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History 2010 PART ONE: AMERICAN COLONIES (1607-1783) 1. AMERICAN CULTURE IN THE 16TH CENTURY
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


History 2010 PART ONE: AMERICAN COLONIES (1607-1783) 1. AMERICAN CULTURE IN THE 16TH CENTURY Key Terms The Maya The Mexica The Inca Cahokia Manitou Web of Life Mississippian Indians Ritual Warfare Trade/Reciprocity Role of Women I. THE FIRST INHABITANTS -Hunters from Asia Followed their Game into Alaska (20,000 BC) -Receding Ice Opens the American Continents (10,000 BC) -Some People Begin Practicing Agriculture in Central America (5000 BC) -Large Cities Appear in Yucatan and the Valley of Mexico (1500 BC) II. THE GREAT EMPIRES -The Maya (Yucatan) -The Mexica (Called Aztecs by the Spanish) -The Inca -The Mississippi III. INDIAN SOCIETY IN NORTH AMERICA Families and Clans -Strictly Divided Gender Roles -Power of Women -Affection for Children Manitou: The Spiritual Force Controlling all of Nature -The Web of Life -Vision Quests -Power of Shamans Trade and Reciprocity -Gaining Improved Technology -Expression of Goodwill -Measure of Power -Importance of Tobacco Warfare and Competition -Restoring the Breakdown of Order -Ritualized Nature of Fighting -Agonizing Torture -Sports and Gambling



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2. EUROPEAN EXPLORERS Key Terms Great Chain of Being Mercantilism Marco Polo
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


2. EUROPEAN EXPLORERS Key Terms Great Chain of Being Mercantilism Marco Polo The Silk Road The Reformation Prince Henry's Academy Voyage of St. Brendan Martin Frobisher Leif Ericson's Colony Giovanni Verrazano Jacques Cartier Donnaconna I. EUROPEAN SOCIETY IN THE 16TH CENTURY -Ethnocentric Belief System (All Other Cultures Are Inferior) -The Great Chain of Being -Population Boom -Rise of Merchant Class - Mercantilism II. THE SEARCH FOR A WATER ROUTE TO ASIA -Marco Polo -The Silk Road - Desire for Fabrics and Spices -High Cost of Trade on the Overland Route -Desire to be Free from Muslim Domination III. THE RISE OF THE NATION-STATES -Powerful Monarchs Create Strong Authoritarian Kingdoms (Portugal, Spain, France, Holland, Britain) -The Academy of Prince “Henry the Navigator” in Portugal -Religious Fervor - The Reconquista -Luther’s Reformation Sparks International Competition IV. VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY St. Brendan and the Isle of Paradise Eric the Red and his son Leif in Newfoundland Giovanni da Verrazzano and the Cannibals Jacques Cartier and the Marooned Demoiselle Sir Martin Frobisher and the Search for the Northern Passage



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1-5. The American Colonies in the 17th Century Key Terms Indentured Servitude Middle Passage Usury Laws Sumptuary Laws Triangular Trade Plantations Quakers William Penn Regional Di...
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


1-5. The American Colonies in the 17th Century Key Terms Indentured Servitude Middle Passage Usury Laws Sumptuary Laws Triangular Trade Plantations Quakers William Penn Regional Differences I. Who came to the colonies 1. Indentured Servants 2. African Slaves 3. The Scots-Irish 4. Other European Migrants 5. Convicts II. Regional Differences 1. New England - Triangular Trade - Towns and Cities 2. The South - Plantation Agriculture - Rural Population 3. The Middle Colonies - The Quaker Haven - Mixed Economy of Manufactures and Farming



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1-7. The American Colonies in the 18th Century Key Terms Stono Uprising The Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards New Lights Old Lights George Whitefield Royal Governors Colonial Assembli...
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


1-7. The American Colonies in the 18th Century Key Terms Stono Uprising The Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards New Lights Old Lights George Whitefield Royal Governors Colonial Assemblies "Power of the Purse" Navigation Acts Salutary Neglect Braddock's Defeat William Pitt Fort William Henry Pontiac's Uprising I. The Stono Uprising (1739) 1. Severe smallpox epidemic hits South Carolina 2. War breaks out between Britain and Spain 3. “Jemmy” leads a rebellion along the Stono River II. The Great Awakening (1739-1743) 1. Colonial expansion into the backcountry 2. Influence of the European Enlightenment 3. Jonathan Edwards employs “fire and brimstone” 4. “New Lights” versus “Old Lights” NL - George Whitefield Presbyterians Baptists OL - Puritans (Congregationalists) Anglicans (Episcopalians) III. Imperial Administration in the Colonies 1. The King’s Authority - By 1700, most colonies had become royal colonies - The “theory” of royal control - The “reality” of the power of the colonial assemblies The voting habits of the colonists 2. Royal control of the colonial economy - The system of mercantilism - The Navigation Acts - American smugglers and salutary neglect 3. The French and Indian War - French soldiers and colonial militia collide in Ohio Valley - France gains upper hand as colonies can’t cooperate - William Pitt adopts a new strategy and turns the tide - The colonies and mother Britain are not united by victory



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1-8. From Resistance to Revolution Key Terms Proclamation Act Sugar Act Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Townsend Duties Daughters of
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


1-8. From Resistance to Revolution Key Terms Proclamation Act Sugar Act Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Townsend Duties Daughters of Liberty Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party Coercive Act Continental Congress Lexington & Concord Bunker Hill Hessians Common Sense Olive Branch Petition Declaration of Independence I. The British point-of-view 1. That of a mother towards her children 2. Americans must begin contributing to the burdens of empire 3. “Virtual Representation” and the unwritten constitution II. The American point-of-view 1. That of matured children 2. Americans owe Britain loyalty, not strict obedience 3. “Direct representation” and the written constitution III. Seven crises build upon each other 1. Proclamation Act (1763) 2. Sugar Act (1764) 3. Stamp Act (1765) 4. Townsend Duties (1767) 5. Boston Massacre (1770) 6. Boston Tea Party (1773) 7. Coercive Act (1774) IV. The outbreak of violence 1. Meeting of the First Continental Congress (1774) - Declares Parliament has no right to pass laws for the colonies - Declares that Americans have the right to defend themselves against British regulars 2. Lexington and Concord 3. Bunker’s Hill (1775) V. The Declaration of Independence (1776) 1. “The Hessians are coming” 2. Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense 3. King George III rejects the “Olive Branch Petition” 4. Congress votes on July 2, 1776, for a declaration of independence



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1-9. The War for Independence Key Terms Loyalists Benedict Arnold George Washington Quebec Fall of New York Trenton
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


