Management. What is good for the Sales department, for example, might not be what is best for the Accounts Receivable process. We’ll see this in a few minutes. Notice the event that begins the Operating Cycle. (Keep in mind this is for a merchandising company—a company that purchases and resells products), but the concepts are the same for a manufacturing company and somewhat for a service company.) For a merchandising company, the Operating Cycle begins when the company purchases products that it intends to sell to customers. Those products become part of inventory until they are sold. Notice this begins the Inventory Period in the top timeline. In the bottom timeline, we see that the company has not yet paid for the products, so when the products are purchased, the Accounts Payable period begins at the same time as the Inventory period. Looking back at the top timeline, the products remain in inventory until they are sold. At that point, the Accounts Receivable period begins. And at some point in the future, the timeline ends when the company receives payment from the customer for the goods sold. Looking at the bottom timeline, notice the Accounts Payable period ends when the company pays for the products it purchased. This can happen before or after the products are sold to the customer. In our diagram, the company pays for the goods prior to the sale of the product. This leaves one remaining time period on our bottom timeline – the Cash Conversion Cycle. This is the time between when the company pays for the products (the company has a cash outflow) and the point when the company collects cash from customers from the sale of products (a cash inflow). During this period of time, the company has no cash from this particular set of products. Therefore, to continue to operate the business, the company must borrow money or get more money from investors to run its operations. This is what can get businesses, especially new businesses, in trouble very fast. The reason we study the Operating Cycle to understand Working Capital Management is that working capital is Current Assets minus Current Liabilities. Notice the components of the Operating Cycle: Cash, Accounts Receivable, Inventory (the main elements of Current Assets), and Accounts Payable (the main element of Current Liabilities). Here’s how it works. As a rough estimate, a company needs enough working capital (current assets minus current liabilities) to carry it through what is called the Cash Conversion Cycle (the number of days from the time the company pays for products until the time it collects cash from customers after selling the products). A quick way to calculate the average amount of working capital a company needs to run its business is to multiply the number of days in its Cash Conversion Cycle by the amount of average daily net sales. So, for every day a company can reduce its Cash Conversion Cycle, it is reducing its working capital needs by approximately the amount of one day’s sales. Average Working Capital Needs = Cash Conversion Cycle (in days) x Average Daily Net Sales For a large company, this equates to millions of dollars for each day saved. For example, Home Depot’s average daily sales for 2012 were about $193,000,000. For each day Home Depot can reduce its Cash Page 3 Conversion Cycle, it will need to have $193,000,000 less working capital. (Think of it as needing to borrow $193,000,000 less money, or selling that much less stock). So, how do we calculate a company’s Cash Conversion Cycle, and then what can a company do to reduce it? Notice the Accounts Receivable period, Inventory period, and Accounts Payable period can be measured with ratios. Days Sales Outstanding (DSO) measures the number of days in the Accounts Receivable period, Days in Inventory (DII) measures the number of days in the Inventory period, and Days Payables Outstanding (DPO) measures the number of days in the Accounts Payable period. Because the two timelines are equal in length, the Cash Conversion Cycle = DII + DSO - DPO A company reduces the days in its Cash Conversion Cycle by collecting its Accounts Receivable faster (reducing its DSO), carrying less inventory or selling inventory faster (reducing its DII), and/or taking longer to pay its own bills (DPO). Each of those is explained below. Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory (DII) How fast inventory flows through a company and the amount of inventory a company carries make a big difference in the company’s cash position. Consider inventory as frozen cash (cash that cannot be used for anything else, such as paying bills, purchasing needed items, etc.). The more inventory the company has, the more cash it must borrow from lenders or get from outside investors. Also, carrying inventory is expensive. Companies must pay for storage space and utilities, insurance, and security for the space and the inventory. Also, the longer a company carries inventory, the greater the chance of obsolescence. Inventory may become obsolete due to product design changes, changes in customer demand, or by remaining unsold after an acceptable shelf life. In high tech industries, it is common for obsolescence to cost a company up to 2% of the cost of its inventory per day. The faster the company can get inventory out the door and collect cash from its sale, the better the company’s cash position will be. One of the objectives of working capital management is to reduce inventory to minimum levels while still ensuring that every product will be ready for sale when a customer wants it. This is very challenging for most companies, and there are many consultants and inventory management systems available to help solve the challenge. However, it takes managers in almost every department of a company working together to successfully manage inventory. For example, salespeople love to offer customers lots of variety. However, the more varieties or versions of a product salespeople offer customers, the more inventory the company must carry in order to avoid stockouts. The more salespeople can sell standard products with limited variations, the less inventory the company will have to carry. Of course, customers must be satisfied, so a balance must be achieved, and this requires everyone working together to decide what is best for the company as a whole. Page 4 The Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory (or Days in Inventory—DII) ratio measures the number of days inventory stays in the company (the number of days it takes the company to purchase, stock, and sell the inventory). The calculation is as follows: DII = Average Inventory/Average Daily COGS, where Average Inventory = (Beginning of Year + End of Year)/2, and Average Daily COGS = COGS/365 Using the numbers from your textbook, Mooney Company improved its DII from 132.2 days in 2011 to 95.7 days in 2012. (The calculations are shown in detail