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Critical Thought in Post Modern World Student’s name Name of the Institute Introduction In the olden or modern times, people used to believe in what their ancestors or the
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Critical Thought in Post Modern World Student’s name Name of the Institute Introduction In the olden or modern times, people used to believe in what their ancestors or the other people used to say. In the post modern era, the critical thought has replaced the lack of substance. When a person predicts or explains anything then unless the other person finds out the validity, authenticity, substance and proof of its existence, he does not easily believe it. In this essay we will define on what actually are the critical thought, post modern era and substance in a thought. We will present this concept and explain the logic and reasoning behind this with the help of few examples. We will take this statement against as well as for and explain up to which level it is correct. Literature Review Post Modernism has been the language or the age in which people have been rejecting the absolute truth. It is usually said that what appears to you as truth may not be truth to me. It has been observed that up till 19th century all people used to accept the theory of truth. This means that certain realities, truths and the statements made by the people were accepted uniformly. In the pre-modern era people were highly superstitious which is ruled by the unquestioning acceptance of the authorities and beliefs. The people were highly believers of the authoritative figures on the religious and secular grounds. They believed to trust the religions for providing the answers for the mysteries of their lives. In the modern era superstition was replaced with the enlightenment. In this the era was started by questioning the objectivity of the logics and beliefs created by authorities and traditions. This era has enlightened the rise of secularisms; fundamentalisms which rejected the primacy of religions with the thought of presence of God but rejected to accept the control prevailed by the churches in the life of national community. Although the replacement had started in the modern era only because of the long existence of superstition and non-human philosophy but it got replaced in the post modern era. This era was basically the critic of the ideas of modern era in which there is a loss of faith in the ideas of one true pathway towards certain universal goals. Instead the era emphasizes on multiple pathways and plurality, diversity, and with the idea of all knowledge is biased. Thus the post modern era is emphasized on the presence of fragmentation, diversity, discontinuity, multiplicity, and on the contingencies of connections. This era included in it the people with the radical and logical thinking who would never accept anything simply when others have made it and presented. Rather they would themselves be encouraged to question and test that statement in order to accept and validate it (McLaren, 1995). It was being said by the Modern and Post Modern Philosophers that how can the statements be accepted just like that, one day it has to be questioned and the age has come. Instead of what is told or written in the ancient inscriptions, people started questioning and discovering the facts whether there exists the actual proof or the substance of their existences. It was then accepted as a fact that right or wrong, truth or lie and true or false is not the uniform statements rather constructs which are social and they change from tradition to tradition, culture to culture, people to people without even arising the conflict or the logic behind it. Post Modernism has rejected the reasons and said that humans are no longer the centre of all the things. It simply says that there is no such thing as foundation. The era was characterized by the belief that both religion and science have failed us which is neither can be trusted to provide the answers for the mysteries of lives nor to solve the mystifying problems of lives as well. It says that substance is essential in order to encourage and validate the critical thinking (Lankshear & McLaren, 1993). Although this era has given the true aspect of life, human and the theories yet there has occurred a lot of reasoning and questioning on everything. Sometimes the things take a more than longer time to prove their existences. There is a beginning of pervasive culture which brings pessimism thinking on the clinical, ideological and political grounds of the authorities and the institutions. I completely agree that one should not accept everything as a blind but at the same time questioning each and everything in this busy world is sheer wastage of time. The traditional beliefs and thoughts were get enlightened with the involvement of practical and logical approaches and then the decision were based on the trusts on the basis of spiritual experiences which is regardless to the culture, attitudes and generation effects. Image and lack of substance has been clearly replaced with the critical thinking and the presence of the substance. Also this era questions by saying that “There is no such thing called as Absolute Truth” but if we really analyze this statement then we may clearly say that this it is an absolute truth statement that there is no absolute truth. Because everything holds different circumstances and conditions which may not be related to one another on which the unrelated facts can be justified on the basis of universally accepted thought which may termed as absolute truth. This may lead to situational ethics which further lead it towards the law of subjectivity and relevancy. Although post modernism views rejects the views of the world whereas the counter argument is that since it is life theory on its meaning, truth and moral values which qualifies as a view given by the world. We may also say that n one side it rejects the absolute truth whereas the propagators of Post Modernism wants everyone to listen and accept the absolute truth given by them. We may therefore say that there have been a lot of contradictions in the post modern theory and era as what people question then spread the same in the world by their new concepts. Asking reasons for even the smaller things will others doubt our personalities or think that we no more would like to move with the culture or the society. It is essential that we reason and question the statements that we think have no logic and have been trying to overpower us but at the same time we should make a clear distinguish on the statement that should be questioned or the one that should be accepted as it comes. Conclusion It has been said by a philosopher named: Francis Bacon that “The reasonless are like spiders who make cobwebs out of their substance”. Hence Post Modern era has replaced the blind thinking that used to exist and has brought the new ideas filled with substances and validations for proving the existence of these concepts. As per Francis too; people can no longer believe or accept the statements of the olden times, they will ask for its proof and for these reasons and validations they may raise so many questions and statements that it will become like a cobweb of the questions and these people behave like spiders. On one side it is correct that we should not accept everything as it comes but on the other side questioning each and every small thing wastes time and makes us different from others. It is right to question but only the ones which are without any proof or not accepted by others too. Certain things should be accepted even without any substance as if a person cares for us then he thinks about us. We need not ask for the proof of his love and care for us. Similarly there has been a power that is controlling and ruling the world which is named as god from the ancient times. We have to accept it rather than questioning that he does not exists and if he is not there then who is ruling this world. In the nutshell Post Modernism has brought substance, reasoning, critical thinking and enlightenment among the people but the real big question still remains on where to apply these concepts and where to accept the statements as being said and applied (Schanck, 1991). References McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. Psychology Press. Soja, E. W. (1989). Post Modern Geographies: the reassertion of space in critical social theory. Verso. Lankshear, C., & McLaren, P. (Eds.). (1993). Critical literacy: Politics, praxis, and the postmodern. SUNY Press. Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. Psychology Press. Schanck, P. C. (1991). Understanding postmodern thought and its implications for statutory interpretation. S. Cal. L. Rev., 65, 2505.



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Liability Worksheet 1. Calculate the total simple interest to be paid on each of the following balloon
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Liability Worksheet 1. Calculate the total simple interest to be paid on each of the following balloon notes: a) 60-day note for $10,000 with 11% interest b) 3-month note for $5,000 with 8% interest c) 4-year note for $20,000 with 5% interest 2. Under what section would the note (c) above be shown on the balance sheet? 3. Horton Company signed a 3-month, 6%, $1000 note on December 1. Journalize the signing of the note, the accrued interest on December 31, and the payment of the note on March 1. 4. Marko Insurance Company received $3000 from John Smith in payment of a 3-year insurance policy on January 1. Record the receipt of the payment and the adjusting entry on December 31. 5. Fridgeco warrants its products for one year. The estimated product warranty is 5% of sales. January sales were $300,000. In February, a customer received warranty repairs in the amount of $400. Journalize the adjusting entry on January 31.



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Health and Social Care Unit 2 P1. Describe the values that underpin prevision of one in health and social care.
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Health and Social Care Unit 2 P1. Describe the values that underpin prevision of one in health and social care. Care values are needed in a health and social care setting as service users and providers need to be ensured about their safety. The need of values helps the quality of the carers so that they can provide the care that the service user will need. There are many rules that a service provider will need to uphold while working in a health and social care setting such as confidentiality, dignity, respect, privacy, non discrimination and self guarding. Confidentiality Confidentiality is a set of rules or promise that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information. The main duty of this is based on the trust and respect you have with your provider and user also the fundamental safe and effective care in the environment of trust and encourages people to be open and honest with those who care for them to provide all the details necessary so that they receive the best care possible. The set of rules that a service provider will need to uphold in a care setting: 1. The use of confidentiality of service user’s information should be treated confidentially and respectfully. 2. The members of the care team should share confidential information when it is needed for the safe and effective care of an individual. 3. Information that is shared for the benefit of the community should be anonymised 4. An individual right to object to the sharing of confidential information about them should be respected. Privacy Privacy means when you have the right to be let alone, or freedom from the interference. As an care provider you must ensure that, the service user gives permission before accessing their documents. Dignity means when treating others with self-respect also ensuring that their self-esteem is kept up, as a service provider must ensure that behaviour and attitude can help overcome insecure feelings.



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America has grown leaps and bounds when it comes to agricultural. One way that the United States has increased the food production is by scientists altering
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


America has grown leaps and bounds when it comes to agricultural. One way that the United States has increased the food production is by scientists altering genetic material, or DNA, it's called genetic modification (GM). Genetically modifying foods or food crops can enhance taste and quality, increase nutrients or improve resistance to pests and disease. Another way that We have increased food production. Another way that the US has increased food production is by increasing the temperatures when the are farming, whether it be by establishing farms in the states where it is warmer, or controlling the temperature in climate controlled farms. The downfall to changing the GM is that is has not been researched to deem this process safe. The benefits sound great, but there could be some serious side effects. Upon changing the temperature, it could help increase the issue of global warming, many farmers lose their farms, or have to relocate to move to warmer areas to tend to their crops. But the most important downfall is that when you use temperature to speed up the harvest, the crops lose their nutrients. For some crops (such as grains), faster growth reduces the amount of time that seeds have to grow and mature. Discovery.com http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html The author has very well explained the technique of genetic modification (GM). This technique is used to modify fruits and food crops so that they can be made more tasty and of better quality. Pests and diseases are two of the most common enemies of crops and GM helps in reducing the damage caused by the two. Since the technique is new, the food crops and fruits produced by this method , when consumed , may lead to side effects. Further research needs to be done in this regard and then only one can conclude them to be safe.



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BREASTFEEDING –Nature’s benevolent act of nurturing life
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


BREASTFEEDING –Nature’s benevolent act of nurturing life Introduction Breast feeding is the nature’s blessing which nurtures a neonate to life. It is a psychologically and physiologically a novel experience for the mother by which she provides immunity to a new-born to fight the disease causing microbes in the milieu around it. The nutrients in the first milk or colostrums are like ‘manna’ for a new-born providing it a mixture of antibodies and nutritious anabolic proteins. Breast feeding is an act which lets a mother feel complete and gratified of her motherhood.



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BREASTFEEDING –Nature’s benevolent act of nurturing life
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


BREASTFEEDING –Nature’s benevolent act of nurturing life Introduction Breast feeding is the nature’s blessing which nurtures a neonate to life. It is a psychologically and physiologically a novel experience for the mother by which she provides immunity to a new-born to fight the disease causing microbes in the milieu around it. The nutrients in the first milk or colostrums are like ‘manna’ for a new-born providing it a mixture of antibodies and nutritious anabolic proteins. Breast feeding is an act which lets a mother feel complete and gratified of her motherhood.