1-9. The War for Independence Key Terms Loyalists Benedict Arnold George Washington Quebec Fall of New York Trenton Saratoga Battles for Philadelphia Valley Forge Fall of Charleston "Baron" von Steuben Guerilla Warfare Francis Marion King's Mountain The Over-Mountain Boys Dragging Canoe Yorktown Marquis de Lafayette Nathaniel Green Monmouth CH Molly Hayes Lord Cornwallis John Wilkes John Paul Jones I. What was so “revolutionary” about The Revolution? 1. American Levelers 2. Constitutional government II. The Opposing Sides 1. The British Empire - Advantages: Finances Powerful Military Manufacturing Base Population Base - Weaknesses: Separated from war by a vast ocean Anti-war movement at home 2. The United Colonies - Weaknesses: No finances No professional military No manufacturing base Divided population - Advantages: Defending home terrain High morale Superior leadership III. The patriot cause falters (1776) 1. Defeat at Quebec 2. The retreat from New York and New Jersey 3. A sign of hope at Trenton: Washington crosses the Delaware IV. Stalemate (1777-1778) 1. American victory at Saratoga 2. The French enter the war 3. The British capture Philadelphia V. The war in the south (1778-1781) 1. Indian uprisings on the frontier - Dragging Canoe at Lookout Mountain 2. The inner civil war: patriots versus loyalists 3. Disaster at Charleston and Savannah 4. Guerilla warfare - Francis Marion in the low country - John Sevier and the “over-mountain boys” at King’s Mountain 5. The British surrender at Yorktown



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TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of History
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of History History 2010-002 Professor Davis The United States, to 1865 Office: Henderson Hall #7 Spring Semester, 2015 372-3333 pdavis@tntech.edu Office Hours: MWF 12-1pm, 4-5pm and by appointment If men could learn from history, what lessons might it teach us! But passion and party blind our eyes, and the light which experience gives us is a lantern on the stern which shines only on the waves behind us. -Samuel Taylor Coleridge History is more or less bunk. It’s tradition. We don’t want tradition. We want to live in the present. The only history that is worth a tinker’s damn is the history that we make today. -Henry Ford Introduction Welcome to History 2010. This course will provide you with an introduction to the history of the United States from its colonial origins up to the tragedy of the Civil War. Through lectures, class discussions, readings, and film, we will focus on how the interplay of three important cultures - Indian, European, and African - ultimately led the people who became Americans to recognize that they were different from the British who controlled the colonies. We will also focus on the interesting development that as democracy spread throughout the newly created United States, so too did slavery. And of course we will focus on growing tension between northerners and southerners that would erupt in the bloodiest and most devastating war in our nation’s history. In our survey of this period we will study important economic trends, political movements, cultural developments, and social changes that influenced the lives of individual Americans. We will encounter well-known leaders who played important roles in shaping early America, and we will also encounter lesser-known folk whose lives were representative of a particular group or movement. We will attempt to understand the story of America through the eyes of the “savage” and the “civilized”, the servant (both white and black) and the master, the northerner and the southerner. This course is designed to help students achieve several General Education Outcome Goals. A description of these goals can be found on the TTU History Department’s Homepage - General Education Requirements. Course Text Henretta, et. al, America: A Concise History, Volume 1 (6th Edition) Additional required reading material for specific class topics will be provided through iLearn Student Responsibilities Except for reasonable cause, students are expected to attend all regularly scheduled class meetings and exams. Students who miss a quiz or exam can make it up without penalty if they promptly provide appropriate documentation for their absence. A late penalty will be applied to make-up quizzes and exams without prompt notification and appropriate documentation. Food and drinks are not permitted in our classroom. Please turn off mobile phones during class. Lap-tops and computer tablets may only be used for note-taking and other class-related tasks. Students who wish to record the class lecture must first speak with Professor Davis and receive his direct permission. I encourage all students to meet with me individually during my office hours if you wish to discuss any matters or particular concerns you have about this course. Throughout the rest of the week it is easier to get in touch with me using email. I only respond to my tntech.edu email, not iLearn email. Students with a disability requiring accommodations should contact the Office of Disabilities Services (ODS). An Accommodation Request (AR) should be completed as soon as possible, preferably by the end of the first week of the course. The ODS is located in the University Center, Room 112; phone 372-6119. Class Cancellation In the event that weather conditions make it dangerous for the class to be held, or other circumstances arise that prevent the class from meeting, students will be notified through the campus email network of the cancellation or postponement. A student who does feel that weather conditions make it unsafe to try to come to class will not be punished for missing a quiz, but they must inform Professor Davis as soon as possible and schedule a make-up. Grading The components of the final grade will be: First Exam: 25% (100 points) Second Exam: 25% (100 pts.) Final Exam: 25% (100 pts.) Quizzes: 25% (10 x 10pts. each = 100 pts.) Overall Grade 100% (400 pts.) Student's overall grade will be determined by the following scale: A 360-400pts. (90%) B 320-359pts. (80%) C 280-319pts. (70%) D 240-279pts. (60%) F 000-239pts. The exams will be comprehensive in the sense that the student will be responsible for all material covered in class, as well as the class text and required readings. The exams will have objective exercises (matching, multiple choice, fill-in blank, and map identification), and will use scantron answer sheets. Students are to take the exams without the aid of notes. Evidence of cheating will be dealt with in the most severe manner possible. Review guides for the exams will be distributed via iLearn the week before the test date. There will be eleven weekly class quizzes over the course of the semester taken through iLearn. Each quiz will be worth ten points. The lowest quiz grade will be dropped. Students will have a 48-hour window to take the quizzes through iLearn once they are announced in class. Students who encounter technical difficulty with the system need to contact the ITS help desk in Clements Hall or ITS specialist Lauren Neal at 372-3675. She knows everything about iLearn and is very nice! There are no scheduled extra credit opportunities for this course. If Professor Davis decides to make any extra credit available, they will be announced in class and open to all students of the class. Course Content and Important Dates Part I: COLONIAL AMERICA 1607-1783 (Henretta chapters 1-5, first two sections of 6) 1. American Culture in the 16th Century 2. European Explorers 3. The First English Settlements 4. England’s Competitors in the New World 5. Colonial Society in Crisis 6. Royal Government in the Colonies 7. From Resistance to Revolution 8. American Victory in the South Exam 1: Friday, February 20 Part 2: THE FRAGILE REPUBLIC 1776-1848 (Henretta chapters 6-10, first two sections of 11) 1. The Fight Over the Constitution 2. The Federalists in Power 3. The Election of 1800 4. The Second War with Britain 5. Democracy in America 6. The Age of Reform 7. Manifest Destiny 8. The War with Mexico Exam 2: Wednesday, April 1 Part 3: THE CRISIS OF THE UNION 1846-1877 (Henretta chapters 11-14) 1. White Southerners in the Time of Slavery 2. Black Southerners in the Time of Slavery 3. The Movement Against Slavery 4. The 1850s: Conspiracies, Terrorism, Paranoia 5. John Brown’s Raid 6. The Election of 1860 7. The Military Campaigns of the Civil War 8. American Society During the War Final Exam: Monday, May 4 (1-3pm) Class outlines, additional readings, maps, and test previews are available on the content page for this class on iLearn. Students can also keep track of their quiz and test scores on the grades page on iLearn. Professor Davis cannot discuss grades over email, that must be done in my office.