in the final section of this document.) This will significantly reduce the amount of working capital Mooney Company needs to borrow from banks or get from stockholders by selling stock. A SIDE NOTE ABOUT FINDING AVERAGES: When averaging something from the income statement, which is a statement that covers a period of time, divide the annual amount by the number of days in the year (365). We do this because the amount on the income statement is for the entire year, and the calculation requires a daily average. On the other hand, when averaging something from the balance sheet, which shows amounts for points in time, calculate a simple average of the beginning of the year (which is the same as the end of the previous year) and the end of the year. To do this, take the amounts for the two points in time, add them together, and divide by 2. Inventory Turnover A ratio related to DII is Inventory Turnover, calculated as follows: Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold/Average Inventory, where Average Inventory = (Beginning of Year + End of Year/2) An alternative way to calculate Inventory Turnover (if you already have the DII number) is to divide the number of days in a year by DII. So, Inventory Turnover = 365/DII In other words, you can think of Inventory Turnover as the number of times during the year that the company, on average, completely sells out and restocks its inventory. The higher the turnover, the better, because it means the company is more efficient at getting inventory through the system, which will lead to less working capital needs. Page 5 Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables (DSO) Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables (also called Days Sales Outstanding, or DSO) is a measure of the average time it takes to collect cash from sales—in other words, how fast customers pay their bills. It is calculated as follows: DSO = Average Accounts Receivable/Average Daily Sales, where Average Daily Sales = Net Sales/365 days Using the numbers for Mooney Company in your textbook, 2012 DSO is 28.6 and 2011 DSO is 39.5. In other words, in 2012, it took Mooney Company an average of 28.6 days to collect from customers, and in 2011 an average of 39.5 days. Mooney Company improved its collection time by about 11 days from 2011 to 2012. That’s a huge improvement! It is important for managers to keep an eye on its DSO (remember, on average, the number of days it takes to collect from customers), to be sure it is not increasing from year to year. The longer a company’s DSO, the more working capital is required to run the business. If DSO is increasing, managers should take steps to find out why it is taking so long for customers to pay their bills. Are customers unhappy because of product defects or poor service? Are customers in financial trouble? Are salespeople too lax in negotiating terms? Are the receivables clerks demoralized or inefficient? Is everybody dealing with outdated financial management software? Also, it is important to remember that DSO is an average, and it can be skewed by one or more large, old accounts. Managers should look at the Accounts Receivable aging (which we covered in an earlier chapter), to be sure the DSO number is a true reflection of what is happening with the average customer before going to a lot of work to investigate the increasing DSO. Accounts Receivable Turnover A number closely related to DSO is the Accounts Receivable Turnover. According to your book, it is calculated as follows: Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net Sales/Average Accounts Receivable, where Average Accounts Receivable = (Beginning of Year + End of Year)/2 Another way to find the Accounts Receivable Turnover (if you already have the DSO number) is to divide the number of days in the year by DSO. So, Accounts Receivable Turnover = 365/DSO Using the above calculation, Mooney Company’s Accounts Receivable Turnover for 2012 would be 365/28.6 = 12.7. Notice this is the same number as on page 332, using the other calculation. Think of a turnover as the number of times in a year that something happens. If the Accounts Receivable Turnover is 12.7, you can think of it as, on average, the company going through the cycle of collecting from customers 12.7 times a year. In general, the higher the turnover, the better, because it means the company is becoming more efficient (faster) at selling to customers and collecting cash for those sales. Page 6 Days Payable Outstanding (DPO) This is not covered in your book, but it is an important component of managing cash flow. The Days Payable Outstanding (DPO) ratio shows the average number of days it takes a company to pay its own outstanding invoices (you could think of it as the flip-side to DSO). The calculation is as follows: DPO = Average Accounts Payable/Average Daily COGS, where Average Accounts Payable = (Beginning of Year + End of Year)/2, and Average Daily COGS = COGS/365 days If most of a company’s vendors have credit terms of 2/10, net/30, they expect payment within 30 days. If you calculate DPO for your company and find it is significantly greater than 30 days, you might want to find out why your company is taking so long to pay its own bills. The higher a company’s DPO (the longer the company takes, on average, to pay its bills), the better the company’s cash position (because it is keeping its own cash longer). But remember, the company is someone else’s customer, and the vendor needs to be paid on time in order to meet its own cash needs. So, the higher the DPO, the less happy the vendors are going to be. A company with a reputation for slow payments might find that vendors are not competing for its business quite as aggressively as they have in the past. The company might not be offered as good of prices or as good of payment terms. A company with a reputation for prompt payments will typically be offered good prices and good terms. Managers need to decide what balance it want to keep between preserving its cash and keeping vendors happy. Watching the company’s DPO will tell you a lot about the company’s payment policies. Putting it All Together Using the following selected financial information for Mooney Company from your textbook: 2012 2011 2010 Income Statement items: Net Sales $1,498,000 $1,200,000 Cost of Goods Sold 1,043,000 820,000 Balance Sheet Items: Accounts Receivable, end of year $115,000 $120,000 $140,000 Inventories, end of year 264,000 283,000 311,000 Accounts Payable, end of year 105,000 125,000 135,000 Total current assets, end of year 550,000 533,000 Total current liabilities, end of year 210,000 243,000 Page 7 Mooney Company 2012 Operating Cycle Mooney Company 2011 Operating Cycle Mooney Company: 2012 Calculations 2012 Results 2011 Calculations 2011 Results DII = Average Inventory Average Daily COGS (264,000 + 283,000)/2 (1,043,000/365) 95.7 days (283,000 + 311,000)/2 (820,000/365) 132.2 days Inventory Turnover = 365 DII 365 95.7 3.8 times per year 365 132.2 2.8 times per year DSO = Average Accounts Receivable Average Daily Net Sales (115,000 + 120,000)/2 (1,498,000/365) 28.6 days (120,000 + 140,000)/2 (1,200,000/365) 39.5 days Accounts Receivable Turnover = 365 DSO 365 28.6 12.7 times per year 365 39.5 9.2 times per year DPO = Average Accounts Payable Average Daily COGS (105,000 + 125,000)/2 (1,043,000/365) 40.2 days (125,000 + 135,000)/2 (820,000/365) 57.9 days Cash Conversion Cycle = DII + DSO – DPO 95.7 + 28.6 – 40.2 84.1 days 132.2 + 39.5 – 57.9 113.8 days Average Working Capital Needs = Cash Conversion Cycle x Avg. Daily Sales 84.1 x (1,498,000/365) $345,156 113.8 x (1,200,000/365) $374,137 Inventory period Accts Receivable period Accounts payable period Cash Conversion Cycle 95.7 + 28.6 – 40.2 = 84.1 days Inventory period Accts Receivable period Accounts payable period Cash Conversion Cycle 132.2 + 39.5 – 57.9 = 113.8 days DPO = 40.2 days DII = 95.7 days DSO = 28.6 days DPO = 57.9 days DII = 132.2 days DSO = 39.5 days Page 8 What does all this mean? Mooney Company improved its Inventory management significantly. It reduced the average number of days products are in inventory from 132.2 to 95.7 days. At the same time, the inventory turnover increased. (Notice, this will always happen. If DII decreases, the turnover increases, and vice versa.) In 2012, the company was “turning over” its inventory 3.8 times per year, as compared to 2.8 times the year before, which means it was more efficient in managing its inventory. Mooney Company also significantly improved its Accounts Receivable management. The average number of days it takes the company to collect from customers dropped from 39.5 to 28.6 days. At the same time, the Accounts Receivable turnover increased from 9.2 to 12.7 times per year. (Again, as DSO decreases, the Accounts Receivable turnover increases.) This shows the company is more efficient in collecting from customers. Mooney Company decreased the average number of days it takes to pay its own vendors from 57.9 to 40.2 days. This has a negative effect on Mooney’s cash (working capital) position, because it is paying out money more quickly. The company probably had a good reason to do this. If normal terms are 2/10, n/30, the company was taking a long time to pay in 2011 (57.9 days). Maybe vendors were becoming disgruntled and were not offering good prices or good terms of payment. We do not know Mooney’s vendors’ typical terms, so we do not know if 40.2 is still too long, but from the vendors’ point of view, 40.2 is better than 57.9 days for them to have to wait for payment. The overall effect of these three changes was to decrease the company’s Cash Conversion Cycle from 113.8 to 84.1 days. This is a significant decrease and will have a significant positive effect on the company’s need to borrow money or get more money from owners. The average working capital needs were reduced from $374,000 to $345,000. This will save the company money in interest and will give it more freedom from having to find financing. Mooney Company became more efficient and is more financially stable. And the company did it without increasing sales or cutting operating costs. That is the power of Working Capital Management. Source: Berman, K. and Knight, J. (2008). Financial Intelligence for IT Professionals -- What You Really Need to Know about the Numbers. Boston: Harvard Business Press.



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After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define, classify, and account for the cost of fixed assets.
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define, classify, and account for the cost of fixed assets. Compute depreciation using the straight-line and double-declining-balance methods. Describe the accounting for the disposal of fixed assets. Describe the accounting for the depletion of natural resources. Describe the accounting for intangible assets. Describe how depreciation expense is reported on an income statement, and prepare a balance sheet that includes fixed assets and intangible assets.



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Management’ The objective of a senior officer of any company is to make sure that their business unit is positioned in such a way that is respected and has competitive advantage.
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Management’ The objective of a senior officer of any company is to make sure that their business unit is positioned in such a way that is respected and has competitive advantage. This is irrespective of the business the organization is engaged in or its place of operation. It could be an international corporation of a start-up venture. Thomson Snack Foods is engaged in the business of manufacturing and distributing snack foods in the southeast United States. The company has been taken over by Pomodoro Ltd., a large multinational firm, in the food and beverage industry. The product line is vast, ranging from organic potato and corn chips, pretzels, and peanuts. The job of HR manager becomes more critical and complex as the employees are not only Americans but also of international as well. The challenge is to define and implement a HR policy that complies with the U.S. employment regulations. The new management is very strict about the firm’s staff adhering to a zero- tolerance policy for harassment of any sort in the work place. The management is likely to face special challenge in implementing a comprehensive policy as this is a case of merger where, people from two different organizations, whose origin is from American and International, have their own standard of culture and beliefs of what is right. We intend to implement wage and salary legislation in accordance with the U.S. rules and regulations. Being an equal opportunity employer, we do not discriminate with respect to religion, color, sexual orientation and ethnicity. Our recruitment policy is transparent and the interview method is most modern in nature, consisting of conducting face-to-face with prospective candidates. Listening skills and patience are the qualities we stress on. The compensation plans takes into consideration the performance and contribution to the profit margin of the company. We view sexual harassment as a very serious matter. For this purpose, the message to the employees is of “zero- tolerance”. Even with the first time offender, the policy is very clear. The employee will have to leave the company and also face charges in accordance with the law. We are also aware of the challenges of environment where several factors influence an individual and the organization as a whole. The business is facing challenging times and it is important that we take care of internal and external factors of the environment that can affect our operations as a whole.