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HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATION AND THE TEN BEST PRACTICES
Posted On: Nov. 4, 2017
Author: Shipra


HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATION AND THE TEN BEST PRACTICES The term hospitality includes hotels, restaurants, vacation and sight seeing, timeshare, cruise, travel and tourism services. The name hospitality conjures up several images and meanings. It can be described as the treating strangers and guests in a friendly way. Hospitality conventionally refers to opening up of one’s home and its comforts to others who could be strangers or known persons. For the purpose of this study, we shall choose a fast food restaurant as a hospitality organization. We would also examine what kind of practices it should follow to make sure that it retains its popularity amongst the target markets. A restaurant starts in a small way and establishes a name for itself only after it has created a perception in the minds of people about its special offers etc. Its expansion depends on its popularity. The journey is not an easy one but is full of struggles and gradual achievements. The success of a business organization is being conscious abut the environment and taking necessary steps to ensure that there is no damage to it. The onus of implementation lies on top management as they are the ones who have to define policies and set down norms as well. These have to be communicated to people down the line. For example, maintaining hygiene is one of the practices, which has to be followed by all and sundry. Treating guests in a courteous way is another practice which has to be followed. It is more important for the front office staff.” Service with smile “should be the motto. Disposing off waste in a responsible manner also comes under the best practices. Keeping oneself abreast of the latest and offering the best product and service leads to customer satisfaction. There has to be a conscious attempt to make superior products as the customer patronizes those which provide him value for money. References Raef A. Lawson, Toby Hatch, Denis Desroches Scorecard best practices: design, implementation, and evaluation 1st Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey 2008 http://www.dominosbiz.com/Biz-Public-EN/Site+Content/Secondary/About+Dominos/ accessed on May 19, 2011 http://www.resourceventure.org/case-studies/by-sector/Best%20Practices%20for%20the%20Hospitality%20Industry.pdf accessed on May 19, 2011



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Corporate hospitality: executive indulgence or vital corporate communications
Posted On: Nov. 3, 2017
Author: Shipra