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European Exploration
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


European Exploration



0 250 500 miles Britain’s American Empire in 1763
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


0 250 500 miles Britain’s American Empire in 1763



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Module 4 - Background CHALLENGES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 1800-1912 (Note: All URLs checked and revalidated, February 14 2013) Required Reading
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Module 4 - Background CHALLENGES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 1800-1912 (Note: All URLs checked and revalidated, February 14 2013) Required Reading Case Assignment Reading Rhode Island College. The Tanzimat Reforms and the Problems and Political Reforms. http://digitalcommons.ric.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=honors_projects&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.ca%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dtanzimat%2Breforms%2Bsuccess%2Bor%2Bfailure%2Bsite%3A.edu%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D2%26ved%3D0CDUQFjAB%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalcommons.ric.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1005%2526context%253Dhonors_projects%26ei%3Db9cmUa6LPLL9iQLJ4IBo%26usg%3DAFQjCNFK2BhH7thAH3K1LgJZ1HGkdOS22g Alberta.net. Tanzimat Reforms. http://www.artsrn.ualberta.ca/amcdouga/Hist323/autumn%202012/additional%20rdgs/tanzimat_reforms%201.htm Looklex. Tanzimat Reforms. http://looklex.com/e.o/tanzimat.htm SLP Reading University of Texas. The Scramble for Africa (Podcast): https://blogs.utexas.edu/15minutehistory/category/world-history/sub-saharan-africa/ PBS (2013). The Scramble for Africa. http://www.pbs.org/empires/victoria/text/historyscramble.html St. John’s College. The Scramble for Africa. http://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/library_exhibitions/schoolresources/exploration/scramble_for_africa Privacy Policy | Contact Module 4 - Case CHALLENGES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 1800-1912 By the early 18th century, the Ottoman Empire which ruled the Middle East was in decline. Weak rulers left the way open for power struggles between officials, religious experts, and Janissaries (Guards). Provincial administrators and landholders colluded to drain revenue from the central treasury. The general economy suffered from competition with the West as imported goods ruined local industry. European rivals took advantage of Ottoman weakness. The Austrian Habsburgs pushed the Ottomans from Hungary and the northern Balkans. The strengthened Russian state expanded into the Caucasus and Crimea. The subject Christian peoples of the Balkans challenged their rulers: the Greeks won independence in 1830, Serbia in 1867. By the 1870s, the Ottomans had lost nearly all of the Balkans, and their capital was often threatened by Balkan or Russian armies. Faced with difficult challenges and the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mahmud II initiated a set of reforms. Mahmud’s successors followed with the Tanzimat, or “reorganization,” a sweeping set of reforms designed to modernize and Westernize the Ottoman Empire. Every Islamic people or state had a different experience with Western influence according to its particular circumstances and history---wholesale emulation and adoption of Western ideas and institutions. This reaction is best exemplified by Muhammad Ali, pasha of Egypt from 1805–1849 and Mahmoud II, whose Tanzimat reforms modernized the Ottoman government, but failed to produce an economically sound or politically powerful state. In this Case Study, we will look at the Tanzimat Reforms and their effectiveness. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 3 to 5 page paper answering the following question: What were the Tanzimat Reforms and were they effective in allowing the Middle East to catch up to the West? Assignment Expectations In Module 4 Case Assignment, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ; http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. Privacy Policy | Contact Module 4 - SLP CHALLENGES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 1800-1912 The history of European exploration of Africa is a story of patience and dedication, as well as of self-promotion and violence. Explorers opened the way for idealistic missionaries who hoped to eradicate the remaining slave trade. The “scramble for Africa” after 1870 resulted in the European exploitation of the continent for financial gain and geopolitical advantage. European colonial rule is one of the uglier chapters of modern history, whose worst legacy was the apartheid state of South Africa. In this SLP, we will examine the Scramble for Africa and some of its causes and consequences. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 2 to 3 pages paper answering the following question: Why did Europe want to get involved in Africa after 1880 given its relative lack of material wealth? SLP Assignment Expectations In Module 4 SLP, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ; http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. Module 5 - Background EAST VERSUS WEST: COLD WAR AND ITS GLOBAL IMPACT 1945-1991 (Note: All URLs checked and revalidated, 14 February 2013) Required Reading Case Assignment Reading PBS. India Partition and Independence. http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/gallery/photos/24.html BBC. Flashback to Indian Independence. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1751044.stm Emory University. Partition of India. http://postcolonialstudies.emory.edu/partition-of-india/ University of California-Los Angeles. Independent India. http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Independent/indep.html SLP Reading Northern Virginia Community College. The Iranian Revolution. http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/Events/Iran79.htm Frank E. Smith. The Iranian Revolution. http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch29ir.html Class Analysis of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 by Satya J. Gabriel https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/iran.htm Satya Gabriel. Class Analysis of the Iranian Revolution of 1979. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/iran.htm Additional Reading Decolonization: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook51.html Privacy Policy | Contact Module 5 - Case EAST VERSUS WEST: COLD WAR AND ITS GLOBAL IMPACT 1945-1991 World War II was fatal to the European colonial empires. European states’ populations were too devastated to consider fighting to keep Asia and Africa subjugated. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were hostile to continuation of European colonies. A reluctant Britain, in return for American support, in 1941 agreed to the Atlantic Charter, a pact recognizing the right of people to choose their own government. The Indian National Congress agreed to support the British war effort in return for a significant share of power in India and a postwar commitment to independence. The British rejected the offer. Negotiations failed to lessen increasing tensions. Mass civil disobedience campaigns, such as the Quit India movement, began during 1942. Gandhi and other leaders were imprisoned. The Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, gained favor by supporting the British. The war caused hardship in India through inflation and famine. When a Labour government came to power in Britain in 1945, independence in the near future was conceded. The divided Indians were unable to work out a compromise between Hindu desires for one nation under majority rule and Muslim wishes for a separate state. When communal rioting spread, the British agreed to the creation of two independent nations, India and Pakistan, in 1947. Read the information in the background material, look for more information in using proquest and then write a 3 to 5 page paper answering the following question: Why did India break up in 1947 and how does the violence of the break up speak to the some of the benefits of imperial rule? If you cannot locate an article in one set of databases (such as EBSCO), try to find it in ProQuest. Assignment Expectations In Module 5 Case Assignment, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ; http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. Module 