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FINC620 Financial Management Credit Hours: 3 CLASS SCHEDULE
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


FINC620 Financial Management Credit Hours: 3 CLASS SCHEDULE Please refer to the course calendar for course start and end dates and assignment due dates. To locate the course calendar from the course homepage: Syllabus >>> Course and Assignment Calendar Financial Management Required Textbooks and Additional Materials: 978-1-4390-7808-2 Corporate Finance Ehrhardt, Michael C. / Brigham, Eugene F. 4th edition/2010 South-Western Publishing Co. Instructor’s Policies Late Policy Assignments submitted after the last day of the course week (Sunday) for the current week will not be accepted unless a request is approved prior to the due date. Please do not ask for extensions unless an emergency exists, remembering that emergencies are an exception. Assignments submitted after the due date will not receive full credit. No credit will be given for assignment turned in more than four days late. No credit can be given for discussion board participation comments posted after the due date. The brevity and accelerated nature of our online learning environment does not allow for ‘extra credit’ assignments. Please do not ask for what I cannot accommodate. If you are having an issue turning an assignment in on time, please communicate with me so we can work through your issues together. Late points will be deducted as follows: One day: minus 10% Two days: minus 15% Three days: minus 25% Four Days: No credit Standardized Grading Scale A 100 – 94 A- 93 – 90 B+ 89 – 87 B 86 – 83 B- 82 – 80 C+ 79 – 77 C 76 – 73 F 72 – 0 The lowest passing grade in a course is “C.” Course Grade Determination Total Points Possible: 1000 Overall course grade determination is allocated as follows: Assignment Points % Forum Topic Response 1 week @ 27 points; 6 weeks @ 28 points 195 20 Forum Discussion 15 points/week 105 10 Weekly Quizzes 6 weeks @ 30 points 180 18 Research Paper (Course Final Assessment) 220 22 Weekly Reflection 1 week @10 pts; 6 weeks @15pts. 100 10 Comprehensive Final Exam 200 20 Total 1000 100% Course Schedule and Assignments Week 1 Text, chapter 9: The Cost of Capital -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #1 -By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Select target and benchmark companies for research paper Week 2 Text, chapter 10: The Basics of Capital Budgeting: Evaluating Cash Flows Text, chapter 11: Cash Flow Estimation and Risk Analysis -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #2 By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Continue research paper Week 3 Text, chapter 12: Financial Planning and Forecasting Financial Statements -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #3 -By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Continue working on research paper Week 4 Text, Ch. 13: Corporate Valuation, Value-Based Management and Corporate Governance -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #4 -By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Continue working on research paper Week 5 Text, chapter 14: Distributions to Shareholders: Dividends and Repurchases Text, chapter 15: Capital Structure Decisions -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #5 -By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Research paper draft should be complete or nearing completion Week 6 Text, chapter 16: Working Capital Management -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -By day 7 - Complete weekly quiz #6 -By day 7 – Compose/post weekly reflection -Day 7 – Submit completed research paper. Week 7 Text, chapter 17: Multinational Corporate Finance -Day 2 – Post forum topic response -Day 3 – Begin posting forum discussion comments -Day 3 – Final exam due -By day 5 – Compose/post weekly reflection Assignment Descriptions The five course grading dimensions are discussed and described: 1.) Forum Topic Responses and Forum Discussion (300 points) One comprehensive forum topic is assigned weekly. Students are required to research the forum topic, using a minimum of 3 reference sources in addition to text book, and then compile a 1,000-word response to the forum topic no later than Day 2 of the week. Comprehensive, forum topic response contributions will be critically graded on the thought quality of the response, work effort, research, and analysis. Forum topic response contributions will be critically graded on the thought quality of the response, work effort, research, and analysis. Forum topic responses and discussion are worth 27 points for week 1, and 28 points for weeks 2-7. Students are also expected to actively participate in the in the discussion forum. Weekly, students are required to log in a minimum of 3 separate days, beginning no later than Day 3. A minimum of 3 substantive participation posts (200-250 words) is required to earn full participation points. Thus, a minimum of 4 posts are required weekly: the forum topic response, plus 3 participation posts [comments to other students]. Complying with the minimum posting requirement will not earn maximum credit. Forum discussion work is worth 15 points/week. Students will earn points each week for their discussion participation based on the following criteria: Timely Contributions Excellent 15 points Average 12 points Below Average 10 points None 0 points minimum 3 contributions well distributed throughout wk minimum 2-3 contributions somewhat distributed throughout wk minimum 2 contributions not distributed throughout wk no contributions or only DQ answer Quality of Contribution & Demonstration of Knowledge Clearly understands concepts and incorporates them in discussion Always advances discussion Always includes examples and real life applications Understands concepts and incorporates them in discussion Often/sometimes advances discussion Often/sometimes includes examples and real life applications Not evident concepts are understood and are not incorporated in discussion Responses are copied, have little to do with concepts and doesn’t advance discussion Examples and real life applications are not included NA 2.) Weekly Quizzes (180 points) The course contains 6 quizzes, each providing the student with 2 attempts to successfully complete the quiz, demonstrating mastery of the learning content. The 6 weekly quizzes, cumulatively, build to the comprehensive final exam. 3.) Research Paper (220 points) (Course Final Assessment) Note: The Master of Business Administration classes (ACCT, BUSN, FINC, HCMG, HRMG, MGMT, MKTG and MAPH) require a grade of C or better on the final assessment in the class in order to earn a passing grade in the course. This requirement must be met by all students completing these courses regardless of degree or program (excluding the Executive MBA students). The research paper assignment is worth 220 points or 22% of the course grade. A grade of C or better is required as per MBA policy as this is the Final Assessment for the course. The objectives/purpose of the research paper project are to enable you to do a comprehensive financial analysis of a publicly traded corporation; and provide you with substantial information for you to make recommendations regarding investing in this corporation. Your financial analysis report will be driven by a rigorous ratio analysis, and aggressively supplemented with your written analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of the data. Your research should be strategically driven by two probing questions: -Would you invest your financial capital in the selected firm as a shareholder? -Would you invest your human and intellectual capital in the firm as an employee? Steps in preparation of financial analysis report: 1.) Select a publicly held company 2.) Select a benchmark firm to compare your company against. The benchmark firm is typically the largest competitor. 3.) Obtain the firm’s balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows for the past 5 years. Download or read the firm’s annual report. 