Corporate hospitality: executive indulgence or vital corporate communications weapon? The Authors Roger Bennett, London Metropolitan University, London, UK. Abstract Heads of marketing in 189 UK companies known to engage in corporate hospitality (CH) completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes and approaches towards the practice. A cluster analysis of the replies revealed four distinct groups of enterprise: CH “warriors”, “pragmatists”, “reactors”, and “strategic hopefuls”. Corporate hospitality warriors displayed strategic CH orientations and carefully measured the outcomes. Pragmatists also evaluated the impacts of CH, but adopted essentially ad hoc approaches. Strategic hopefuls used CH strategically, yet without bothering to assess its consequences. Reactors undertook CH only because their competitors did so. Additionally the research examined the extents to which the sample businesses applied conventional marketing management methods to the CH function, and the respondents’ perceptions of the benefits and problems of CH. A regression analysis identified some major sources of satisfaction with CH activities. These included the employment of formal market research to match CH events with clients, the location of responsibility for CH in a marketing or public relations department, the adoption of strategic approaches to CH, and the formal evaluation of outcomes. Article Type: Research paper Keyword(s): Corporate hospitality; Entertainment; Marketing communications. Journal: Corporate Communications: An International Journal Volume: 8 Number: 4 Year: 2003 pp: 229-240 Copyright © MCB UP Ltd ISSN: 1356-3289 Introduction The topic of corporate hospitality (CH) has occupied a prominent position in the practitioner marketing literature for several years (see, for example, Luckhurst, 1996; Chetwynd, 1998; Flack, 1999; Thatcher, 2000; Croft, 2001; Fletcher, 2001; Parker, 2001; Irwin, 2002). Marketing magazines routinely carry special sections and reports on corporate entertaining, event marketing, and other CH related matters (e.g. Parker, 2001; Croft, 2001; Fletcher, 2001), while total expenditures on CH now exceed 5 per cent of the value of all advertising spending in the UK (Baxter, 2000). Yet, to the very best of the author’s knowledge, CH has not been the subject of serious academic (rather than practitioner) research. Accordingly, the current paper seeks to contribute to what is known about this important aspect of corporate communications by presenting the results of an empirical investigation into attitudes and approaches towards CH among a sample of 189 senior marketing executives in UK enterprises. The research focused on the question of whether the sample firms adopted strategic as opposed to ad hoc approaches to CH (as the practitioner literature increasingly suggests), and on whether conventional marketing management practices were applied to the implementation and control of CH activities (cf. Irwin and Asimakopoulos, 1992; Bennett, 1997 pp. 93-4). It is known that CH frequently overlaps with sponsorship (Hughes, 2000; Baxter, 2000; Fletcher, 2001; Parker, 2001; Irwin, 2002), so it is reasonable to enquire whether CH is managed in manners analogous to those appropriate for sponsorship. Irwin and Asimakopoulos (1992) suggested the following programme for the effective management of sponsorship programmes: 1. (1) setting objectives; 2. (2) placing responsibility for the function in a marketing or public relations (PR) department; 3. (3) evaluation; 4. (4) screening and selecting alternatives; 5. (5) integrating the function into the marketing communications mix; and 6. (6) assessing effectiveness vis-à-vis the achievement of prescribed objectives. All these matters were queried in the CH context as a part of the investigation. The results from studies of this nature are important because evidence suggesting that companies are using CH strategically would imply the continuing growth of the practice and hence the need for all marketing executives to learn more about the advantages, opportunities and problems associated with CH. Conversely, findings indicating a general failure to apply strategic approaches would imply that better management of CH could result in the function making even greater contributions to corporate communications in the future. At the theoretical level, outcomes to this type of investigation contribute to the theory of “liking” and the determinants of liking in the corporate sphere. Liking is known to encourage commitment (see Sears et al., 1991, Ch. 8), and it has been established that people tend to like individuals or organisations that reward them in some way. This extends to outsiders who overtly express positive evaluations (i.e. flatter) a person and agree with his/her views (Baron and Byrne, 2000). Psychological research has also established that, in general, individuals are more inclined to like people and entities associated with good experiences and to dislike those connected with bad experiences (Cramer et al., 1985). Indeed, the very anticipation of an enjoyable interaction can stimulate liking (Gold et al., 1984; Sears et al., 1991). Numerous studies in social psychology have demonstrated that liking is facilitated by physical propinquity and exposure, especially if the people in close proximity have similar goals (see Baron and Byrne, 2000). Gold et al. (1984) found that even the simplest elements of physical proximity such as eye contact, leaning towards a person, listening attentively, etc., have the capacity to increase liking. CH events typically bring host and guest into close proximity for several hours at a stretch, and create many opportunities for hosts to demonstrate shared interests with clients and similarities in values and attitudes (factors known to facilitate liking – see Lydon et al., 1988); to stimulate guests’ feelings at self-esteem; and generally to demonstrate their liking for attendees. Several investigations have concluded that behaviour which conveys liking for someone else results in a high probability that the recipient will reciprocate in positive ways (see Sears et al., 1991; Aronson et al., 1997 for details of the psychological literature supporting this proposition). Extent and nature of CH CH involves events and activities organised for the benefit of companies that wish to entertain clients, or prospective clients or employees, at the company’s expense. In Britain, the CH “industry” comprises approximately 5,000 event organisers, CH consultants, venue representatives, specialist caterers, activity operators, agents and brokers (Baxter, 2000). A Key Note 2000 market report estimated aggregate UK spending on CH at approximately £700 million, and predicted a rise in the value of the market to £834.7 million by 2003 (Baxter, 2000). MAPS (1998) forecast that the CH market would be worth £998 million by 2003.) Most of the anticipated expansion, the Key Note report alleged, was attributable to spectator sports. Spending on CH at spectator sports was expected to increase by 18 per cent between 2000 and 2003 (compared with 12.5 per cent for the sector as a whole), due in large part to wide-ranging investments in corporate entertainment capacity by the major sporting venues. Hughes (2000) cited agency research completed in 1997 which suggested that CH routinely accounted for just under 5 per cent of companies marketing budgets, representing therefore a very significant marketing outlay. According to Baxter (2000), soccer accounted for the largest number of CH events (16 per cent of the total), followed by horse racing (15 per cent), rugby (12 per cent), cricket (11 per cent), and golf (10 per cent). Participatory events accounted for 11.8 per cent of all CH expenditures; arts and culture for 5 per cent. Approximately 75 per cent of the market was devoted to client hospitality, the remainder to entertaining companies’ employees (90 per cent of corporate spending on client hospitality was directed towards current (as opposed to potential) customers.) Crucially, Baxter (2000) continued, aggregate CH expenditures rose by a larger amount (27.2 per cent) between 1995 and 1998 than for either sports sponsorship (23.9 per cent) or general advertising (15.1 per cent). Factors possibly contributing to this rapid growth include heavy investment in CH facilities by venues (Fletcher, 2001); increasingly ferocious competition within markets and hence the need to find new ways of obtaining a competitive edge (Croft, 2001); and the transformation of an economy based on manufacturing to one primarily devoted to the provision of services (and thus to the growing importance of personal relationships) (Baxter, 2000). Usefulness of CH for marketing and corporate communications Flack (1999) characterised CH as an extension of relationship marketing. It could be used to build trust and loyalty, shape or shift client perceptions of corporate identity, and develop favourable “word-of-mouth”. Further benefits commonly ascribed to CH include its capacities to “retain profitable business, increase sales from existing customers, win-back profitable business and gain new customers” (Irwin, 2002, p. 23); leverage sponsorship activities (Baxter, 2000); and delight attendees to such an extent that follow-up contacts are extremely well-received (Longbottom, 1997). Hosts might spend four or five hours with a client in a relaxed environment (Hughes, 2000). Crucially, the attendee’s contact with the host is memorable and enjoyable (Parker, 2001), since the “only surprises are pleasant ones” (CHEA, 2001, p. 1). Hence CH can “provide a platform from which to inform, inspire and motivate” the client (Irwin, 2002, p. 23). An NOP survey of 250 UK companies conducted in July 2000 discovered that 56 per cent of those questioned believed that the aims of CH could not be met in any other way (see Baxter, 2000). Half of the remainder thought that CH was the best way of achieving these aims. A total of 30 per cent of the respondents stated that their CH spending had increased in the previous two years, indicating a substantial degree of satisfaction with the practice. Problems connected with CH Rivalry among hosts has led to a proliferation of CH activities and thus to potential guests being inundated with invitations. Consequently, guests are becoming more demanding, so that specific events need to be increasingly exotic (and expensive) in order to arouse client interest (Luckhurst, 1998). This has allegedly led to companies competing with each other in terms of the creativity and originality of their invitations (CHEA, 2001), resulting in hosts feeling obliged to spend more and more on each event in order to attract acceptances (see Hughes, 2000). It is relevant to note moreover that, as the practice has spread, it has become difficult for successful companies not to engage in CH, as success means that an enterprise has a greater number of customers who will expect to be entertained (Baxter, 2000). Another danger is that CH may be construed by outside observers as bribery or corruption, especially if public figures are involved. Critics allege that CH frequently entails the provision of benefits that the recipients could not normally afford and which, by their very nature, are not business-related (Chetwynd, 1998). However, clients are (allegedly) unlikely to sense that they are being bribed, as CH is indirect and rarely includes the “gift” of a physical product (Ramsay, 1990). Luckhurst (1996) noted a trend towards the targeting of delegates’ partners rather than the executives themselves, even to the extent of partners being approached prior to the communication of invitations to the target managers. Technically, the provision of CH is illegal only if the benefit arising from it is obtained “corruptly”, e.g. if a contract is awarded in direct consequence of the hospitality received irrespective of the price or quality of the goods or services furnished (Chetwynd, 1998). Thus, hosts must take care to present CH as an aspect of a firm’s general PR and not as a direct “selling” activity. Then, corporate entertaining can be justified to the outside world as simply “another way of presenting the public face of the company” (Chetwynd, 1998). Strategic approaches Longbottom (1997) reported anecdotal evidence suggesting that expenditures on CH could be seen as a “barometer of business health”, expanding and contracting as national economic growth rates fluctuated. Luckhurst (1997a) and MAPS (1998) also claimed that CH expenditures were highly sensitive to movements in the overall economy. This was supposedly due to corporations not wanting to be seen “wining and dining” customers during recessionary periods when shareholders’ dividends were being cut and employees were facing redundancy. However, a growing body of practitioner opinion maintains that CH is increasingly employed strategically, rather than as an ad hoc device only applied during profitable periods (see for example Champ, 1996; Longbottom, 1997; Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000; Hughes, 2000; Irwin, 2002, Thatcher, 2000; CHEA, 2001). For instance, Baxter (2000) noted “remarks by industry observers” which firmly suggested that CH “no longer acts as a barometer of economic activities, i.e. a slowdown in company activity does not necessarily mean a reduction in CH budgets” (p. 2). Indeed, CH was more and more “part of the marketing mix of host companies” and, as such, less and less sensitive to economic downturn (p. 1). Flack (1999) reported the outcomes to an agency survey of 251 medium to large sized UK companies conducted in 1998 which indicated that 60 per cent were planning to maintain their CH spending at constant levels, in real terms, for the next five years even if a recession occurred. Of the sample firms, 30 per cent stated that they intended increasing their CH expenditures. Clearly, the willingness of a company to sustain CH spending when times are financially difficult is a key indicator of the degree to which CH is regarded as a vital element of the strategic corporate communications mix. In fact, firms adopting a strategic approach to CH might spend more on CH during a period of financial exigency in order to portray a positive image (Flack, 1999). Also, the strengthening of relationships with major clients is arguably more important than ever when a recession seems likely. The practitioner literature offers further recommendations vis-à-vis the identification of strategic approaches to CH, including: • conducting formal research to pinpoint and target key customers for guest lists (Champ, 1996; Irwin, 2002; McKenzie, 1997; Thatcher, 2000) and to establish which events have the greatest appeal to a firm’s key clients (Longbottom, 1997; CHEA, 2001); • establishing clear objectives before selecting an event and who to invite (Irwin, 2002); • integrating CH into marketing communications programmes (Baxter, 2000); • using CH to leverage sponsorships (Baxter, 2000); • explicitly linking events to the corporate image and identity of the organisation (CHEA, 2001); • involving top management in the planning of CH activities (Baxter, 2000); • incorporating CH into business development strategies (Irwin, 2002); • developing bespoke activities in place of traditional events (such as sporting events) (Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000); • locating CH expenditures in marketing (rather than general) departmental budgets (Irwin, 2002). Monitoring and evaluation Champ (1996) claimed that accountability for CH expenditures had risen dramatically: budgets were more strictly monitored and guests were more carefully selected. Conversely, Thatcher (2000) quoted the results of a survey of 77 UK companies which found that only 34 per cent of them actually evaluated events against marketing objectives; while 35 per cent applied no measurement at all. Only half the enterprises had a centralised annual plan for events; 72 per cent cited the personal preferences of senior management as an important determinant of the choice of a CH activity. This lack of formality was attributed to CH being regarded as a component of other corporate communications activities (PR, advertising or sponsorship for example), rather than as a standalone value adding marketing weapon. MAPS (1998) similarly found that two-thirds of host companies did not conduct research to measure the effectiveness of CH, even though effectiveness could be easily evaluated in terms of increased sales to customers who attended specific events. Baxter (2000) reported the results of a 1998 NOP survey which discovered that more than two-thirds of businesses made no attempt to measure the impact of CH. Of the remainder, 34 per cent relied heavily on attendee feedback, and 23 per cent on informal estimates of the amount of business they believed an event had generated. Comparable figures emerged from a survey of 260 blue-chip UK companies completed by the Total Research Organisation in 1996 (see Luckhurst, 1997b). This apparent lack of concern for evaluating the efficacy of CH among UK companies was explained by Baxter (2000) in terms of it being regarded as “the least scientific of all aspects of marketing” (p. 12). The effectiveness of CH was not assessed, Baxter continued, even when sponsorship (especially sports sponsorship) and CH expenditures overlapped because it was “extremely difficult to evaluate with precision what proportion of CH falls under sponsorship, as companies show different patterns and policies in their marketing spending” (p. 9). Another potential difficulty with evaluation is the length of the lead time between a client attending an event and his or her company placing an order with the host firm (McKenzie, 1997). This might be anything up to two years in duration, and circumstances might have changed dramatically in the intervening period. The study In order to investigate the abovementioned issues a mail questionnaire was developed subsequent to a review of relevant literature and discussions with employees of two major CH consultancies. This was used in a pilot study of a sample of 50 host companies selected at random from the sampling frame for the main study. After a follow-up, 19 replies were received, providing useful feedback and a basis for amending and improving the original questionnaire items. The sampling frame itself comprised two elements. First, 322 companies specified in the “client list” sections of the Web sites of CH agencies and consultancies belonging to a CH trade association. Second, and because the first component of the sampling frame involved firms that employed agents and consultants and which, ipso facto, might be expected to adopt more strategic approaches to CH, the questionnaire was mailed to a further 279 companies known to have hosted CH activities at 11 horse racing meetings, two tennis tournaments, three arts events, and 16 Premier and Football League matches. (The names of these businesses were obtained from venue Web pages, telephone calls to venues and personal observation.) A covering letter accompanying the questionnaire explained the nature of the research and was addressed to the head of marketing in each firm. Eventually, 100 replies were received from the first part of the sampling frame (31 per cent) and 89 from the second (32 per cent). Of the 89 businesses, 11 in the latter group employed a CH agent or consultant. The mean values of the responses of the 111 firms using and the 78 enterprises not using, a CH agent or consultant were compared via the facility available for this purpose on SPSS 11. No meaningful statistically significant differences between the replies of the two sections became apparent, i.e. it was not the case that companies engaging CH agents or consultants had different attitudes or behaviour vis-à-vis CH than businesses that did not use agents or consultants. Hence the two sub-samples were combined and the responses analysed for the entire 189-strong group. Although less than a majority of the firms approached replied, there was no evidence to suggest that the sample was biased or unrepresentative[1]. Results Of the 189 companies, 55 per cent employed between 1,000 and 10,000 people; 16 per cent had more than 10,000; while 18 per cent had fewer than 500 employees. A total of 19 per cent of the firms operated in the financial services sector; 15 per cent in “engineering, motors and electrical products”, 15 per cent in retailing, and 14 per cent in media and business services. The remaining companies were located across a wide range of sectors. Management of CH Two-thirds of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that “highly formal” procedures were applied to the management of CH within their enterprises. Responsibility for CH rested with a marketing department in 17 per cent of the sample companies, a PR or analogous department in 24 per cent, a single senior non-marketing manager in 18 per cent, a finance department in 8 per cent, and with a sponsorship manager in 9 per cent. Multi-disciplinary team decision-making vis-à-vis CH activities was relatively unusual; only 8 per cent of the respondents stated that this occurred within their firms. When it did take place, it was always the case that the team included a member from the company’s marketing department. Hence, CH was seen as a marketing/PR or sponsorship issue in half the sample, and as a function requiring a marketing input in a further 8 per cent. This suggests that marketing skills were considered important for the planning of CH and that CH was seen as a tangible element of the marketing mix of the majority of the sample enterprises. (Witcher et al., 1991; Webster, 1992; Bennett, 1997; Irwin, 2002) and others have concluded that the location of responsibility for a specific function within a marketing department (rather than a finance or general administrative department) is a significant indication that senior management regards it as belonging predominantly to the marketing domain.) A third of the respondents reported that CH expenditures were incorporated into their companies’ marketing budgets. A further third operated separate and independent budgets for CH, while 15 per cent placed CH budgets in a finance department. The respondents were asked to indicate the percentage of their firms’ total marketing expenditures devoted to CH (1-2 per cent; 3-5 per cent … 8-9 per cent; more than 10 per cent). Of the sample, 55 per cent ticked the 1-2 per cent category, and 25 per cent the 3-5 per cent division. Hence, average CH spending was rather lower than the “typical” 5 per cent of a company’s marketing budget suggested by Hughes (2000). CH plans were drafted quarterly in 20 per cent of the companies; annually in 40 per cent, and every six months in 30 per cent. Respondents were questioned about the main influences on their firms’ choices of CH events and which people to invite, and how they arrived at decisions. The “in-house assessment of the goodness of the match between particular CH activities and specific clients” was cited as an “important” or “extremely important” method for selecting events and clients by 68 per cent of the sample. Only 10 per cent reported that the personal preferences of top management exerted an important or very important influence on choices (this contrasts sharply with the 72 per cent cited by Thatcher, 2000). A total of 36 per cent of the firms completed formal market research into the suitability of specific CH events. Two-thirds of the respondents regarded improvements in CH venues as an important or very important reason for the growth of CH in recent years (confirming the view of Fletcher, 2001), and three-quarters agreed/strongly agreed that better consultancy services and CH infrastructure were now available. Table I gives the outcomes to questions about objectives, the targeting of guests, and the host’s behaviour at events. The majority of the companies in the sample set both general and sales objectives for CH, but not specific targets for improving the firm’s image (see items 1 to 3). Nearly two-thirds of the companies had a central plan for CH activities (14 per cent more than the 50 per cent quoted by Thatcher, 2000) (see item 4). Company representatives were usually instructed on how to behave though they rarely received formal training (see items 8 and 9), and most firms sought to have their people in close proximity to clients for the longest possible period (cf. Hughes, 2000) (items 10 and 11). Overwhelmingly, invitations were aimed at pre-existing clients (cf. Baxter, 2000) (item 5). However, there was no evidence of guests’ partners being targeted (items 6 and 7) (cf. Luckhurst, 1996). Importance, benefits and problems of CH Three-quarters of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that CH was “taken very seriously” by their organisations. A total of 68 per cent agreed/strongly agreed that CH was a “vital element of the marketing communications mix”; the same percentage that agreed/strongly agreed that the aims of their companies’ CH could not be achieved by any other marketing method (12 per cent higher than the 56 per cent found by the NOP survey reported by Baxter (2000). Respondents were asked whether, faced with a recession, their firms would cut their CH budgets pro rata by any more than the budgets of other marketing activities. A total of 65 per cent stated that they would not cut their budgets in this way (confirming the trend noted by Flack (1999) who cited 60 per cent of an earlier sample agreeing with this proposition). A total of 15 per cent of the respondents replied that their companies were likely to increase CH expenditures at the onset of a recession. Table II lists the results for questionnaire items concerning respondents’ perceptions of the benefits attributable to CH. (The items for this section were derived from the practitioner literature on the subject (e.g. Longbottom, 1997; Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000; Irwin 2002). It can be seen that items 1 to 3 involving relationship marketing were seen as major benefits of CH (cf. Flack, 1999). Direct selling (cf. Longbottom, 1997) and image building (items 4 to 6) were also regarded as important. Conversely, and in contradiction of the suggestions of Irwin (2002), CH was not normally viewed as a useful way of gaining business from new rather than existing customers, or for winning back lapsed clients. Of the sample companies, 15 per cent were engaged in sponsorship. Of these, 82 per cent agreed/strongly agreed that CH was an extremely important device for leveraging sponsorship activities (the meaning of “leveraging” in the present context was explained in non-technical terms in the body of the questionnaire). Responses concerning the problems perceived to apply to CH are summarised in Table III. These findings are compatible with the practitioner literature which has posited that it is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to attract clients to attend events (items 1 to 3) (see Luckhurst, 1998; Hughes, 2000; CHEA, 2001), and that competition (item 4) is leading to spiralling costs (Baxter, 2000; Croft, 2001). However, the respondents within this particular sample did not generally regard evaluation as a problem (contradicting the anecdotal evidence reported by McKenzie, 1997; MAPS, 1998; Baxter, 2000; and Thatcher, 2000) and they certainly did not believe that invitees or others would perceive CH as a form of bribery (cf. Ramsey, 1990; Chetwynd, 1998). A majority of the firms in the sample formally evaluated the effectiveness of the CH function in some way or other. A total of 48 per cent tracked post-event sales to attendees, more than three-quarters stated that they made informal estimates of the extra business generated by events, 65 per cent systematically gathered feedback from guests, and 55 per cent attempted to compare outcomes with initial objectives. Only 10 per cent of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the proposition that the impact of a CH event was “virtually impossible to measure”. These figures differ remarkably from those of reported agency surveys (see Luckhurst, 1997b; MAPS, 1998; Baxter, 2000; Thatcher, 2000), which typically concluded that no more than a third of firms engaging in CH bothered to measure the impact of CH on sales (23 per cent according to the NOP survey (see Baxter, 2000)) or other performance indices, or to evaluate outcomes against initial objectives. Companies in the present sample that did in fact track sales usually did so for up to a year after an event (64 per cent of these firms), with 20 per cent monitoring sales for two subsequent years, and 16 per cent tracking sales for more than two years. Strategic approaches Several of the abovementioned outcomes are compatible with the proposition that UK businesses are adopting more strategic approaches to CH. Majorities of the sample possessed highly formal procedures for managing CH, set objectives, planned CH centrally, and involved marketing staff heavily in CH decisions. Also, nearly two-thirds of the respondents stated that their firm’s would not cut CH budgets pro rata by more than other forms of promotion during a recession. Table IV summaries the responses to further questionnaire items that explored the strategic dimension of CH. It can be seen that most attempted to integrate CH into their overall marketing communications (cf. Baxter, 2000) and their general business development planning (cf. Irwin, 2002). Activities were designed to support image building programmes (cf. CHEA, 2001), but relied mainly on pre-existing rather than bespoke events (see item 5). Half the sample stated that CH was used to help attain strategic marketing objectives. Satisfaction A number of items were employed to assess levels of satisfaction with CH, as shown in Table V. A total of 45 per cent of the respondents were highly satisfied with the outcomes to their CH activities (see Table V item 1); 25 per cent disagreed/strongly disagreed with this item, with 30 per cent of the replies falling in the central (n = neither agree nor disagree) category. Similar outcomes applied to satisfaction with CH’s contributions to sales (n = 32 per cent), image building (n = 30 per cent), and the development of relationships of a quality that could not have been achieved in other ways (item 4, n = 28 per cent). Taking into account the percentages of the responses in the n = neither agree nor disagree categories, these figures suggest substantial satisfaction with the sample firms’ CH activities. A total of 38 per cent indicated their intention to increase CH spending in the future. Analysis To gain an insight into the characteristics of the firms that adopted strategic approaches to CH most intensely, the 189 companies were clustered in two dimensions with a composite “strategic approach” variable on one axis and an aggregated extent of “evaluation” variable on the other. Table IV items 1 to 4 and item 6 were highly intercorrelated (R > 0.55 in all cases) and hence were combined into a single scale to reflect strategic orientation. Likewise, the propensities to track sales, gather feedback from guests, and compare outcomes with objectives were all intercorrelated (R > 0.6), so these items were similarly aggregated to form a compounded “evaluation” variable. The firms were clustered using the K-means cluster facility available on SPSS. A four-cluster solution outperformed the alternatives[2] and generated clusters with significant differences (p < 0.05) between all the cluster means. Cluster 1 contained 41 companies that were relatively high on both their strategic orientation (cluster mean = 4.0) and their evaluation practices (mean = 3.2). These firms may reasonably be called CH “warriors”, as they adopted proactively strategic approaches to the practice and were eager to measure the results. A second cluster of 62 companies, hereafter referred to as “reactors; occupied the opposite quadrant and were low on both strategic orientation (mean = 2.2) and evaluation (mean = 2.0). Presumably these firms only engaged in CH because they observed competitors doing so, and did not wish to lose out. Cluster 3 also contained 62 businesses (named “pragmatists”) that were relatively high on evaluation (mean = 3.0), yet low on strategic orientation. The 25 companies in the final cluster are termed “strategic hopefuls”, as they adopted strategic approaches (mean = 3.6), but did not bother to measure the results (mean = 2.1). Mean values for all the questionnaire items were computed for each of the four groups of companies. Significant differences between two or more of the means occurred with respect to the items listed in Table VI. It is evident from Table VI that CH warriors spent relatively freely on CH, tended to locate responsibility for CH in a marketing department, drafted CH plans frequently, set targets, trained their staff in CH more than firms in other categories, targeted potential as well as existing clients to a greater extent, and were more likely to increase CH expenditures during a recession. Of the 36 financial services firms in the sample 16 (40 per cent) fell within the warrior cluster. Strategic hopefuls also spent quite a lot on CH, managed CH via a marketing department and set CH objectives. Nearly a third of this group were financial services companies. Pragmatists often used formal market research to match events and clients, set objectives, and some would target potential clients. Reactors were low on most elements connected with the strategic approach, and commonly believed that competitive pressures were forcing them to spend excessive amounts on CH activities. Determinants of satisfaction with CH A regression analysis was completed to establish the main determinants of satisfaction with CH. As the study was exploratory in nature, no a priori hypotheses were available to predict the variables most likely to exert a significant influence. Thus, an experimental approach was adopted whereby possible independent variables were identified from correlation matrices, the cluster analysis, and ad hoc stepwise regressions. The model that emerged is shown in Table VII. Three dependent variables were employed: overall satisfaction, plus satisfaction with CH as a means for increasing sales and for developing corporate image. It can be seen from Table VII that the adoption of a strategic approach had a significant impact in all three regressions. Likewise for the practice of evaluating the consequences of CH and using market research to match events and clients. The variables, location of responsibility for CH in a marketing department, and taking steps to ensure that the firm’s representatives were as physically close to clients as possible, contributed significantly to satisfaction in two out of three cases. Satisfaction with CH as a device for increasing sales depended additionally on the provision of staff training and the use of formal procedures to manage the CH function. There was no evidence from the regression analysis to suggest that firm size or the percentage of a company’s marketing budget devoted to CH had any influence on satisfaction. In general, firm size failed to correlate significantly with any of the attitudinal or behavioural variables. Conclusion The results generally confirm the trend towards the adoption of increasingly strategic approaches towards CH noted in recent practitioner literature. A conspicuous finding was that a large proportion of the sample formally evaluated the impact of CH activities; an outcome that contrasted sharply with the conclusions of previous surveys. Strategic orientations were most prevalent among financial services firms, supporting the suggestion of Baxter (2000) that service providers are a priori more likely to engage in CH than businesses in other sectors. It was clear, moreover, that many firms recognised the importance of the links between physical proximity and liking (see Baron and Byrne, 2000), and between the provision of pleasurable experiences to customers and their liking of the host company (cf. Gold et al., 1984; Sears et al., 1991). Majorities of the businesses in the sample adopted the marketing management practices advocated by Irwin and Asimakopoulos (1992), i.e. objective setting, locating responsibility for the function in a marketing department, integration at CH into the firm’s overall marketing communications plans and programmes, and evaluating the results. The main problems attributed to CH were its high cost and the risk of entering into “competitive spirals” of CH activities with rival companies. A number of practical implications for corporate communications managers ensue from the analysis. Satisfaction with CH was higher among businesses that formally trained their staff in relation to CH matters. This suggests the desirability of incorporating dedicated CH training into mainstream interpersonal skills training programmes. Other results from the regressions explaining satisfaction with CH indicated that firms should undertake formal market research into the suitability of particular venues, manage CH from a marketing department, carefully evaluate outcomes and, in general, adopt strategic approaches. It seems reasonable to conclude that increasing numbers of UK firms regard CH as a critical corporate communications weapon. As such, CH will soon become a function with which all communications managers will need to be familiar. Moreover, its growing financial and operational importance means that CH is an area worthy of substantial further academic investigation. Specific topics requiring additional research include the specific means whereby CH can be best integrated into a firm’s marketing communications mix, the effectiveness of various forms of CH cost control mechanism, the psychology of attraction in the CH context, and guests’ attitudes towards particular forms of CH offer. The metrics of CH also merit attention, notably the ways in which improvements in a firm’s corporate image consequent to a CH programme can be accurately measured. Notes 1. A slip was sent to companies failing to respond to the second mailing of the questionnaire requesting an indication of the recipient’s reasons not to participate. A total of 66 of these slips were returned. Also 14 firms wrote to the author declining to participate, usually giving a reason. The main explanation for non-response was “company policy not to reply to questionnaires” (34 per cent), followed by “too busy” (23 per cent), and “unwilling to disclose confidential information” (16 per cent). Also an analysis of the first and final quarters of the replies did not reveal any statistically significant differences in patterns of response. Hence, there were no grounds for believing that the participating companies were unrepresentative. 2. Solutions involving between two and seven clusters were extracted. The four cluster outcome had: the highest ANOVA F-values (3,186 degrees of freedom) for both the strategic orientation variable (F = 5.55, p =0.000) and the evaluation composite (F = 5.409, p =0.000), an R-square of 0.821 for differences between clusters (suggesting substantial within group homogeneity), and a semi-partial R-square of 0.225 for the fourth cluster (indicating minimal loss of homogeneity at the final step). Table IObjectives, targeting and control Table IIBenefits of CH Table IIIProblems of CH Table IVStrategic approaches Table VSatisfaction with CH Table VICluster analysis Table VIIRegression analysis References Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (1997), Social Psychology, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley-Longman, New York, NY., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Baron, R., Byrne, D. (2000), Social Psychology, 9th ed., Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Baxter, J. (2000), Corporate Hospitality: 2000 Market Report, Key Note, London, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Bennett, R. (1997), "Corporate philanthropy in the UK: altruistic giving or marketing communications weapon?", Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.87-109. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Champ, H. (1996), Accountancy, No.November, pp.41-3. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Chetwynd, C. (1998), Marketing Week, No.5 November, pp.47-50. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Corporate Hospitality Event Association (CHEA) (2001), Why Use Corporate Hospitality?, www.cha-event.co.uk, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Cramer, R., Weiss, R., Steigleder, M., Balling, S. (1985), "Attraction in context: acquisition and blocking of person-directed action", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 49 pp.1221-30. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Croft, M. (2001), "Perfect pitch", Marketing Week, No.29 March, pp.65-6. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Flack, J. (1999), "Slump action", Marketing Week, No.4 March, pp.57-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Fletcher, M. (2001), "Sports venues add to hospitality offer", Marketing, No.20 September, pp.47-8. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Gold, J., Ryckman, R., Mosley, N. (1984), "Mood induction and attraction to a dissimilar other", Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 10 No.4, pp.358-68. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Hughes, S. (2000), "Hospitable locations", Accountancy, No.June, pp.62-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Irwin, C. (2002), "Coming of age: corporate hospitality", Marketing Business, No.April, pp.21-3. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Irwin, R., Asimakopoulos, M. (1992), "An approach to the evaluation and selection of sport sponsorship proposals", Sport Marketing Quarterly, Vol. 1 No.2, pp.43-51. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Longbottom, P. (1997), "Life’s a ball", The Director, Vol. 50 No.11, pp.66-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1996), "Away game", Marketing Week, No.22 March, pp.41-5. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1997), "The five-star treatment", Chartered Banker, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.44-5. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1997), "Measuring up", Marketing Week, No.14 August, pp.31-6. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1998), "Invest to impress", Marketing Week, No.18 June, pp.59-62. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Lydon, J., Jamieson, D., Zanna, M. (1988), "Interpersonnel; similarity and the social and intellectual dimensions of first impressions", Social Cognition, Vol. 6 No.2, pp.269-96. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] McKenzie, S. (1997), "The trick of treats", Marketing Week, No.17 January, pp.43-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] MAPS (1998), Corporate Hospitality, www.the-list.co.uk/acatalog/mp74008.html, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Parker, D. (2001), "The thrill seekers", Marketing Week, No.27 September, pp.67-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Ramsay, J. (1990), "Corporate hospitality: marketing of a monster?", Management Decision, Vol. 28 No.4, pp.20-2. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Sears, D., Peplau, L., Taylor, S. (1991), Social Psychology, 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Thatcher, M. (2000), "Going places", Marketing Business, No.April, pp.42-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Webster, F. (1992), "The changing role of marketing in the corporation", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56 No.1, pp.1-17. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Witcher, B., Craigen, J., Culligan, D., Harvey, A. (1991), "The links between objectives and function in organisational sponsorship", International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 10 No.1, pp.13-33. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Further reading Maitland, A. (1999), "Tis the season to be wary", Financial Times, No.16 December, pp.20. [Manual request] [Infotrieve]