5 - SLP EAST VERSUS WEST: COLD WAR AND ITS GLOBAL IMPACT 1945-1991 Iran: Religious Revivalism and the Rejection of the West The Iranian Revolution directed by Ayatollah Khomeini presented a fundamental challenge to the existing world order. The movements called for a return to a golden past age, and were directed against Western-backed governments. Khomeini claimed divine inspiration and sought to establish a state based on Islamic precepts. Each wanted to spread his movement to wider regions. Khomeini succeeded because of circumstances unique to Iran, a nation not formally colonized, but divided into British and Russian spheres of interest. Iran thus lacked colonial bureaucratic and communications infrastructures as well as a large Western-educated middle class. Modernization policies, supported by Iran’s oil wealth, were imposed by the regime of the Pahlavi shahs. Advances resulted, but the majority of Iranians were alienated. The shah’s authoritarian rule offended the middle class; his ignoring of Islamic conventions roused religious leaders influential with the mass of the people. Favoritism to foreign investors and a few Iranian entrepreneurs angered bazaar merchants. Landholders were affronted by incomplete land reform schemes that did not much benefit the rural poor. Urban workers at first secured benefits, but then suffered from an economic slump. The military were neglected. When revolution came in 1978, the shah was without support and left Iran. Khomeini then carried through radical reform. Religious figures took over leadership and suppressed all opposition. Strict implementation of Islamic law began and women’s opportunities were restricted. In this SLP, we will examine the rise of Islamic fundamentalism using Iran as a case study. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 2 to 3 pages paper answering the following question: Why was the Iranian Islamic Revolution a reaction to Western values and influence? SLP Assignment Expectations In Module 5 SLP Assignment, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ; http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. Privacy Policy | Contact ART 101 Module 1 - Background INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL ANALYSIS AND RENAISSANCE ART Required Materials (make sure to navigate the entire Smarthistory.org website; there are multitude of videos, educational materials, and links to other Art History websites to give you a wider context of the historical period and how to think and write about art; provides you with other artists and artworks to write your SLP). Brief History of Art http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/for-the-beginner.html Videos 3 & 4: History of Early Renaissance and History of High Renaissance; Article on Humanism Annenberg Media (n.d.). Art of the Western World: The High Renaissance.Retrieved on 2/20/11 at: mp;nbsp; http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=231 http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/humanism.html Leonardo da Vinci and Mona Lisa, c. 1503-05, oil on panel 30-1/4 x 21 inches (Musée du Louvre) http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/leonardo-notebooks.html http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/leonardo-mona-lisa.html Michelangelo and Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, fresco, 1508-1512 (Vatican City, Rome) http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/michelangelo.html http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/sistine-chapel-ceiling.html http://www.vatican.va/various/cappelle/sistina_vr/index.html How To Write About Art: Art Criticism and Formal Analysis http://www.uwgb.edu/malloyk/art_criticism_and_formal_analysi.htm http://ualr.edu/arthistory/index.php/home/art-history-resources/guidelines-for-analysis-of-art/ http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/skill-of-describing.html Recommended Resources (not required, but very helpful): Reliable websites for further research: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/world-regions/#/08/Europe http://www.louvre.fr/en http://www.metmuseum.org/ http://www.moma.org/ http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/glossary Advanced thinking and writing about Art History—not required: http://writingaboutart.org/pages/formalanalysis.html Privacy Policy | Contact Module 1 - Case INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL ANALYSIS AND RENAISSANCE ART Image of Mona Lisa: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Mona_Lisa.jpg Image of Sistine Chapel: http://www.thecaveonline.com/APEH/creation.gif The Renaissance was a rebirth of Greek and Roman culture, both of which placed the human at the center of the universe. Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisaand Michelangelo’s Ceiling from the Sistine Chapel are two famous artworks from the Renaissance that both reflect and respond to the resurgence of humanism in European history. Both depict the human body, but in very different ways. For this case assignment, give a formal analysis of these two artworks, focusing on how the human body is being represented. Use the required course materials to help you discuss, briefly, (1) the history of Renaissance art and these two artists in particular, (2) what humanism is, and (3) how Da Vinci and Michelangelo approach the representation of the human body differently. (*You can focus on any or all of the fresco paintings on Michelangelo’s ceiling; The Creation of Adam being the most famous.) It is important to note that this assignment is meant to introduce you to Art History and Art Criticism, so it is imperative that you begin exercising your ability to visually analyze. The required course materials under “How To Write About Art: Art Criticism and Formal Analysis” will get you started. Assignment Expectations • An explanation of the values—influences, themes, techniques, subjects—characteristic of the period or style under study. • Some information about how the social, political, or religious history of the period influenced its art and artists. • Biographical information about the artist whose work is assigned or (in SLP assignments) chosen for reflection. Here are five keys to writing a great case assignment! For each case paper in this course, please: 1. Make sure you fully address the case assignment prompt- don't just describe the painting and don’t forget to ‘really look’ at the painting. Be sure to respond to the expectations stated under "Learning Outcomes" in the Syllabus. 2. Apply ideas from the background readings to your analysis and discussion of the case assignment prompt. 3. Write, at minimum, three to four pages, not including images or references. 4. Include a separate cover page that includes your name, the course name, the module, and assignment name. 5. Set your format to 1" margins on all four sides, 12-point font, double spaced. 6. Include a separate cover AND reference page at the end that includes every website and article on which you base your information and analysis. In the reference list, please note that a URL with no additional information is not a complete reference. Over time, link root will make any URL useless. Each reference should contain all the information a reader would need to find the source. Privacy Policy | Contact Module 1 - SLP INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL ANALYSIS AND RENAISSANCE ART SLP Assignment Expectations The outcomes for this Session Long Project include introducing some information about how the social, political, or religious history influenced the art or artist you have chosen to reflect on. You must chose a different artist or artwork from those presented in the Case Assignment. Your reflection should identify some of the typical values and characteristics of Renaissance art. This information should, ultimately, serve to inform your own personal reaction to the artwork and/or the artist. You have the opportunity to make connections between your own personal interests and the concepts you are learning. You have more freedom to engage with particular issues are of interest to you. However, your engagement must reflect the research and background information you have read for the course module. Make sure to include the image itself or a link to it in your text. Paper should be, at least, two pages in length, not including images or references.