4.) Go to: http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/webusers.htm Research EDGAR’s database for additional SEC report filings: 8-k, 10-Q. 4.) The following table is the type of Excel or Word table that should be used to gather and report your ratio and financial performance data. Note the 5 financial diagnostic categories that should be used in your analysis. Financial diagnostic categories Chosen company vs. Benchmark competitor 1.) Liquidity of short-term assets -Current ratio -Cash ratio -Quick ratio -Current ratio -Cash ratio -Quick ratio 2.) Long-term debt-paying ability -Debt ratio -Debt-equity ratio -Times interest earned -Debt ratio -Debt-equity ratio -Times interest earned 3.) Profitability -Net income/sales (profit margin) -Net income/assets (ROA) -Net income/shareholder equity (ROE) -Net income/sales (profit margin) -Net income/assets (ROA) -Net income/shareholder equity (ROE) 4.) Asset utilization/ management efficiency -Total asset turnover -Inventory turnover measures -Accounts receivable turnover -Total asset turnover -Inventory turnover measures -Accounts receivable turnover 5.) Market measures -Price/earnings ratio -Earnings per common share -Dividend payout -Price/earnings ratio -Earnings per common share -Dividend payout Use 2-3 ratios per diagnostic category. Place your ratio calculations in the table for your selected companies—primary company and benchmark competitor. Using 5 diagnostic categories, and 3 ratios to assess each category, results in 15 ratio measures per company that will be compared side by side. 6.) To validate your research, 5 years of data should be analyzed. 7.) The financial analysis report must be written properly. They must include a title page, a table of contents, and a reference page. For both midterm and final report, information sources from the web, etc. must be cited properly, using APA style. This means that every table that you cut and pasted or typed from the web must have a source at the bottom of the table AND that citing must also be included in a reference page at the end of the report. The parts of the research paper are discussed below. The completed report (parts a through h) is due day 7 of week 6. Your project should include: a. An overview of the corporation. i. Provide general information regarding the type of business, products and/or services, location of headquarters, name of CEO, number of employees, and countries of operation, etc. b. The latest financial statements i. Get the income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, and the statement of owners’ equity for the past fiscal year. Create Turnitin-friendly versions of the financial statements; do not just ‘cut and paste’ them in your report. Do not forget to cite the source under each statement. ii. If you cannot cut and paste them, you may have to type in the information in a table in your report. c. A summary of each financial statement i. Take each statement and state the key parts in words. Tell a story from each of the financial statements. For example, for the income statement, the story starts like, “Total Revenues in 2010 were $10 billion, while Cost of Goods Sold were $8 billion, leaving a gross profit margin of $2 billion, or 20 percent of total revenues….After taking out interest and taxes from EBIT, the net income was $0.5 billion, or 5 percent of total revenues.” d. Ratio calculation (include 5 major types of ratios. Refer to chapter 3, Analysis of Financial Statements) i. Organization of this section is based on the FIVE types of ratios listed in the text book. Calculate the ratios from the financial statements in part c above using Excel or your calculator and present them in a table. ii. Find industry financial ratios online (eg. Yahoo.com) and compare your corporation’s ratios to these industry ratios. iii. Present your results following the five types of ratios discussed in part d. iv. A table with both corporation and industry ratios is required; v. e. Discussion of key statistics provided by sources like Yahoo finance. i. There are many different other statistics available for your corporation. These include market value, beta, and diluted EPS, etc. Discuss some of the key statistics that you think can assist you to determine if this corporation is a good buy or sell. f. For you to decide if a corporation’s stock is a good buy or sell, you must forecast several key variables, including the stock price. i. Use historical prices (5 years of monthly data recommended) and forecast the stock price for the next year. Use regression analysis, and/or moving average, etc. to create your forecast. ii. Create a graph from the historical data and show your forecast on the same graph. You can add a trend line to the graph to help you with a forecast. Include the graph in your report. iii. You need to say specifically what the forecasted value of the stock price is. iv. You must address the question, “Is this forecast reasonable?” Must you amend your analysis to get a more reasonable forecast? g. Other information pertinent to the corporation that could affect its future performance and stock price. i. This could include dividend policy, capital structure, bond ratings, expert opinions on TV, new projects, litigation, regulation, etc. Search for information on the web regarding this corporation. Look at company complaint blogs, etc. h. Recommendation regarding the future of this corporation. i. Is the stock a good buy, average buy, or a poor buy (implying a good sell)? ii. Include a justification of your recommendation based on your analysis and research. 5.) Weekly Reflection (100 points) Weekly, students are asked to reflect on their learning outcomes and course experience and then post their thoughts in the Reflection forum. The weekly reflection should be no less than 300 words. 6.) Final exam (200 points) The final comprehensive exam is an assessment of your overall financial knowledge, and will, therefore, include chapters covered in the course; prerequisite concepts addressed in the beginning chapters of the text in Finance 510; and/or your previous finance classes if Finance 510 was waived. Be prepared to demonstrate your overall financial knowledge. The final exam will be administered in the week 7.



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Management Homework Help Management is an important constituent of any business organization. Knowledge
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Management Homework Help Management is an important constituent of any business organization. Knowledge of management is necessary for meeting objectives of the team, better utilization of resources, efficient operation , cost reduction, ensuring an increase in the production and overall growth of the organization. It is also helps in establishing hierarchy within an organization. Our team of qualified experts can help you gain a better understanding of the concepts underlying Management and provide you efficient assistance with all your Management homework assignments to ensure your academic and business related success. The expertise available with us covers a wide variety of general introductory management assignments and specialized fields as well. These include Business Management, Human Resource Management, Marketing Management, Strategic Management, Complexity Management, and Finance Management. The assignments for which we have provided solutions are on various topics such as Cost Benefit Analysis, Situation Analysis, Needs Assessment, Project Management, Risk Management, Knowledge Management, Pareto’s Principle, Planning and Budgeting, Team Building, Standardization, Value Analysis, Key Performance Indicators, Ethics, Principles of Decision Making, Monitoring and Evaluation, Organization of Services and Customer Satisfaction Surveys. We are a team of experts having expertise in business, management, engineering, math, physics, chemistry and other similar subject. Our tutors are qualified from reputed universities and are ever ready to provide you help in your assignments. We also provide help with online classes, exams, tests, quizzes, assignments etc. Our assistance can be sought various levels such as undergraduate, graduate and post graduate as well. We do not aim to provide you with just the solution to the question but also explain you the entire method and concepts utilized in solving the question. Our management experts are available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week to provide you with professional quality assistance with your Management assignment. We are punctual with due dates, and deliver the assignment to you within the mutually decided time frame. We also accommodate last minute assignment requests.