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HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATION AND THE TEN BEST PRACTICES The term hospitality includes hotels, restaurants, vacation and sight seeing,
Posted On: Nov. 1, 2017
Author: Shipra


HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATION AND THE TEN BEST PRACTICES The term hospitality includes hotels, restaurants, vacation and sight seeing, timeshare, cruise, travel and tourism services. The name hospitality conjures up several images and meanings. It can be described as the treating strangers and guests in a friendly way. Hospitality conventionally refers to opening up of one’s home and its comforts to others who could be strangers or known persons. For the purpose of this study, we shall choose a fast food restaurant as a hospitality organization. We would also examine what kind of practices it should follow to make sure that it retains its popularity amongst the target markets. A restaurant starts in a small way and establishes a name for itself only after it has created a perception in the minds of people about its special offers etc. Its expansion depends on its popularity. The journey is not an easy one but is full of struggles and gradual achievements. The success of a business organization is being conscious abut the environment and taking necessary steps to ensure that there is no damage to it. The onus of implementation lies on top management as they are the ones who have to define policies and set down norms as well. These have to be communicated to people down the line. For example, maintaining hygiene is one of the practices, which has to be followed by all and sundry. Treating guests in a courteous way is another practice which has to be followed. It is more important for the front office staff.” Service with smile “should be the motto. Disposing off waste in a responsible manner also comes under the best practices. Keeping oneself abreast of the latest and offering the best product and service leads to customer satisfaction. There has to be a conscious attempt to make superior products as the customer patronizes those which provide him value for money. References Raef A. Lawson, Toby Hatch, Denis Desroches Scorecard best practices: design, implementation, and evaluation 1st Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey 2008 http://www.dominosbiz.com/Biz-Public-EN/Site+Content/Secondary/About+Dominos/ accessed on May 19, 2011 http://www.resourceventure.org/case-studies/by-sector/Best%20Practices%20for%20the%20Hospitality%20Industry.pdf accessed on May 19, 2011