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I am requesting a quote for four papers in various lengths. You can quote with doing the minimum page count. Here is the assignment. HISTORY 101 CASE 2
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


I am requesting a quote for four papers in various lengths. You can quote with doing the minimum page count. Here is the assignment. HISTORY 101 CASE 2 INDUSTRY, IDEOLOGY, AND THEIR GLOBAL IMPACT, 1700-1912 Until the end of the 1700s, the economies of all the world’s major civilizations were principally agriculture, and their societies were rural. Most people in most nations lived in the countryside and worked at growing food and tending livestock. Over the course of centuries, trade and commerce, as well as arts and crafts, had become increasingly important as sectors of economies throughout the world. Compared to agriculture, however, they remained relatively minor. In Europe, this state of affairs changed dramatically during the end of the 1700s and the first half of the 1800s. The mass production of goods by means of machine power—industrialization—became a key part of Western economies. The importance of trade and commerce skyrocketed, and a growing number of people moved from rural areas to the city. The economic system known as capitalism was born. Taken together, these phenomena are part of what is commonly known as the Industrial Revolution. England was considered the epicenter of the Industrial Revolution. There are several key reasons for this which we will explore in this case. After looking through this page and other research from the Internet and the Cyber-library, write a 3-5 page paper answering the following questions: What was the scientific background that lay behind the West’s leap in productivity? Why did the Industrial Revolution start in Britain? If you cannot locate an article in one set of databases (such as EBSCO), try to find it in ProQuest. Assignment Expectations In Module 1 Case Assignment, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ;http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. SLP 2 Module 2 - SLP INDUSTRY, IDEOLOGY, AND THEIR GLOBAL IMPACT, 1700-1912 Western industrialization and imperialism were intimately connected in several ways. First, industrialization made Western nations, particularly Britain and France, more able to conquer and colonize other parts of the world by the 1800s. Industrialization made European nations richer, it made them more technologically adept, and it boosted the scientific knowledge needed to explore or know better parts of the world that were not yet under Western control. Perhaps most important, industry placed new weaponry in the hands of the Westerners: gunboats, artillery, quick-firing and accurate rifles, and machine guns, all of which made Western armies extremely difficult for poorly armed native warriors to resist. If industrialization gave Europeans a greater capacity to conquer and colonize, it also gave them a greater variety of motives. This SLP will examine what those motives were. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 2 to 3 pages paper answering the following question: Why did industrialization in Europe lead to imperialist conquest of other societies? What made European Armies so effective against native resistance? If you cannot locate an article in one set of databases (such as EBSCO), try to find it in ProQuest. SLP Assignment Expectations In Module 2 SLP, you are expected to: • Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion. • Answer the case assignment questions clearly and provide necessary details. • Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences. • Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ ;http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf]. • Answer all the case assignment questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper. • Type and double space the paper. Please see the "Background Info" tab for the required readings. CASE 3 Module 3 - Case CHALLENGES IN EAST ASIA, 1800-1912 Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium War and After Although the advances by Europeans in science and industry made them dangerous rivals to the empire, the Chinese continued to treat Europeans as just another type of barbarian. Confrontation occurred over the importation of opium from India into China. The British lacked commodities, apart from silver, to exchange for Chinese goods. Indian-grown opium reversed the trade balance in their favor, but the Chinese saw the trade as a threat to their social order. Silver left the country, and opium addiction became rampant. Government efforts to check the problem failed until the 1830s when an important official, Lin Zexu, came to end the trade at Canton and nearby. When he blockaded European trading areas and destroyed opium, the merchants demanded and received military intervention. The British invaded in 1839; the Chinese were defeated on sea and land and sued for peace. Another conflict ended similarly in the 1850s. The settlement after the first war awarded Hong Kong to the British and opened other ports to European trade and residence. By the 1890s, 90 ports were open and foreigners had gained long-term leases over ports and surrounding territory. Opium continued to pour into China. By mid-century, British officials managed China’s foreign trade and customs system, and the court had to accept European ambassadors. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 3 to 5 page paper answering the following questions: How did China’s losses in the Opium Wars affect the rising dominance of European powers in East Asia? SLP 3 Module 3 - SLP CHALLENGES IN EAST ASIA, 1800-1912 Following a remarkable voyage around the globe, Charles Darwin wrote, in his The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, that nature favored characteristics most suitable to particular environments: thus, the fittest would survive longest and breed the most. Darwin’s theories were path breaking for the time but were unfortunately used and extended towards humans to serve as a rationale for Imperialism. This SLP will look at how this came about and why. Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 2 to 3 pages paper answering the following question: How did the idea of Social Darwinism fuel Europeans to see themselves as morally superior to those they ruled?



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Ron Droege 12-08-13 Mr. Veronda US History My research paper is focused on the 19th century. It is especially focused on the American Cowboys and about “The Legend of Pistol Pete”. First I w...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Ron Droege 12-08-13 Mr. Veronda US History My research paper is focused on the 19th century. It is especially focused on the American Cowboys and about “The Legend of Pistol Pete”. First I want to give you a definition of a cowboy. A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch tasks. The historic typical American cowboy is from the late 19th century. I also want to make clear why these persons were so special and important to this time. Out of this I want to concentrate on a special cowboy “Pistol Pete”. Francis Boardman Eaton “Pistol Pete” was born on October 26, 1860, in Hartford, Connecticut. As a teenager of fifteenhe started to practice his shooting to become a cowboy and he engaged in gunfights to avenge his father's murder. Eaton served as a deputy U.S. Marshall in Indian Territory. Eaton was known as "Pistol Pete," a nickname he became at the age of fifteen when he outshot United States cavalry men in a contest at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma.



History Discussion 1: Roman Legacy • Describe a specific example of life in Ancient Rome that is found in contemporary life in the U.S.
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


History Discussion 1: Roman Legacy • Describe a specific example of life in Ancient Rome that is found in contemporary life in the U.S. Life in ancient Roman cities was confined in the central business district. Most of the Romans would go for shopping or trading to these places. They would also spend time in participating and celebrating festivals and religious ceremonies. There used to be a place called Forum, where people would express their opinions and influence others by discussions. They would out of the way to elicit support for any particular issue which was of their own interest or was beneficial for public and community at large. In contemporary life in the U.S. we see something similar in nature. Our cities are built around central business district, and people go for shopping and entertainment over there. In modern towns, these central business districts are called downtown. • Describe one way that you see a particular tenet of Roman philosophy reflected in the modern Western worldview. There are several tenets that we witness today, which are reminders of what was prevalent in ancient Rome. One of the examples is that of democracy where people were encouraged o vote and elect a government of their own choice. We have also evolved a system of voting where a popular government is elected for a period of four years at a stretch. There is an open system of choosing a candidate of own choice. There are preliminaries and finals. Then we have debates where discussions take place between the rival candidates of topics of current and national issues. Opinions are sought and discussed in a decent and well organized manner. This is what used to happen in ancient Rome and our present day The Romans made great contributions in the political, art, religious and engineering fields. They developed the alphabet and twelve-months calendar as we know it today. RE: Week 4 Discussion 1 One thing you may wish to consider is why the U.S. Capitol Building uses Roman architecture (a dome) for its form? What does this communicate? Ancient Rome achieved many great accomplishments that have influenced many cultures. The influence of Roman culture can be seen in the use of arch. An arch as we all know is a curved structure that is normally made of stone, brick, concrete or steel. Its primary objective is to provide support to a building. Arches are supported by wooden frames during construction. The ancient Romans created an arch that could support huge amounts of weight. They could do it with judicious use of concrete. The symbolism of dome in US capitol building is in the size of the dome. By nature of design, domes are built of great heights and also cover vast spaces. Thus they inspire others .The Capitol's iron dome is an easily recognizable American symbol. Its ingenious engineering and majestic beauty has been admired by all and sundry Discussion 2: Augustine’s Christianity • Describe a specific aspect you see in the art and/or architecture of Ravenna that reflects Augustine’s views of Christianity found in Confessions and The City of God. While examining the art and the architectural aspects of Ravenna, one cannot help noticing the beautiful works that inspire others. They feel the true reason for being a Christian. Light appears to be a strong metaphor for Augustine, that represent the words uttered by God. In San Vital, one can see a Church building which is shaped like an odd octagon. It is believed that only true ideas can be “illuminated” by the words expressed by God, according to Augustine, one can get a building constructed that has its interior illuminated to illustrate this point of view. It does not matter where the sun lies or in which celestial position it is. The idea of Christianity is eternal in nature. it is through eternal life that only God can issue you pardon for all the wrong things you do in life, whether it is knowingly or unknowingly. The Theodora mosaic is symbolic of this promise of eternal life, through an eternal fountain of life, one transcends the natural world, or the earthly city and into the city of God for all eternity.