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The title of the assignment, The student’s name, The professor’s name, The course title, and The date
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


The title of the assignment, The student’s name, The professor’s name, The course title, and The date POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE ELECTORAL PROCESS American political ideology is based on liberalism. Consequently, in the United States, almost everyone believes in having a limited government and free market as well as individual liberty. There are two major parties in the country, Democrats and Republicans. Generally Democrats happen to lean towards the left and Republicans slightly toward the right. Difference between the two parties arises because each one of them has a different opinion as to how best to achieve these goals. Their political ideologies are not colossal as they end to disagree with each other. However, ultimately members of both the parties share beliefs that are quite similar. This is not the case with members of political parties in most of other countries across the globe. Americans represent a balance of the two extremes of liberalism and socialism. The former favors no government at all and the later favor a high degree of government involvement. The proponents of American liberalism argue that the government is formed; it needs to make sure that equality among the citizens is maintained. For example, liberal groups continuously worked for the rights of African Americans and other minorities. Even in the current scenario, a lot of liberals are pushing for gay rights, affirmative action, open immigration and other similar policies. Normally, liberals aim at achieving social, political and economic equality. They also push for expansive civil liberties. They want the government to help the poor and ensure that rich do not end up having too much power. They support capitalism but at the same time, do not want a totally free market. They feel some government action required to minimize the worst aspects of the market. Hence the favor, more taxes for the wealthier than the poor and simultaneously fight for welfare programs to provide aid to the poor. They also believed that government should spend more amount of money on education and take suitable action to promote equal opportunities. Sometimes conservatives and liberals work together to strengthen the national economy, especially in items of crisis or aggression. For example in the 60’s and 70’s, John F. Kennedy increased military spending exponentially and Lyndon Johnson dramatically expanded America’s role in the Vietnam War. The conservatives in America believe that the primary job of government is to protect freedom of the people and also provide them security. Beyond that government should not interfere in the lives of its subject and should give full freedom to the people to act, do and behave as they see fit. The government should promote freedom, which, according to them, takes priority over equality. Prosperity can be achieved only if government stays out of the economy altogether. Low taxation, minimal regulations, can only make the market function in an efficient manner. The plight of the poor should not be ignored but their future prospect can be enhancing by providing them with ample opportunities to better their lot. Belief in religion, favoring lower taxes, opposition to gay marriage and abortion, support to traditional norms to family is some of the hallmarks of the conservatives. Libertarian ideals have contributed to the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union, which has played a very important role in the monitoring of what is seen as excessive government power. American socialists back strong federal leadership and centralization of the economy so that greater benefit to the public can be provided. Most of the socialists in America are democratize who want to preserved the American tradition of representing the government. The electoral system in the United States works on plurality i.e. winner –take-all system. A candidate is declared as elected by gaining plurality, or more votes than any other candidate. There is no reward for the party or candidate that finishes second. Therefore, parties aim to be a large as possible. In this process, they try to smoothen out difference among candidates and voters. This is because there is no incentive to form a party the consistency gets votes but cannot win an election. Therefore, two parties generally dominate plurality electoral systems to the disadvantage of the smaller third parties, just as the Democrats and the Republicans dominate the American political system. While no person or organization prevents third parties from forming, but the plurality system itself usually hinders their efforts to win votes. The United States also has mostly single-member districts, meaning that each legislative district sends only one member to the legislature. There is no benefit to finishing second. Some countries use multiple-member districts, which makes it easier for minor parties to succeed because there are more members winning seats in the legislature. The Electoral College exacerbates the winner-take-all system because in all but two states, whoever wins the most popular votes wins all of the state’s electoral votes in the presidential election. The electoral rules favor a two-party system, and minor parties have a very difficult time competing in such a system. Even successful third-party candidates often fail to get a single electoral vote. Example: In the 1992 presidential election, independent candidate H. Ross Perot received nearly 19 percent of the popular vote, but he did not get a single electoral vote. Other recent third-party candidates—including John Anderson in 1980, Perot again in 1996, and Ralph Nader in 2000—also failed to win electoral votes. The last third-party candidate to win any electoral votes was George Wallace in 1968’s tumultuous election. Many other democratic legislatures use proportional representation instead of plurality to determine how seats are allocated to political parties. Parties win seats in the legislature in rough proportion to the percentage of the popular votes the party wins. A party that receives 30 percent of the votes, for example, will get roughly 30 percent of the seats in the legislature. In multiparty systems, parties can achieve electoral success without winning a majority, so there is less reason to form giant parties that strive for the majority. Advantages and Disadvantages There are a few advantages of the American two-party system: • Stability: Two-party systems are more stable than multiparty systems • Moderation: The two parties must appeal to the middle to win elections, so the parties tend to be moderate. • Ease: Voters have only to decide between two parties. But there are also a few disadvantages to this system, including the following: • Lack of choice: Both parties tend to be very similar, limiting voters’ options. • Less democratic: A percentage of people will always feel marginalized by the system. Most democratic countries have more than two parties. For example in Israel, twelve parties or party alliances held seats in the seventeenth Knesset. Japan has several major parties, including the Liberal Democratic Party, the Democratic Party of Japan, the New Komeito, and the Japanese Communist Party. Most Americans look favorably on the two-party system because it has dominated much of American politics from the very beginning. The Republican and Democratic parties have existed for more than 150 years, and that history gives them a legitimacy that third parties do not have. The two-party system is also self-perpetuating. Children grow up identifying with one of the two major parties instead of a third party because children tend to share their parents’ political views. Throughout much of American history, central issues have divided the electorate. In the early decades of the republic, for example, the extent of federal power dominated politics. Some political scientists might argue that today’s polarizing issues include abortion and gay marriage. Such polarizing issues have helped maintain the two-party system in the United States: Each party rallies around one side of the issue at hand. Political parties sometimes change their names. In 1977, the Prohibition Party renamed itself the National Statesmen Party. However, the party’s vote total went down dramatically in the 1980 election, so it changed the name back—and regained some votes during the 1984 election. Third parties face many obstacles in the United States. In all states, the Democratic and Republican candidates automatically get on the ballot, whereas third-party candidates usually have to get thousands of signatures on