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Answer the questions in the following spaces. Due in class on Wednesday, April
Posted On: Oct. 30, 2017
Author: Shipra


Biology BIO 184 Homework Assignment (10 pts) Answer the questions in the following spaces. Due in class on Wednesday, April 20. 1. Given a gene’s DNA code is: T A C T T T G A A C G T A C C T A T A C C G C G C A T A A A G G T A T C What is the code on the mRNA molecule after transcription? A U G A A A C U U G C A U G G A U A U G G C G C G U A U U U C C A U A G What is the sequence of amino acids in the protein? (see Table 3 and Power Point slides). Methionine (AUG) Lysine (AAA) Proline (CCU) Alanine (GCA) Tryptophan (UGG) Isoleucine (AUA) Tryptophan (UGG) Cylonine (CGC) Valine (GUA) Phenylalanine (UUU) Proline (CCA) Terminator codon* (UAG) What is the sequence of anticodons that will be brought in by tRNA during translation? 2. OK, now work backwards. If the sequence of tRNA anticodons is: UAC, GGG, CAU, UUG, CAC, UGC, ACG, GUU, UCG, CCC, CUG, AUC What was the mRNA strand they were translated from? What was the original DNA strand?



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Corporate hospitality: executive indulgence or vital corporate communications
Posted On: Oct. 30, 2017
Author: Shipra