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History Discussion 1: Islam and Christianity Made Visual • Considering that calligraphy and mosaic are visual representations of religious
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


History Discussion 1: Islam and Christianity Made Visual • Considering that calligraphy and mosaic are visual representations of religious belief, compare and contrast Islamic calligraphy at Alhambra and Dome of the Rock to Christian mosaics at Ravenna. What do you think each art form communicates about the religion it represents? • To begin this discussion you may want to think about why Islam focuses so much on the written word and the beauty of that written word in calligraphy? • To consider Christian mosaics, why do you think early Christianity relies so much on pictorial, didactic representations of Holy Scripture? The divine message (Koran) is reflected through the act of writing. This has a special place in Islamic society. The literal meaning of calligraphy is “beautiful writing”. Over a period of time, it developed into a complex form art form. It was appreciated for the religious and pious message it conveyed. It also became famous due to its decorative qualities. It can be seen on many objects, such as ceramic vessels, stone buildings, silk robes, manuscripts etc. A lot of inscriptions consist of messages from Koran and blessings as well. Words, both written and spoken, hold a special place in Islamic faith and hence the ability to write well is admired. Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most basic element of Islamic art. The Qur’an was transmitted in Arabic script. There is a vast potential for developing a variety of floral forms within the Arabic script. Calligraphy was used as an ornament or decorative purpose. But it also had an aesthetic appeal. Most of works of art had legible inscriptions. Calligraphy is basically a means to transmit a text or message in a decorative manner. Mosaic is the art of creating images with a collection of small pieces of colored glass, stone or other such materials. It is a technique of decorative art, or rather an aspect of interior decoration which has a cultural as well as spiritual importance, such as in a cathedral. Here small pieces which are mostly square shaped, of stone or glasses of different colors are used to create a specific pattern of a picture. Art is primarily a mirror or reflection of our thoughts, feelings, and cultural beliefs. However for Islamic calligraphy, it is more of something divine and something which needs to be discovered and explored. It helps one to discover oneself and let it become a part of the whole. Christian mosaic on the other hand is more of a visual that conveys a design to remember. In the case of depictions of Muhammad, the founder of Islam has been a matter of debate in the history or Islamic religion. While oral and written descriptions are permitted and accepted by all traditional believers of Islam, there is a disagreement about visual depictions. There is no explicit disapproval by the Qur’an but there are supplementary teachings which have explicitly prohibited Muslims form creating visual depictions of figures. The Muslim artist who created images of Muhammad and the public who saw them clearly understood that the images were not meant to be treated as objects of worship. These objects were also not so well decorated or used as part of religious worship. It is another matter that scholars believe that such images have a spiritual element and many a times were used in informal religions devotional meetings. The key medium of public religious art in Islam was and is calligraphy. The Dome of the Rock is not a mosque, but a Muslim shrine. Like the Ka'ba inMecca, it is built over a sacred stone. This stone is believed to be the place from which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven during his Night Journey to heaven. Discussion 2: The Medieval Experience • If you had lived in Europe during the Middle Ages, explain whether you would have rather gone on a pilgrimage or on a Crusade. Refer to specific aspects of the journey to justify your choice. • Compare aspects of the Bayeux Tapestry to aspects of a war film depicting a real-life military battle. How do both the Bayeux Tapestry and the film influence the viewer to be more sympathetic to one side over another? • When thinking about your choice between a pilgrimage and a crusade, consider the objective of each of these journeys? What happens to you on a successful pilgrimage? On a successful crusade? • Why do you think that the Bayeux Tapestry focuses on military conflict? How can you tell who is a "good guy" and who is a "bad guy?" What is the ultimate function of war-time and battlefield art? For many people in the Middle Ages, going on a pilgrimage was simply the medieval equivalent of tourism. It was a way to leave your village and see a bit of the world, with an acceptable religious excuse. If you read Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (about a group of pilgrims going to visit the tomb of Saint Thomas Beckett at Canterbury Cathedral), it is obvious that the pilgrims were not all pious religious types. They also included ordinary people, including some quite rowdy and mischievous types, looking for a bit of diversion. Some pilgrimages, such as the trip to Jerusalem, were long and arduous, and only undertaken by the seriously holy minded (sometimes against their will). But most pilgrimage sites were closer to home, usually a local saint's shrine. In England, the most popular destination was Canterbury, which is a pleasant and picturesque town in Kent with an impressive Cathedral. Not terribly arduous really. But far away enough to skive off work for a couple of weeks. Pilgrims who visited the Cathedral were even sold little vials of "the Saint's blood" as souvenirs. As far as going on Crusade was concerned, this was most certainly not a holiday trip. Whether you would fancy being a Crusader would depend on how much the idea of going off to war appeals to you. For bloodthirsty types, with a thirst for glory and booty, then going on Crusade might be a great adventure. This is if you actually reached your destination in the first place. Most of the fatalities in medieval armies were caused by disease and starvation. Around 80,000 Crusaders are reckoned to have set out on the First Crusade in 1096, but only around 40,000 reached the Holy Land in 1097, and only 15,000 or so reached Jerusalem in 1099. So the odds of survival were not good - and you might not even get the chance to kill many infidels. Even if you were the bravest and strongest knight, you were still no more a match for plague or dysentery than the lowliest peasant. Nor do people really much fancy the idea of marching and fighting in heavy and uncomfortable armors in sweltering desert heat, while the lightly-armed and mobile Saracen hordes are busy trying to kill. it would be really hard to know what I would have done if I had lived in Europe during the Middle Ages. Perhaps things would be according to the present circumstances. However, based on what the history tells us, I would rather go to a pilgrimage. In that way, I do not have to experience all the sufferings that the crusaders had suffered in the Middle Ages. Some of the crusaders died along the way because of hunger, fatigue, sickness, and other causes; and I would not want to experience that. One can also think that having a pilgrimage during that time was just like having those "tours" that we do today. The only difference is that, pilgrims do it for a sacred purpose. However, if you look at the aspects of Bayeux Tapestry where it was evident that a lot of people went on a crusade and risked their lives for a good cause, and also the scenes in a war film depicting a real-life military battle, as viewers, we might be influenced by their bravery and we would surely sympathize with them. Their stories were even written in the different languages in the different countries in Europe and also around the world, and they are considered great people. With that in mind, the viewers will be more likely to sympathize more on the crusaders.