petitions just to be listed on the ballot. The state and federal governments, which make rules governing elections, are composed of elected Democratic and Republican officials, who have a strong incentive to protect the existing duopoly. Also, third-party candidates often face financial difficulties because a party must have received at least 5 percent of the vote in the previous election in order to qualify for federal funds. One can compare the function of Democrats and Republican with Coke and Pepsi. Each of them wants to have the largest market share but also recognize that it is in their mutual interest to keep out the third cola from entering in the market and sufficient share. Some of the important third parties that are in existence are Prohibition Party (founded in 1867). It has nominated a candidate for president in every election since 1972. Progressive Party is another one that was founded in the year 1912. It elected a number of candidates to state legislatures, Congress, and even the U. S. Senate. It deflected enough votes from Republican William Howard Taft to hand over the presidency to Democrat Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Other parties are American Independent Party (1968), Libertarian Party (1971) and Green Party (1984). All these parties met with some success by having some of their members win local elections. Third parties find favor with people due to their ideology. People who feel very strongly about a particular issue might be drawn to a third party that focuses exclusively on that issue. For example Green Party focused on the monetary system and the Prohibition Party highlighted the evils of consumption of alcohol. The Populist Party, on the other hand, grew out of the Populist movement, and the Republican Party developed primarily out of the abolitionist movement. Dissatisfaction with the status quo is another reason as to why third parties form when part of the major party breaks off in protest and forms a splinter party. For example, Theodore Roosevelt led a group of dissidents out of the Republican Party to form the splinter Progressive Party. Geographical location is also instrumental in the formation of third parties. These parties can remain closely tied to a specific region, which can increase their appeal. Chicago’s Harold Washington Party, for example, seeks to carry on the legacy of Harold Washington, the city’s first African American mayor. Many people join third parties because of the charismatic personality of the party’s candidate. In such case, if the leader leaves the party, the party collapses, which are what, happened to the Reform Party in the mid 90’s. It was founded by Ross Perot, after his first presidential bid in the year 1992. The Reform Party served as a base for Perot in his campaign in 1996. Once Perot decided not to contest again, the political clout of Reform Party declined substantially. In 2000, the party split over the candidacy of the former Republican Pat Buchanan. The result was neither Buchanan nor his Reform Party rival gained enough votes and the party ultimately disappeared from the national scene. In spite of all the drawbacks and failures, third parties have been able to affect the American politics in a number of ways. Third parties propose many new government policies and practices. For example, the Populist Party introduced ideas that influenced some economic policies of the New Deal, whereas the Anti- Masonic Party was the first party to use a convention to nominate its candidate in the mid 19th century. Third parties are also known to force the major parties to address potential diverse problems. For example in 1992, neither Bill Clinton nor George H.W. Bush talked much about the budget deficit until independent Ross Perot emphasized it in his campaign. Third parties can also cost one party an election by playing as the spoiler. For instance if a third party draws enough votes away from a major party, it can prevent that party from winning. For example Ralph Nader’s attempt in the 2000 presidential election may have cost Al Gore the presidency by drawing off votes in key states such as Florida. Party competition is the mechanism that enables voting majorities to have a substantial influence on the direction of government. This competition peaks during periods of realignment but at all times is a vital aspect of democratic government. Throughout most of the nation's history, political competition has centered on two parties. This two-party tendency is explained by the nature of America's electoral system, political institutions, and political culture. Minor parties exist in the United States but have been unable to compete successfully for governing power. The Republican and Democratic coalitions are very broad. Each includes a substantial proportion of nearly every economic, ethnic, religious, and regional grouping in the country. To win an electoral majority, each of the two major parties must appeal to a diverse set of interests; this necessity normally leads them to advocate moderate and somewhat overlapping policies and to avoid taking detailed positions on controversial issues. Only during national crises are America's parties likely to present the electorate with starkly different policy alternatives. Political parties serve to link the public with its elected leaders and to organize political conflict. In the United States, this linkage is provided by a two-party system; only the Republican and Democratic parties have any chance of winning control of government. The first political parties evolved through Jackson's grassroots framework to the emergence of Lincoln's Republican Party in 1860. Since that time, the Republicans and Democrats have monopolized the system, alternating through victory and defeat. References Patterson T., Gary Halter (2011) the American Democracy McGraw-Hill Education, Streb M.J. (2011) Rethinking American Electoral Democracy Taylor & Francis, Fife B.L. (2010) Reforming the Electoral Process in America: Toward More Democracy in the 21st Century ABC-CLIO Maisel L.S., Mark D. Brewer (2011) Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process Rowman & Littlefield Publishers



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Management’ The objective of a senior officer of any company is to make sure that their business
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Management’ The objective of a senior officer of any company is to make sure that their business unit is positioned in such a way that is respected and has competitive advantage. This is irrespective of the business the organization is engaged in or its place of operation. It could be an international corporation of a start-up venture. Thomson Snack Foods is engaged in the business of manufacturing and distributing snack foods in the southeast United States. The company has been taken over by Pomodoro Ltd., a large multinational firm, in the food and beverage industry. The product line is vast, ranging from organic potato and corn chips, pretzels, and peanuts. The job of HR manager becomes more critical and complex as the employees are not only Americans but also of international as well. The challenge is to define and implement a HR policy that complies with the U.S. employment regulations. The new management is very strict about the firm’s staff adhering to a zero- tolerance policy for harassment of any sort in the work place. The management is likely to face special challenge in implementing a comprehensive policy as this is a case of merger where, people from two different organizations, whose origin is from American and International, have their own standard of culture and beliefs of what is right. We intend to implement wage and salary legislation in accordance with the U.S. rules and regulations. Being an equal opportunity employer, we do not discriminate with respect to religion, color, sexual orientation and ethnicity. Our recruitment policy is transparent and the interview method is most modern in nature, consisting of conducting face-to-face with prospective candidates. Listening skills and patience are the qualities we stress on. The compensation plans takes into consideration the performance and contribution to the profit margin of the company. We view sexual harassment as a very serious matter. For this purpose, the message to the employees is of “zero- tolerance”. Even with the first time offender, the policy is very clear. The employee will have to leave the company and also face charges in accordance with the law. We are also aware of the challenges of environment where several factors influence an individual and the organization as a whole. The business is facing challenging times and it is important that we take care of internal and external factors of the environment that can affect our operations as a whole.