Corporate hospitality: executive indulgence or vital corporate communications weapon? The Authors Roger Bennett, London Metropolitan University, London, UK. Abstract Heads of marketing in 189 UK companies known to engage in corporate hospitality (CH) completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes and approaches towards the practice. A cluster analysis of the replies revealed four distinct groups of enterprise: CH “warriors”, “pragmatists”, “reactors”, and “strategic hopefuls”. Corporate hospitality warriors displayed strategic CH orientations and carefully measured the outcomes. Pragmatists also evaluated the impacts of CH, but adopted essentially ad hoc approaches. Strategic hopefuls used CH strategically, yet without bothering to assess its consequences. Reactors undertook CH only because their competitors did so. Additionally the research examined the extents to which the sample businesses applied conventional marketing management methods to the CH function, and the respondents’ perceptions of the benefits and problems of CH. A regression analysis identified some major sources of satisfaction with CH activities. These included the employment of formal market research to match CH events with clients, the location of responsibility for CH in a marketing or public relations department, the adoption of strategic approaches to CH, and the formal evaluation of outcomes. Article Type: Research paper Keyword(s): Corporate hospitality; Entertainment; Marketing communications. Journal: Corporate Communications: An International Journal Volume: 8 Number: 4 Year: 2003 pp: 229-240 Copyright © MCB UP Ltd ISSN: 1356-3289 Introduction The topic of corporate hospitality (CH) has occupied a prominent position in the practitioner marketing literature for several years (see, for example, Luckhurst, 1996; Chetwynd, 1998; Flack, 1999; Thatcher, 2000; Croft, 2001; Fletcher, 2001; Parker, 2001; Irwin, 2002). Marketing magazines routinely carry special sections and reports on corporate entertaining, event marketing, and other CH related matters (e.g. Parker, 2001; Croft, 2001; Fletcher, 2001), while total expenditures on CH now exceed 5 per cent of the value of all advertising spending in the UK (Baxter, 2000). Yet, to the very best of the author’s knowledge, CH has not been the subject of serious academic (rather than practitioner) research. Accordingly, the current paper seeks to contribute to what is known about this important aspect of corporate communications by presenting the results of an empirical investigation into attitudes and approaches towards CH among a sample of 189 senior marketing executives in UK enterprises. The research focused on the question of whether the sample firms adopted strategic as opposed to ad hoc approaches to CH (as the practitioner literature increasingly suggests), and on whether conventional marketing management practices were applied to the implementation and control of CH activities (cf. Irwin and Asimakopoulos, 1992; Bennett, 1997 pp. 93-4). It is known that CH frequently overlaps with sponsorship (Hughes, 2000; Baxter, 2000; Fletcher, 2001; Parker, 2001; Irwin, 2002), so it is reasonable to enquire whether CH is managed in manners analogous to those appropriate for sponsorship. Irwin and Asimakopoulos (1992) suggested the following programme for the effective management of sponsorship programmes: 1. (1) setting objectives; 2. (2) placing responsibility for the function in a marketing or public relations (PR) department; 3. (3) evaluation; 4. (4) screening and selecting alternatives; 5. (5) integrating the function into the marketing communications mix; and 6. (6) assessing effectiveness vis-à-vis the achievement of prescribed objectives. All these matters were queried in the CH context as a part of the investigation. The results from studies of this nature are important because evidence suggesting that companies are using CH strategically would imply the continuing growth of the practice and hence the need for all marketing executives to learn more about the advantages, opportunities and problems associated with CH. Conversely, findings indicating a general failure to apply strategic approaches would imply that better management of CH could result in the function making even greater contributions to corporate communications in the future. At the theoretical level, outcomes to this type of investigation contribute to the theory of “liking” and the determinants of liking in the corporate sphere. Liking is known to encourage commitment (see Sears et al., 1991, Ch. 8), and it has been established that people tend to like individuals or organisations that reward them in some way. This extends to outsiders who overtly express positive evaluations (i.e. flatter) a person and agree with his/her views (Baron and Byrne, 2000). Psychological research has also established that, in general, individuals are more inclined to like people and entities associated with good experiences and to dislike those connected with bad experiences (Cramer et al., 1985). Indeed, the very anticipation of an enjoyable interaction can stimulate liking (Gold et al., 1984; Sears et al., 1991). Numerous studies in social psychology have demonstrated that liking is facilitated by physical propinquity and exposure, especially if the people in close proximity have similar goals (see Baron and Byrne, 2000). Gold et al. (1984) found that even the simplest elements of physical proximity such as eye contact, leaning towards a person, listening attentively, etc., have the capacity to increase liking. CH events typically bring host and guest into close proximity for several hours at a stretch, and create many opportunities for hosts to demonstrate shared interests with clients and similarities in values and attitudes (factors known to facilitate liking – see Lydon et al., 1988); to stimulate guests’ feelings at self-esteem; and generally to demonstrate their liking for attendees. Several investigations have concluded that behaviour which conveys liking for someone else results in a high probability that the recipient will reciprocate in positive ways (see Sears et al., 1991; Aronson et al., 1997 for details of the psychological literature supporting this proposition). Extent and nature of CH CH involves events and activities organised for the benefit of companies that wish to entertain clients, or prospective clients or employees, at the company’s expense. In Britain, the CH “industry” comprises approximately 5,000 event organisers, CH consultants, venue representatives, specialist caterers, activity operators, agents and brokers (Baxter, 2000). A Key Note 2000 market report estimated aggregate UK spending on CH at approximately £700 million, and predicted a rise in the value of the market to £834.7 million by 2003 (Baxter, 2000). MAPS (1998) forecast that the CH market would be worth £998 million by 2003.) Most of the anticipated expansion, the Key Note report alleged, was attributable to spectator sports. Spending on CH at spectator sports was expected to increase by 18 per cent between 2000 and 2003 (compared with 12.5 per cent for the sector as a whole), due in large part to wide-ranging investments in corporate entertainment capacity by the major sporting venues. Hughes (2000) cited agency research completed in 1997 which suggested that CH routinely accounted for just under 5 per cent of companies marketing budgets, representing therefore a very significant marketing outlay. According to Baxter (2000), soccer accounted for the largest number of CH events (16 per cent of the total), followed by horse racing (15 per cent), rugby (12 per cent), cricket (11 per cent), and golf (10 per cent). Participatory events accounted for 11.8 per cent of all CH expenditures; arts and culture for 5 per cent. Approximately 75 per cent of the market was devoted to client hospitality, the remainder to entertaining companies’ employees (90 per cent of corporate spending on client hospitality was directed towards current (as opposed to potential) customers.) Crucially, Baxter (2000) continued, aggregate CH expenditures rose by a larger amount (27.2 per cent) between 1995 and 1998 than for either sports sponsorship (23.9 per cent) or general advertising (15.1 per cent). Factors possibly contributing to this rapid growth include heavy investment in CH facilities by venues (Fletcher, 2001); increasingly ferocious competition within markets and hence the need to find new ways of obtaining a competitive edge (Croft, 2001); and the transformation of an economy based on manufacturing to one primarily devoted to the provision of services (and thus to the growing importance of personal relationships) (Baxter, 2000). Usefulness of CH for marketing and corporate communications Flack (1999) characterised CH as an extension of relationship marketing. It could be used to build trust and loyalty, shape or shift client perceptions of corporate identity, and develop favourable “word-of-mouth”. Further benefits commonly ascribed to CH include its capacities to “retain profitable business, increase sales from existing customers, win-back profitable business and gain new customers” (Irwin, 2002, p. 23); leverage sponsorship activities (Baxter, 2000); and delight attendees to such an extent that follow-up contacts are extremely well-received (Longbottom, 1997). Hosts might spend four or five hours with a client in a relaxed environment (Hughes, 2000). Crucially, the attendee’s contact with the host is memorable and enjoyable (Parker, 2001), since the “only surprises are pleasant ones” (CHEA, 2001, p. 1). Hence CH can “provide a platform from which to inform, inspire and motivate” the client (Irwin, 2002, p. 23). An NOP survey of 250 UK companies conducted in July 2000 discovered that 56 per cent of those questioned believed that the aims of CH could not be met in any other way (see Baxter, 2000). Half of the remainder thought that CH was the best way of achieving these aims. A total of 30 per cent of the respondents stated that their CH spending had increased in the previous two years, indicating a substantial degree of satisfaction with the practice. Problems connected with CH Rivalry among hosts has led to a proliferation of CH activities and thus to potential guests being inundated with invitations. Consequently, guests are becoming more demanding, so that specific events need to be increasingly exotic (and expensive) in order to arouse client interest (Luckhurst, 1998). This has allegedly led to companies competing with each other in terms of the creativity and originality of their invitations (CHEA, 2001), resulting in hosts feeling obliged to spend more and more on each event in order to attract acceptances (see Hughes, 2000). It is relevant to note moreover that, as the practice has spread, it has become difficult for successful companies not to engage in CH, as success means that an enterprise has a greater number of customers who will expect to be entertained (Baxter, 2000). Another danger is that CH may be construed by outside observers as bribery or corruption, especially if public figures are involved. Critics allege that CH frequently entails the provision of benefits that the recipients could not normally afford and which, by their very nature, are not business-related (Chetwynd, 1998). However, clients are (allegedly) unlikely to sense that they are being bribed, as CH is indirect and rarely includes the “gift” of a physical product (Ramsay, 1990). Luckhurst (1996) noted a trend towards the targeting of delegates’ partners rather than the executives themselves, even to the extent of partners being approached prior to the communication of invitations to the target managers. Technically, the provision of CH is illegal only if the benefit arising from it is obtained “corruptly”, e.g. if a contract is awarded in direct consequence of the hospitality received irrespective of the price or quality of the goods or services furnished (Chetwynd, 1998). Thus, hosts must take care to present CH as an aspect of a firm’s general PR and not as a direct “selling” activity. Then, corporate entertaining can be justified to the outside world as simply “another way of presenting the public face of the company” (Chetwynd, 1998). Strategic approaches Longbottom (1997) reported anecdotal evidence suggesting that expenditures on CH could be seen as a “barometer of business health”, expanding and contracting as national economic growth rates fluctuated. Luckhurst (1997a) and MAPS (1998) also claimed that CH expenditures were highly sensitive to movements in the overall economy. This was supposedly due to corporations not wanting to be seen “wining and dining” customers during recessionary periods when shareholders’ dividends were being cut and employees were facing redundancy. However, a growing body of practitioner opinion maintains that CH is increasingly employed strategically, rather than as an ad hoc device only applied during profitable periods (see for example Champ, 1996; Longbottom, 1997; Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000; Hughes, 2000; Irwin, 2002, Thatcher, 2000; CHEA, 2001). For instance, Baxter (2000) noted “remarks by industry observers” which firmly suggested that CH “no longer acts as a barometer of economic activities, i.e. a slowdown in company activity does not necessarily mean a reduction in CH budgets” (p. 2). Indeed, CH was more and more “part of the marketing mix of host companies” and, as such, less and less sensitive to economic downturn (p. 1). Flack (1999) reported the outcomes to an agency survey of 251 medium to large sized UK companies conducted in 1998 which indicated that 60 per cent were planning to maintain their CH spending at constant levels, in real terms, for the next five years even if a recession occurred. Of the sample firms, 30 per cent stated that they intended increasing their CH expenditures. Clearly, the willingness of a company to sustain CH spending when times are financially difficult is a key indicator of the degree to which CH is regarded as a vital element of the strategic corporate communications mix. In fact, firms adopting a strategic approach to CH might spend more on CH during a period of financial exigency in order to portray a positive image (Flack, 1999). Also, the strengthening of relationships with major clients is arguably more important than ever when a recession seems likely. The practitioner literature offers further recommendations vis-à-vis the identification of strategic approaches to CH, including: • conducting formal research to pinpoint and target key customers for guest lists (Champ, 1996; Irwin, 2002; McKenzie, 1997; Thatcher, 2000) and to establish which events have the greatest appeal to a firm’s key clients (Longbottom, 1997; CHEA, 2001); • establishing clear objectives before selecting an event and who to invite (Irwin, 2002); • integrating CH into marketing communications programmes (Baxter, 2000); • using CH to leverage sponsorships (Baxter, 2000); • explicitly linking events to the corporate image and identity of the organisation (CHEA, 2001); • involving top management in the planning of CH activities (Baxter, 2000); • incorporating CH into business development strategies (Irwin, 2002); • developing bespoke activities in place of traditional events (such as sporting events) (Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000); • locating CH expenditures in marketing (rather than general) departmental budgets (Irwin, 2002). Monitoring and evaluation Champ (1996) claimed that accountability for CH expenditures had risen dramatically: budgets were more strictly monitored and guests were more carefully selected. Conversely, Thatcher (2000) quoted the results of a survey of 77 UK companies which found that only 34 per cent of them actually evaluated events against marketing objectives; while 35 per cent applied no measurement at all. Only half the enterprises had a centralised annual plan for events; 72 per cent cited the personal preferences of senior management as an important determinant of the choice of a CH activity. This lack of formality was attributed to CH being regarded as a component of other corporate communications activities (PR, advertising or sponsorship for example), rather than as a standalone value adding marketing weapon. MAPS (1998) similarly found that two-thirds of host companies did not conduct research to measure the effectiveness of CH, even though effectiveness could be easily evaluated in terms of increased sales to customers who attended specific events. Baxter (2000) reported the results of a 1998 NOP survey which discovered that more than two-thirds of businesses made no attempt to measure the impact of CH. Of the remainder, 34 per cent relied heavily on attendee feedback, and 23 per cent on informal estimates of the amount of business they believed an event had generated. Comparable figures emerged from a survey of 260 blue-chip UK companies completed by the Total Research Organisation in 1996 (see Luckhurst, 1997b). This apparent lack of concern for evaluating the efficacy of CH among UK companies was explained by Baxter (2000) in terms of it being regarded as “the least scientific of all aspects of marketing” (p. 12). The effectiveness of CH was not assessed, Baxter continued, even when sponsorship (especially sports sponsorship) and CH expenditures overlapped because it was “extremely difficult to evaluate with precision what proportion of CH falls under sponsorship, as companies show different patterns and policies in their marketing spending” (p. 9). Another potential difficulty with evaluation is the length of the lead time between a client attending an event and his or her company placing an order with the host firm (McKenzie, 1997). This might be anything up to two years in duration, and circumstances might have changed dramatically in the intervening period. The study In order to investigate the abovementioned issues a mail questionnaire was developed subsequent to a review of relevant literature and discussions with employees of two major CH consultancies. This was used in a pilot study of a sample of 50 host companies selected at random from the sampling frame for the main study. After a follow-up, 19 replies were received, providing useful feedback and a basis for amending and improving the original questionnaire items. The sampling frame itself comprised two elements. First, 322 companies specified in the “client list” sections of the Web sites of CH agencies and consultancies belonging to a CH trade association. Second, and because the first component of the sampling frame involved firms that employed agents and consultants and which, ipso facto, might be expected to adopt more strategic approaches to CH, the questionnaire was mailed to a further 279 companies known to have hosted CH activities at 11 horse racing meetings, two tennis tournaments, three arts events, and 16 Premier and Football League matches. (The names of these businesses were obtained from venue Web pages, telephone calls to venues and personal observation.) A covering letter accompanying the questionnaire explained the nature of the research and was addressed to the head of marketing in each firm. Eventually, 100 replies were received from the first part of the sampling frame (31 per cent) and 89 from the second (32 per cent). Of the 89 businesses, 11 in the latter group employed a CH agent or consultant. The mean values of the responses of the 111 firms using and the 78 enterprises not using, a CH agent or consultant were compared via the facility available for this purpose on SPSS 11. No meaningful statistically significant differences between the replies of the two sections became apparent, i.e. it was not the case that companies engaging CH agents or consultants had different attitudes or behaviour vis-à-vis CH than businesses that did not use agents or consultants. Hence the two sub-samples were combined and the responses analysed for the entire 189-strong group. Although less than a majority of the firms approached replied, there was no evidence to suggest that the sample was biased or unrepresentative[1]. Results Of the 189 companies, 55 per cent employed between 1,000 and 10,000 people; 16 per cent had more than 10,000; while 18 per cent had fewer than 500 employees. A total of 19 per cent of the firms operated in the financial services sector; 15 per cent in “engineering, motors and electrical products”, 15 per cent in retailing, and 14 per cent in media and business services. The remaining companies were located across a wide range of sectors. Management of CH Two-thirds of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that “highly formal” procedures were applied to the management of CH within their enterprises. Responsibility for CH rested with a marketing department in 17 per cent of the sample companies, a PR or analogous department in 24 per cent, a single senior non-marketing manager in 18 per cent, a finance department in 8 per cent, and with a sponsorship manager in 9 per cent. Multi-disciplinary team decision-making vis-à-vis CH activities was relatively unusual; only 8 per cent of the respondents stated that this occurred within their firms. When it did take place, it was always the case that the team included a member from the company’s marketing department. Hence, CH was seen as a marketing/PR or sponsorship issue in half the sample, and as a function requiring a marketing input in a further 8 per cent. This suggests that marketing skills were considered important for the planning of CH and that CH was seen as a tangible element of the marketing mix of the majority of the sample enterprises. (Witcher et al., 1991; Webster, 1992; Bennett, 1997; Irwin, 2002) and others have concluded that the location of responsibility for a specific function within a marketing department (rather than a finance or general administrative department) is a significant indication that senior management regards it as belonging predominantly to the marketing domain.) A third of the respondents reported that CH expenditures were incorporated into their companies’ marketing budgets. A