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Histry Discussion 1: Medieval Education 1. Imagine you are an illiterate peasant entering Chartres Cathedral in 1250 A.D. Describe something you could learn about Christianity just from ...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Histry Discussion 1: Medieval Education 1. Imagine you are an illiterate peasant entering Chartres Cathedral in 1250 A.D. Describe something you could learn about Christianity just from viewing one of the stained glass windows. 2. Imagine you are an educated young man who completed your doctorate at the University of Paris in 1250 A.D. What would be the subject of your “summa” and why would you choose this subject? Chartres Cathedral is popularly known as Cathedral of Our Lady of Charles. It is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral and is situated in Chartres, France, not very far from Paris. It is one of the beautiful examples of French Gothic style of architecture design. UNESCO has declared it as a World Heritage Site. Even before the Gothic cathedral was built, Chartres was a place of pilgrimage, albeit on a much smaller scale. The main focus of pilgrims was a well known as the “Well of the Strong Saints”. This has historical significance as bodies of various local Early Christian martyrs including those of Saints Piat, Cheron, Modesta and Potentianus are believed to have been tossed in it. The view of stained glass windows gives a feeling of religious beliefs to the viewers. The learning here is that the sacrifice of Christian martyrs should not be forgotten and remembered for time immemorial If I were to do a doctorate at the University of Paris in 1250 A.D. my subject would be the study of Well of the Strong Saints”. The reason why I chose this subject is because I want to probe further what caused the death of martyrs and what was the sincerity and belief these martyr had in Christian religion. Moreover there is a widespread belief that the cathedral was also the site of a pre-Christian druidical sect who worshipped a 'Virgin who will give birth' .This is also the reason as to why I intend to pursue my research on this subject, purely from the academic point of view. The church has become one of the most important popular pilgrimage destinations in Europe. Several fairs are held that coincide with the main feast days of the Virgin: the Presentation, the Annunciation, the Assumption and the Nativity. Discussion 2: Medieval Literature 1. Explain whether you agree or disagree with Dante’s assignment of sins to the nine levels of Hell in the Inferno. The inferno follows the thought process of the famous poet Dante as he moves away from the rightful and straight path of moral truth and gets lost in a dark forest. In his first article of The Inferno, Dante Alighieri starts to present a vivid view of Hell by taking a journey through many levels of it with his master Virgil. This voyage constitutes the main plot of the poem. The opening Canto mainly shows that, on halfway through his life, the poet Dante finds himself lost in a dark forest by wandering into a tangled valley. Being totally scared and disoriented, Dante sees the sunshine coming down from a hilltop, so he attempts to climb toward the light. However, he encounters three wild beasts on the way up to the mountain—a leopard, a lion, and a she-wolf—which force him to turn back. Then Dante sees a human figure, which is soon revealed to be the great Roman poet Virgil. He shows a different path to reach the hill and volunteers to be Dante’s guide, leading Dante to the journey towards Hell but also the journey seeking for light and virtue. In terms of structure, Canto I functions as an introduction, explaining the two major characters and the motivation of their journey. In conclusion, a great deal of tension and contrast between “dark” and “light” in The Inferno helps us to explore Dante’s self portrait—he fears dangerous desires and sinful darkness, but shows much courage and hope towards life since he nevertheless follows his guide Virgil to dive into horrible Hell. As shown in Canto I, such emotional reaction to dark and light symbols lays a great foundation for developing Dante’s broad and universal traits as his journey progresses. What is the truth about hell or heaven? The reality is that no one can know this for sure, unless one experiences it on their own. Though reading and researching helps us make a picture or an assumption, the levels of hell, is yet again another mystery that will be solved in its own time. To conclude I would like to quote a saying by Saint Augustine, “It is my opinion that the nature of hell-fire and the location of hell are known to no man unless the Holy Ghost made it known to him by a special revelation", (City of God XX.16). The study makes one wonder over things which can’t be known, till the time we depart from this earth and our souls leave our body. We can however make sincere efforts to read research and make sincere efforts to become a good human being till the Day of Judgment. 2. Of the authors and characters discussed in this section on medieval literature, which author or character do you most identify with or relate to? Explain your reasons why, referring specifically to the text. Literary criticism does not disappear during the Middle Ages. The classical tradition survives the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and most of the great Latin authors will remain a part of the cultural tradition of Europe. The fate of the Greek authors is different: generally speaking, they will survive only through Latin versions and imitations of their works. Most of the Greek authors are unknown during the Middle Ages (this is the case of Homer) or will reach the West only through mangled versions and derivations (as happened with Aristotle's Poetics). Some key concepts of classical poetics are preserved: the Platonic and Aristotelian conception of art as imitation and the classification into three basic genres, as well as the concept of decorum (from Horace).The Middle ages preserved the rhetorical tradition of classical times, adapting it to its own needs. There are artes poeticae, artes dictaminis (or treatises on letter-writing) and above all artes praedicandi which follow classical authorities such as Cicero, Horace or Quintilian. This would be the "prescriptive" side of medieval literary theory: manuals giving instructions for composition, focusing their attention on the prospective author. On the other hand, there is a rich tradition of textual commentary, sometimes of the classics, but above all of the Bible and of theological writings. This aspect of medieval criticism directs its attention not to the way works should be, but to the way they are; not to works which must be written, but to works which are already written and are of religious or moral significance. The medieval commentators face problems which are peculiar to their own age, different from those of the classical writers. 3. Interesting, Dante's Inferno is meant to be an allegory of the challenges in life. What is really interesting to me is the idea that Dante has that "hell" is just being given an eternity of what you want in this life. Does that make sense? Can you give an example? Hell is definitely being given an eternity, something we are made to fear. It is due to this fear that religious leaders try to control us and sometimes also exploit. since no one knows where the life would lead us to, and we as mortals are afraid of death, the fear generated by creating the stigma of going to “Hell” makes us believe anything that is told to us. 4. can you tell me more about the ideas of Anselm? Anselm's ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of God's existence. Anselm starts with premises that do not depend on experience for their justification and then proceeds by purely logical means to the conclusion that God exists. His aim is to refute the fool who says in his heart that there is no God (Psalms 14:1). This fool has two important features. He understands the claim that God exists. He does not believe that God exists. Anselm's goal is to show that this combination is unstable. Anyone who understands what it means to say that God exists can be led to see that God does exist. On this view, the atheist is not just mistaken: his position is internally inconsistent. What follows is an attempt to clarify the argument as it is presented in Chapter II of the Proslogium. The argument in Chapter III is rather different, and in some ways more interesting. After you have worked through this page, you might try to produce a similar gloss on the second argument. This will not be easy: the argument is notoriously complicated. But you might find it a useful exercise nonetheless.