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Session 7: Separation of Powers and Public Administration (Oct 9-16) Assignment Questions:
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Session 7: Separation of Powers and Public Administration (Oct 9-16) Assignment Questions: 1. Civil Service Reform Act. This question contains two questions and counts for two different questions in terms of points. First, what did the Civil Service Reform Act accomplish? What ethical issues surround the SES? The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (CSRA) is applicable to labor organizations which represents employees in most agencies of the executive branch of the Federal Government. The regulations implementing the standards of conduct provisions of the CSRA incorporate several provisions of the Labor- Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA). These provisions include the one that are related to labor organization reporting requirements. The LMRDA grants rights to union members and also protects their interests. This is achieved by promoting democratic procedures with in respective labor organizations. The LMRDA assures the following:- • a Bill of Rights for union members; • reporting requirements for labor organizations, union officers and employees, employers, labor-relations consultants, and surety companies; • standards for the regular election of union officers; and • Safeguards for protecting labor organization funds and assets. The proponents of civil service were of the view that it was essential to reform the spoils system, i.e. a process by which an individual who supported the election of a candidate was rewarded with a prominent post in the government. The reformers believed that personal favors should not be the criteria for awarding these posts. There should be some type of test of merit or basic qualifications for persons to be appointed to non-elected positions in the government. Legislation was adopted in the year 1871, when a rider was adopted to an appropriation ac, which authorized the establishment of regulations for admission into the civil service with regard to knowledge, ability, and other job performance factors. Later developments established the fact that spoils system was responsible for revolt and even assassination of the President James A. Garfield in the year 1881. This incident was exploited by the civil service reformers to push for revision of the act. The Pendleton Act transformed the civil service and greatly affected the organization structure of the political parties to a large extent. The result of the same is for us to see, as government workers are becoming more professional and better educated, and in the matter of their selection, political influence was being replaced by business skill and overall competency. A series of executive orders was also important in shifting the emphasis from a necessary political reform to a positive search for better procedures and personnel. Some of the more important of these directives reflected the changing nature of national life, its economy, and its values. It led to further reforms and Congress passed the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which is the most sweeping reform legislation since the Pendleton Act in 1883. It abolished the Civil Service Commission and split its functions among an Office of Personnel Management, a Federal Labor Relations Authority, and an independent quasi-judicial Merit System Protection Board. The ethical issues surrounding the Act were witnessed in the emergence of Watergate scandal. Where does the power end and where does the power originate? The clash or conflict of interest has a very thin veil and sometimes it becomes difficult to justify the action on the basis of moral grounds or power given to the executive to take actions. ===================================================================================== 2. Control over the Bureaucracy. Specifically, how do Congress and the President Control administrative discretion? What is at stake here? (Hint: you will want to incorporate the Gaus and Rosenbloom articles for this answer). Federal bureaucracy is a huge structure consisting of around 2.6 million employees. It throws a big challenge to monitor and control their actions. Everyone working in bureaucracy is responsible for administering the law. The executive branch mostly manages the federal bureaucracy. Even though it controls the majority of federal bureaucracy, legislative and judiciary branches have an equal role to play and influence. For example, Congress, through its power of concept, controls and monitors the working of federal bureaucracy and makes sure that it works in a proper manner. There are five types of organizations in the federal bureaucracy viz. Cabinet departments, Independent executive agencies, Independent regulatory agencies, Government corporations, Presidential commissions. Each of them has their own role to play in controlling and monitoring the actions of the bureaucracy. Administrative discretion as the name suggest is “the exercise of professional expertise and judgment, as opposed to strict adherence to regulations or statutes, in making a decision performing official acts of duties. “ Since discretionary power is informal in nature, it is unprotected by the safeguards which are part and parcel of the formal procedure. A public official, by virtue of the position he occupies, has administrative discretion when he has the freedom to make a choice among the potential courses of action. The most important point to note is the abuse of discretion, which is what need to be monitored and controlled. Failure to exercise reasonable judgment or discretion leads to abuse of power or discretion. To quote from examples of court most judicial determinations are made based on evidence introduced at legal proceedings. Evidence may consist of oral testimony, written testimony, videotapes and sound recordings, documentary evidence such as exhibits and business records, and a host of other materials, including voice exemplars, handwriting samples, and blood tests. Similarly, Congress and the President should use their discretionary power judiciously and in an appropriate manner. Both Congress and the President as decision-makers use their discretionary powers in good faith and for a proper, intended and authorized purpose. These decision-makers do not act outside of their powers. No decision-maker has an unfettered discretionary decision-making power. It is not sufficient to exercise discretion and approve an application simply because it seems the right thing to do. When exercising discretion, decision-makers need to act reasonably and impartially. They must not handle matters in which they have an actual or reasonably perceived conflict of interest. According to Gauss and Rosenbloom ( a well known scholar in the field of Public Administrator ), the discretionary decision should be taken b public administrator by taking into consideration three constitutional powers , viz. law , politics and management. In pursuing this logic, the writer has become a leading advocate for establishing ‘constitutional competence” as a basic standard for public service professionals. Managerial- The Managerial foundation is used to manage the performance of organizations so that they will be successful. Key areas include administrative decision-making, managerial techniques, leaders, and employee contributions. By these elements working together, organizations are able to operate successfully. Political- The Political approach discusses how the political officials oversee the different administrative decisions. Politicians have the final say on the laws that public administrators are tasked with executing. Rosenbloom states that the Politics/Administration Dichotomy is a principle stating that politics and administration should remain separate in the public sector which was developed by the Civil Service Reforms of the 1870s and the 1880s. According to him, the idea that public administration can be separated from politics is strange. He believes that if politics and public administration were separate, this approach would not work, emphasizing their inevitable interconnection. Legal- the Legal approach was, according to Rosenbloom, the most crucial. The Rule of Law involves orderliness, comprehension, and spells out when and how tasks will be completed. Rosenbloom argues that in order to carry out their tasks, public administrators must be competent in their legal and constitutional obligations and restrictions. Rosenbloom’s argues that to understand public administration, it is not sufficient enough to use just one of the approaches, but to think of all three at the same time. Rosenbloom documents that in 1946, by making major reforms, Congress became the central authority in how public administration operated in the federal government, incorporating all three approaches. According to Rosenbloom, public administration at other levels should operate in the same way.



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