further third operated separate and independent budgets for CH, while 15 per cent placed CH budgets in a finance department. The respondents were asked to indicate the percentage of their firms’ total marketing expenditures devoted to CH (1-2 per cent; 3-5 per cent … 8-9 per cent; more than 10 per cent). Of the sample, 55 per cent ticked the 1-2 per cent category, and 25 per cent the 3-5 per cent division. Hence, average CH spending was rather lower than the “typical” 5 per cent of a company’s marketing budget suggested by Hughes (2000). CH plans were drafted quarterly in 20 per cent of the companies; annually in 40 per cent, and every six months in 30 per cent. Respondents were questioned about the main influences on their firms’ choices of CH events and which people to invite, and how they arrived at decisions. The “in-house assessment of the goodness of the match between particular CH activities and specific clients” was cited as an “important” or “extremely important” method for selecting events and clients by 68 per cent of the sample. Only 10 per cent reported that the personal preferences of top management exerted an important or very important influence on choices (this contrasts sharply with the 72 per cent cited by Thatcher, 2000). A total of 36 per cent of the firms completed formal market research into the suitability of specific CH events. Two-thirds of the respondents regarded improvements in CH venues as an important or very important reason for the growth of CH in recent years (confirming the view of Fletcher, 2001), and three-quarters agreed/strongly agreed that better consultancy services and CH infrastructure were now available. Table I gives the outcomes to questions about objectives, the targeting of guests, and the host’s behaviour at events. The majority of the companies in the sample set both general and sales objectives for CH, but not specific targets for improving the firm’s image (see items 1 to 3). Nearly two-thirds of the companies had a central plan for CH activities (14 per cent more than the 50 per cent quoted by Thatcher, 2000) (see item 4). Company representatives were usually instructed on how to behave though they rarely received formal training (see items 8 and 9), and most firms sought to have their people in close proximity to clients for the longest possible period (cf. Hughes, 2000) (items 10 and 11). Overwhelmingly, invitations were aimed at pre-existing clients (cf. Baxter, 2000) (item 5). However, there was no evidence of guests’ partners being targeted (items 6 and 7) (cf. Luckhurst, 1996). Importance, benefits and problems of CH Three-quarters of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that CH was “taken very seriously” by their organisations. A total of 68 per cent agreed/strongly agreed that CH was a “vital element of the marketing communications mix”; the same percentage that agreed/strongly agreed that the aims of their companies’ CH could not be achieved by any other marketing method (12 per cent higher than the 56 per cent found by the NOP survey reported by Baxter (2000). Respondents were asked whether, faced with a recession, their firms would cut their CH budgets pro rata by any more than the budgets of other marketing activities. A total of 65 per cent stated that they would not cut their budgets in this way (confirming the trend noted by Flack (1999) who cited 60 per cent of an earlier sample agreeing with this proposition). A total of 15 per cent of the respondents replied that their companies were likely to increase CH expenditures at the onset of a recession. Table II lists the results for questionnaire items concerning respondents’ perceptions of the benefits attributable to CH. (The items for this section were derived from the practitioner literature on the subject (e.g. Longbottom, 1997; Flack, 1999; Baxter, 2000; Irwin 2002). It can be seen that items 1 to 3 involving relationship marketing were seen as major benefits of CH (cf. Flack, 1999). Direct selling (cf. Longbottom, 1997) and image building (items 4 to 6) were also regarded as important. Conversely, and in contradiction of the suggestions of Irwin (2002), CH was not normally viewed as a useful way of gaining business from new rather than existing customers, or for winning back lapsed clients. Of the sample companies, 15 per cent were engaged in sponsorship. Of these, 82 per cent agreed/strongly agreed that CH was an extremely important device for leveraging sponsorship activities (the meaning of “leveraging” in the present context was explained in non-technical terms in the body of the questionnaire). Responses concerning the problems perceived to apply to CH are summarised in Table III. These findings are compatible with the practitioner literature which has posited that it is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to attract clients to attend events (items 1 to 3) (see Luckhurst, 1998; Hughes, 2000; CHEA, 2001), and that competition (item 4) is leading to spiralling costs (Baxter, 2000; Croft, 2001). However, the respondents within this particular sample did not generally regard evaluation as a problem (contradicting the anecdotal evidence reported by McKenzie, 1997; MAPS, 1998; Baxter, 2000; and Thatcher, 2000) and they certainly did not believe that invitees or others would perceive CH as a form of bribery (cf. Ramsey, 1990; Chetwynd, 1998). A majority of the firms in the sample formally evaluated the effectiveness of the CH function in some way or other. A total of 48 per cent tracked post-event sales to attendees, more than three-quarters stated that they made informal estimates of the extra business generated by events, 65 per cent systematically gathered feedback from guests, and 55 per cent attempted to compare outcomes with initial objectives. Only 10 per cent of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the proposition that the impact of a CH event was “virtually impossible to measure”. These figures differ remarkably from those of reported agency surveys (see Luckhurst, 1997b; MAPS, 1998; Baxter, 2000; Thatcher, 2000), which typically concluded that no more than a third of firms engaging in CH bothered to measure the impact of CH on sales (23 per cent according to the NOP survey (see Baxter, 2000)) or other performance indices, or to evaluate outcomes against initial objectives. Companies in the present sample that did in fact track sales usually did so for up to a year after an event (64 per cent of these firms), with 20 per cent monitoring sales for two subsequent years, and 16 per cent tracking sales for more than two years. Strategic approaches Several of the abovementioned outcomes are compatible with the proposition that UK businesses are adopting more strategic approaches to CH. Majorities of the sample possessed highly formal procedures for managing CH, set objectives, planned CH centrally, and involved marketing staff heavily in CH decisions. Also, nearly two-thirds of the respondents stated that their firm’s would not cut CH budgets pro rata by more than other forms of promotion during a recession. Table IV summaries the responses to further questionnaire items that explored the strategic dimension of CH. It can be seen that most attempted to integrate CH into their overall marketing communications (cf. Baxter, 2000) and their general business development planning (cf. Irwin, 2002). Activities were designed to support image building programmes (cf. CHEA, 2001), but relied mainly on pre-existing rather than bespoke events (see item 5). Half the sample stated that CH was used to help attain strategic marketing objectives. Satisfaction A number of items were employed to assess levels of satisfaction with CH, as shown in Table V. A total of 45 per cent of the respondents were highly satisfied with the outcomes to their CH activities (see Table V item 1); 25 per cent disagreed/strongly disagreed with this item, with 30 per cent of the replies falling in the central (n = neither agree nor disagree) category. Similar outcomes applied to satisfaction with CH’s contributions to sales (n = 32 per cent), image building (n = 30 per cent), and the development of relationships of a quality that could not have been achieved in other ways (item 4, n = 28 per cent). Taking into account the percentages of the responses in the n = neither agree nor disagree categories, these figures suggest substantial satisfaction with the sample firms’ CH activities. A total of 38 per cent indicated their intention to increase CH spending in the future. Analysis To gain an insight into the characteristics of the firms that adopted strategic approaches to CH most intensely, the 189 companies were clustered in two dimensions with a composite “strategic approach” variable on one axis and an aggregated extent of “evaluation” variable on the other. Table IV items 1 to 4 and item 6 were highly intercorrelated (R > 0.55 in all cases) and hence were combined into a single scale to reflect strategic orientation. Likewise, the propensities to track sales, gather feedback from guests, and compare outcomes with objectives were all intercorrelated (R > 0.6), so these items were similarly aggregated to form a compounded “evaluation” variable. The firms were clustered using the K-means cluster facility available on SPSS. A four-cluster solution outperformed the alternatives[2] and generated clusters with significant differences (p < 0.05) between all the cluster means. Cluster 1 contained 41 companies that were relatively high on both their strategic orientation (cluster mean = 4.0) and their evaluation practices (mean = 3.2). These firms may reasonably be called CH “warriors”, as they adopted proactively strategic approaches to the practice and were eager to measure the results. A second cluster of 62 companies, hereafter referred to as “reactors; occupied the opposite quadrant and were low on both strategic orientation (mean = 2.2) and evaluation (mean = 2.0). Presumably these firms only engaged in CH because they observed competitors doing so, and did not wish to lose out. Cluster 3 also contained 62 businesses (named “pragmatists”) that were relatively high on evaluation (mean = 3.0), yet low on strategic orientation. The 25 companies in the final cluster are termed “strategic hopefuls”, as they adopted strategic approaches (mean = 3.6), but did not bother to measure the results (mean = 2.1). Mean values for all the questionnaire items were computed for each of the four groups of companies. Significant differences between two or more of the means occurred with respect to the items listed in Table VI. It is evident from Table VI that CH warriors spent relatively freely on CH, tended to locate responsibility for CH in a marketing department, drafted CH plans frequently, set targets, trained their staff in CH more than firms in other categories, targeted potential as well as existing clients to a greater extent, and were more likely to increase CH expenditures during a recession. Of the 36 financial services firms in the sample 16 (40 per cent) fell within the warrior cluster. Strategic hopefuls also spent quite a lot on CH, managed CH via a marketing department and set CH objectives. Nearly a third of this group were financial services companies. Pragmatists often used formal market research to match events and clients, set objectives, and some would target potential clients. Reactors were low on most elements connected with the strategic approach, and commonly believed that competitive pressures were forcing them to spend excessive amounts on CH activities. Determinants of satisfaction with CH A regression analysis was completed to establish the main determinants of satisfaction with CH. As the study was exploratory in nature, no a priori hypotheses were available to predict the variables most likely to exert a significant influence. Thus, an experimental approach was adopted whereby possible independent variables were identified from correlation matrices, the cluster analysis, and ad hoc stepwise regressions. The model that emerged is shown in Table VII. Three dependent variables were employed: overall satisfaction, plus satisfaction with CH as a means for increasing sales and for developing corporate image. It can be seen from Table VII that the adoption of a strategic approach had a significant impact in all three regressions. Likewise for the practice of evaluating the consequences of CH and using market research to match events and clients. The variables, location of responsibility for CH in a marketing department, and taking steps to ensure that the firm’s representatives were as physically close to clients as possible, contributed significantly to satisfaction in two out of three cases. Satisfaction with CH as a device for increasing sales depended additionally on the provision of staff training and the use of formal procedures to manage the CH function. There was no evidence from the regression analysis to suggest that firm size or the percentage of a company’s marketing budget devoted to CH had any influence on satisfaction. In general, firm size failed to correlate significantly with any of the attitudinal or behavioural variables. Conclusion The results generally confirm the trend towards the adoption of increasingly strategic approaches towards CH noted in recent practitioner literature. A conspicuous finding was that a large proportion of the sample formally evaluated the impact of CH activities; an outcome that contrasted sharply with the conclusions of previous surveys. Strategic orientations were most prevalent among financial services firms, supporting the suggestion of Baxter (2000) that service providers are a priori more likely to engage in CH than businesses in other sectors. It was clear, moreover, that many firms recognised the importance of the links between physical proximity and liking (see Baron and Byrne, 2000), and between the provision of pleasurable experiences to customers and their liking of the host company (cf. Gold et al., 1984; Sears et al., 1991). Majorities of the businesses in the sample adopted the marketing management practices advocated by Irwin and Asimakopoulos (1992), i.e. objective setting, locating responsibility for the function in a marketing department, integration at CH into the firm’s overall marketing communications plans and programmes, and evaluating the results. The main problems attributed to CH were its high cost and the risk of entering into “competitive spirals” of CH activities with rival companies. A number of practical implications for corporate communications managers ensue from the analysis. Satisfaction with CH was higher among businesses that formally trained their staff in relation to CH matters. This suggests the desirability of incorporating dedicated CH training into mainstream interpersonal skills training programmes. Other results from the regressions explaining satisfaction with CH indicated that firms should undertake formal market research into the suitability of particular venues, manage CH from a marketing department, carefully evaluate outcomes and, in general, adopt strategic approaches. It seems reasonable to conclude that increasing numbers of UK firms regard CH as a critical corporate communications weapon. As such, CH will soon become a function with which all communications managers will need to be familiar. Moreover, its growing financial and operational importance means that CH is an area worthy of substantial further academic investigation. Specific topics requiring additional research include the specific means whereby CH can be best integrated into a firm’s marketing communications mix, the effectiveness of various forms of CH cost control mechanism, the psychology of attraction in the CH context, and guests’ attitudes towards particular forms of CH offer. The metrics of CH also merit attention, notably the ways in which improvements in a firm’s corporate image consequent to a CH programme can be accurately measured. Notes 1. A slip was sent to companies failing to respond to the second mailing of the questionnaire requesting an indication of the recipient’s reasons not to participate. A total of 66 of these slips were returned. Also 14 firms wrote to the author declining to participate, usually giving a reason. The main explanation for non-response was “company policy not to reply to questionnaires” (34 per cent), followed by “too busy” (23 per cent), and “unwilling to disclose confidential information” (16 per cent). Also an analysis of the first and final quarters of the replies did not reveal any statistically significant differences in patterns of response. Hence, there were no grounds for believing that the participating companies were unrepresentative. 2. Solutions involving between two and seven clusters were extracted. The four cluster outcome had: the highest ANOVA F-values (3,186 degrees of freedom) for both the strategic orientation variable (F = 5.55, p =0.000) and the evaluation composite (F = 5.409, p =0.000), an R-square of 0.821 for differences between clusters (suggesting substantial within group homogeneity), and a semi-partial R-square of 0.225 for the fourth cluster (indicating minimal loss of homogeneity at the final step). Table IObjectives, targeting and control Table IIBenefits of CH Table IIIProblems of CH Table IVStrategic approaches Table VSatisfaction with CH Table VICluster analysis Table VIIRegression analysis References Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (1997), Social Psychology, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley-Longman, New York, NY., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Baron, R., Byrne, D. (2000), Social Psychology, 9th ed., Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Baxter, J. (2000), Corporate Hospitality: 2000 Market Report, Key Note, London, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Bennett, R. (1997), "Corporate philanthropy in the UK: altruistic giving or marketing communications weapon?", Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.87-109. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Champ, H. (1996), Accountancy, No.November, pp.41-3. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Chetwynd, C. (1998), Marketing Week, No.5 November, pp.47-50. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Corporate Hospitality Event Association (CHEA) (2001), Why Use Corporate Hospitality?, www.cha-event.co.uk, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Cramer, R., Weiss, R., Steigleder, M., Balling, S. (1985), "Attraction in context: acquisition and blocking of person-directed action", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 49 pp.1221-30. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Croft, M. (2001), "Perfect pitch", Marketing Week, No.29 March, pp.65-6. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Flack, J. (1999), "Slump action", Marketing Week, No.4 March, pp.57-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Fletcher, M. (2001), "Sports venues add to hospitality offer", Marketing, No.20 September, pp.47-8. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Gold, J., Ryckman, R., Mosley, N. (1984), "Mood induction and attraction to a dissimilar other", Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 10 No.4, pp.358-68. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Hughes, S. (2000), "Hospitable locations", Accountancy, No.June, pp.62-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Irwin, C. (2002), "Coming of age: corporate hospitality", Marketing Business, No.April, pp.21-3. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Irwin, R., Asimakopoulos, M. (1992), "An approach to the evaluation and selection of sport sponsorship proposals", Sport Marketing Quarterly, Vol. 1 No.2, pp.43-51. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Longbottom, P. (1997), "Life’s a ball", The Director, Vol. 50 No.11, pp.66-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1996), "Away game", Marketing Week, No.22 March, pp.41-5. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1997), "The five-star treatment", Chartered Banker, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.44-5. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1997), "Measuring up", Marketing Week, No.14 August, pp.31-6. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Luckhurst, J. (1998), "Invest to impress", Marketing Week, No.18 June, pp.59-62. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Lydon, J., Jamieson, D., Zanna, M. (1988), "Interpersonnel; similarity and the social and intellectual dimensions of first impressions", Social Cognition, Vol. 6 No.2, pp.269-96. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] McKenzie, S. (1997), "The trick of treats", Marketing Week, No.17 January, pp.43-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] MAPS (1998), Corporate Hospitality, www.the-list.co.uk/acatalog/mp74008.html, . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Parker, D. (2001), "The thrill seekers", Marketing Week, No.27 September, pp.67-9. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Ramsay, J. (1990), "Corporate hospitality: marketing of a monster?", Management Decision, Vol. 28 No.4, pp.20-2. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Sears, D., Peplau, L., Taylor, S. (1991), Social Psychology, 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ., . [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Thatcher, M. (2000), "Going places", Marketing Business, No.April, pp.42-4. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Webster, F. (1992), "The changing role of marketing in the corporation", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56 No.1, pp.1-17. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Witcher, B., Craigen, J., Culligan, D., Harvey, A. (1991), "The links between objectives and function in organisational sponsorship", International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 10 No.1, pp.13-33. [Manual request] [Infotrieve] Further reading Maitland, A. (1999), "Tis the season to be wary", Financial Times, No.16 December, pp.20. [Manual request] [Infotrieve]



Occupational Health and Safety Consultation Procedure SCOPE
Posted On: Oct. 28, 2017
Author: Shipra


Occupational Health and Safety Consultation Procedure SCOPE This procedure applies to management, employees and contractors within XYZ Training and requires the full cooperation and assistance of all personnel. PROCEDURE The Occupational Health and Safety Act states that employers must consult with their employees in regards to OH&S to enable the employees to contribute to the making of decisions affecting their health, safety and welfare at work. Consultation is important as it helps to identify Risks and Hazards in the workplace so that controls can be put in place The views of employees will be valued and taken into account by management. WHEN TO CONSULT 1. Consultation with employees shall take place whenever any of the following take place: 2. When risks to health and safety arise from work procedures 3. When risks to health and safety assessments are reviewed 4. When introducing or altering procedures for monitoring risks 5. When decisions are undertaken to eliminate or control risks 6. When consultation procedures are being devised, specifically: a. The employees' preferred method of consultation b. The membership of any health and safety committee 7. When there are proposed changes to the: a. Work premises b. Systems or work methods c. Substances or plant used at work d. procedures for ESTABLISHING CONSULTATIVE STRUCTURES XYZ Training shall follow the following steps to establish consultative structures. • The election of health and safety representatives • The establishment of a health and safety committee. An up to date list of OHS representatives and OHS Committee members shall be displayed in a prominent place . HEALTH AND SAFETY REPRESENTATIVES Health and safety representatives shall be elected by staff. The staff shall decide how to conduct the election, and shall define the terms of the appointment (e.g. duration). The primary role of the health and safety representative is to represent the health and safety interests of the workers. Key roles and functions of health and safety representatives include: • Assist with identifying solutions OHS issues • Apply their knowledge of health and safety legislation, standards and codes of practice • Assist in involving employees in resolving health and safety issues • Inspecting the workplace • Accompanying an Inspector • Being present at any interview between an employee and an inspector • Requesting the establishment of a health and safety committee • Issuing Provisional Improvement Notices XYZ Training shall allow health and safety representatives time off work with pay to attend an approved training course to allow them to represent their workgroup effectively. OHS COMMITTEE XYZ Training shall support the formation of an OHS Committee. and consult with the health and safety representatives on the composition and functions of the committee. • At least half of the Committee members shall be employees. • The optimum size of the Committee shall be between six and twelve members. • Senior management, with decision-making authority, shall be represented on the Committee. The Committee shall support XYZ Training's OHS program by • exploring broad workplace health and safety issues • developing policies, procedures and programs that contribute to workplace health and safety. • monitoring steps taken to solve health and safety problems, and • overseeing the implementation of risk control measures. The company will respond to OHS Committee recommendations within a timeframe agreed by the Committee, set according to the particular issue. Committee members will be provided with relevant training where necessary to effectively fulfil their role. HOW THE CONSULTATION PROCESS SHOULD WORK When an OHS issue is raised by the company, an employee or the OHS Committee, health and safety representatives will consult staff. They will also feed outcomes of the OHS committee meetings back to the staff. In the first instance, employees should draw to the attention of their supervisor any health and safety concerns that they have about the workplace so the issue can be promptly addressed. Should this not occur, the issue should be referred to either the health and safety representative or an OHS Committee member. Effective Consultation In order for consultation to be effective, management must acknowledge the views of employees and inform them of any changes that have been made in the workplace due to issues raised during consultation



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Darden Restaurants
Posted On: Oct. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Darden Restaurants Darden has become a global leader in the hospitality industry. It started with a modest beginning when the company’s founder Bill Darden opened his first restaurant in 1938 in Waycross, Ga. It was not a fully fledged restaurant but a small one of the size of 25’ by 30’ luncheonette and named “The Green Frog" that featured "Service with a Hop." The first Red Lobster restaurant was opened in 1968 in Lakeland, Fla. As on date, Darden is the world’s largest full-service restaurant company. The success of the restaurant comes from the strong values that it holds and imbibes in its employees as well. These are Integrity and fairness to each other; Respect and caring and well being for others, acknowledging individual differences and belief in Teamwork, These are also its critical success factors as the company believes in continue learning. Darden also is focused on making sure that employees are trained and nurtured as it is through them only the company would achieve and sustain success. When the employees feel a pride and a sense of accomplishment it ultimately leads to the success of the company and its growth. Another success factor for growth is the Supplier Diversity imitative adopted by the company in which it focuses on businesses run by women or minority. This initiative helps in bringing about awareness and opportunities to those who are in need and then become part of the value chain of the company. The company does not just believe in earning profit itself. It measures its performance in terms in terms of full service. This view is held by the company because they are of the opinion that with their strong multi-unit brands, they can enhance their share of full service segment. It is the variety or breadth and depth of their expertise that has helped them in gaining a distinctive place for themselves in the field they are operating. The balance score card would cover constituents such as brand management excellence, restaurant operations excellence, supply chain, talent management and information technology, among other things. The time and effort the company spends on minor details even for selecting a site for opening new restaurants goes to show their commitment to quality. The company believes that a high – quality restaurant should be managed well and then only it would contribute to its long term success. While the structure of the restaurant differs on the basis of brand and size, there is no compromise on quality and consistency of preparation procedures and recipes. It suppliers are encourage to maintain a very high standard of manufacturing practice and have put in place a comprehensive Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (“HACCP”) food safety programs adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The company is aware of the risk factors such as follows:- The business of the company get a beating if it does not maintain safety precautions in the entire supply chain of its procurement , preparation and service of food. Further, in this service industry, there is a possibility of people filing case of litigation, including allegations of illegal, unfair or inconsistent employment practices, which in turn could seriously affect the revenues of the business. In case of adverse publicity, the company may not be able to respond in an effective manner and thus could damage its reputation built over the years. This can adversely affect the sales and number of guests visiting its restaurants. Examples of costs with respect of brand Red Lobster Variable cost The cost of procurement of sea food for preparation of dishes for its various customers is variable (Drury 2007). This would vary depending on the number of customers being served. Even the cost of the ingredients for making the dish will be variable. Fixed cost Cost incurred towards payment of salary of its employees is a fixed cost. The rent and charges towards electricity is also a fixed cost. Product cost This cost related to the product (sea food) and would depend on the ingredient used and the process time involved. Period cost These costs are not included in cost of purchase or manufacturing. Examples are sales commission and administrative expenses. Direct cost These costs are directly charged towards the total cost of manufacturing. For example Publications, brochures, project supplies to name a few Indirect cost The examples of indirect cost are audit and legal costs, administrative staff Cost of controlling cost The salaries of people employed to supervise the operations and also check the quality of items purchased and manufactured would be examples of cost of controlling cost Cost of failing to control quality This cost will be reflected in terms of lower volume of sales and reduction in profit margin (Chadwick 1998). References http://investor.darden.com/Theme/Darden/files/doc_financials/2012-10K.pdf accessed on September 17th 2012 Drury C. (2007) Management and Cost Accounting 7th edition Cengage Learning Chadwick L. (1998) Management Accounting 2nd edition Cengage Learning



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Independent Study Exam
Posted On: Oct. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Independent Study Exam This exam asks you to use the research you’ve done on the U.S. health care system and that of connected comparison countries. You will gain maximum points for each question if you provide an answer that 1) directly addresses the question and 2) provides specific supporting data. Answers should reflect your own learning and observations. Other sources may be used to support your thinking, but other sources are not a substitute for your thinking. 1) One issue you examined in your research and reading was the efficiency of the U.S. health care system (the degree to which the system is able to control costs). Identify the top three variables that contribute to the cost structure for health care in the U.S. Briefly discuss the one of these three variables which contribute most to inefficiency and indicate why that might be the case. A. Eco system to serve to patients and improve health conditions and treatments. B. Analyzing the factor inputs like hospital beds, treatment machines, doctors, and nurses. C. Spending money on healthcare for betterment. Why? Because more you spend money in healthcare better you get good treatments. Somehow, lesser spending money the patients will not get good treatments because the updated and new machines are not provided in every hospital, there is some hospitals are average that they do have treatments but not as the expensive hospitals have. It’s all about spending money. From the reading of the report, it is clear that the efficiency of U.S. health system depend on three parameters viz. Poor Eco System that act as a health hazard, lack of infrastructure such as hospital beds, treatment machines support staff ( nurses, doctors, technicians ) and less amount of money at the disposal of people to get the best treatment. While each one of the three variables mentioned contribute to the sustainability of health care, according to me the second factor i.e. poor infrastructure is the one that contribute to most inefficiency of the health system. If the hospital equipment is faulty or if proper equipment is not available it would lead to poor treatment. So even if the patient is willing to spend more money, the treatment will not be effective. Moreover, if the support staff such as doctors, nurses and technicians is not qualified enough, they provide wrong diagnosis and patients may suffer. So it is better to spend money on infrastructure and make them available to maximum number of people at a cost that is affordable. To support this argument, the data provided in the research report clearly states that As per Health Affairs, roughly US$7 was spent on every woman, child and man in US in the year 2007, which was 20% of all that was spent. These costs are only expected to increase with time. This is a clear indication that the money spent in maintaining an effective health care system is not sufficient to take care of those who are in desperate need of the same. That is one of the reason Obama Administration has taken a bold step by providing health care to maximum number of people by cutting down on fiscal deficit and other costs. 2) A second issue you examined in your research and reading was the effectiveness of the U.S. health care system (the degree to which the system supports the health of the U.S. population). Identify the top three variables that contribute to the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of health care in the U.S. Briefly discuss the one of these three variables which contribute most to effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) and indicate why that might be the case. For effectiveness: Encourage the people for being healthy, maintain body, and believe them health is life not money or new technology machines are not saver. Make patients happiness, and make them believe on the healthcare is for their help and need. Why? There are many reasons that patients can happy toward good healthcare such as patient experiences, saving cost, happiness, neighbor and community benefits, and seminars that update people about health. Effectiveness of U.S. health system can be sustained only if the three variables that contribute to its functioning are maintained in balanced condition. These are maintaining healthy environment such as reducing pollution and developing habits that lead to healthiness such as balanced diet, exercise , refraining ( or cutting down) from consumption of nicotine or alcohol , providing excellent services by support staff who are trained to carry out such actions. Encouraging people to maintain is the best method to have an effective health care system. If people are made to realize the importance of healthy diet and exercise, less number of people would fall ill and the hospitals would not be burdened with admitting people having minor illnesses. To support this argument, it is mentioned in the research report that A lot of initiatives are being taken to push people towards having a balanced vegetarian diet, reducing sugar and sweetened beverages and having more of fruits and raw vegetables. A lot of food partners are also working to find out the barriers to healthier food systems and to increase the number of nutritious options. Initiatives are being taken by hospitals educational institutes and others to educate people and encourage them to learn about the importance of maintaining healthy life style. 3) While researching and reading about the U.S. health care system, you also learned about the health care systems of other countries. Drawing on what you learned about heath care in other countries, identify two processes, structures, or practices that enhance efficiency elsewhere and two that enhance effectiveness elsewhere that the U.S. might want to consider for improving health care in the U.S., along with potential benefits. I would say for US and different countries remain healthy and keep the body maintain. So from this strategy they would help countries economic to improve. And there is no comparison between countries because healthcare system is different than other countries. The process and structures are maintain the body and being healthy. It is not correct to compare the health system of two countries as the living style and economic conditions of countries are different. In certain countries the climatic conditions force people to eat food that is rich in fat or sugar as otherwise they may not be able to sustain themselves in tough weather conditions. Some countries are not advanced in terms of economy and have higher number of unemployed. In such conditions, the residents will not be able to afford basic treatment itself. However, what is common is that if people are encouraged to lead a simple life by having healthy food and exercise, then the health care system will not be burdened so much with patients. Healthy food does not mean having costly items to eat. And exercise does not mean that one has to join a gym to exercise. For exercise, one can use natural methods such as brisk walking, jogging, yoga etc.



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