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History Friends reply: no word limit of the response. Ethics in Government Act. What is it? What is its purpose? How does it impact public employees? Be specific.
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


History Friends reply: no word limit of the response. Ethics in Government Act. What is it? What is its purpose? How does it impact public employees? Be specific. 1. The Ethics in Government Act was passed in 1978. This came on the heels of the Nixon Watergate debacle. Its purpose was to “increase public confidence in the level of integrity of federal government officials, to deter conflicts of interest from arising, and to stop unethical person from entering public service.” The impact on public employees is that this act serves as a deterrent to behavior deemed unacceptable. Title I of this act is an important one because it requires government employees to disclose any gifts or money they receive while in their position and how those gives and money are appropriated. One need only look at the scandal former Mayor of Baltimore Sheila Dixon was in to know that she violated this Act. Accepting gift cards and using them for herself and family members and then taking cash and paying down debt on her credit cards is detrimental to public trust. When elected to office, one must uphold all that this entails. When that person violates those ‘rules,’ the trust is irrevocably broken. They are elected to serve the people, and if they choose to do so with their own agenda in mind, they don’t belong in office. The origin of ethics act lies in the scandals reported during Nixon’s rule as a president. The objective of the act is to make sure that the deteriorating faith in the public service and officials is reinstated. This also acted as a barrier to unscrupulous person in entering the domain of public service. To what extent it has been successful is a topic of debate. However since the purpose was to act as deterrent, it has managed to bring about awareness in the minds of prospective candidates that unethical activities will not be tolerated in government / public service. It is important to realize that once a person joins as a public servant, his responsibility towards people increases manifold. He acts as a role model and sets a standard for others to follow. He is a keeper of the law and if he only breaks the law, what kind of example would he be setting up for others to follow. So, in reality, it is important to have checks at various stages to avoid such activities, which are detrimental to good health of the country. Explain the Hatch Act and its implications. What does it mean for government employees? Has it been violated? 2. The Hatch Act was passed in 1939. The purpose of the Act was to “restrict the political activity of executive branch employees of the federal government, District of Columbia government, and some state and local employees who work in connection with federally funded programs.” The implications of the Hatch Act are the employees in certain branches of government are encouraged to vote; however, they may not influence the voting of others in any way. During Jefferson’s tenure as President, he stated that “influencing voters” would be unacceptable behavior. For the executive branch of government employees to participate in electioneering or to accept political contributions or even to use their authority during elections would be unfair to a democratic society. If they did participate in this kind of behavior, trying to sway voters in their favor would be the opposite of Americans’ freedom for the right to vote for whomever they wish. By keeping the Hatch Act in full force, this keeps a system in place whereby that cannot happen without some type of repercussion on the employee. That is, of course, the way it should be in this society. The purpose of Hatch Act is to make sure there is a curb on the political activities of public service employees. Since they are part of the implementers of law of the land, there could be a conflict of interest, which again is not a healthy sign. Any kind of political activity by public service employee is harmful for the smooth functioning of the government. There would be a question of favoritism, which can be avoided if employees are restrained from engaging in political activity at the work place. What is the ASPA Code of Ethics? What are the components? How can it help guide practicioners in making ethical decisions? What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a code of ethics (in terms of usefulness)? Do professional codes of ethics deter corruption or is how you were raised that deters corruption? 3. The American Society for Public Administration has adopted a Code of Ethics. In order to serve the public as they are called to do, these 8 components were decided on Exercise discretionary authority to promote the public interest; oppose all forms of discrimination and harassment, and promote affirmative action; recognize and support the public's right to know the public's business; involve citizens in policy decision-making; exercise compassion, benevolence, fairness and optimism; respond to the public in ways that are complete, clear, and easy to understand; assist citizens in their dealings with government; and be prepared to make decisions that may not be popular. The advantage of having this code is that the standard of behavior is expected to be adhered to. Taking a job in public administration is to serve the public. With these 8 components in place, there should be no misunderstanding as to what is expected of that public administrator, so it is important to have a system in place before that person begins the call to serve. A disadvantage would be that while this system seems easy enough to adhere to, there may one day be a case that someone has in front of him or her that won’t be easily solved by utilizing all or some of these components. Any challenges a person may face could in some way hinder their ability to make sound decisions based on It is important to have a proper code of ethics which acts as a guide to public service employees. ASPA code of ethics is one such code, which outlines the course of action one should take when in doubt or when faced with a situation that is conflicting in nature. If such a code is not in place, it would be difficult to act and award or punish a person for his actions. By having a code of ethics, employees are also made aware of what is expected of them and when they are faced with the choice of taking decisions, they should act in accordance with it.



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HISTORICAL ERAS IN HUMAN SERVICES History of human services provides us with interesting information, for example there has been a lot of moral progress in the last century and a half. This progre...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


HISTORICAL ERAS IN HUMAN SERVICES History of human services provides us with interesting information, for example there has been a lot of moral progress in the last century and a half. This progress has been as a result of greater scientific knowledge and inheritance of our visionary and courageous leaders, who were instrumental in reforming state institutions , founded hospitals and not-for- profit organizations and were advocates for services for senior citizens and people with physical challenges. Contributions of elected leaders, who mobilized political opinion to create programs that brought hope and opportunity to the poor and needy. There has also been a dramatic change in public attitudes. As a result, we have greater approval and acceptance of diversity of human beings. We have also developed more respect for others and believe that they are capable of achieving the pinnacle of success in their life. For example, we don’t treat physically challenged person with scorn but try to offer sympathy and care for them. We also help senior citizens and others having disabilities so that they can contribute to their best to the society they belong. We have not been able to change human nature though. We also have not been able to abolish human suffering. There is also an argument whether state or county government should pay for human services or not is not resolved as yet. However, the fact is that we have been able to make a positive difference in the lives of the people we serve. If we keep up the momentum, there is a possibility that we will be able to make a substantial change in the way we live in our society. Right from the start of this century till date, there has been a very strong progress in the way individuals’ rights and services to be provided to them have been identified. Tremendous amount of development has been made in the organizations that are responsible for the care and well – being of the poor, children and mentally as well as physically challenged persons. The main focus has been in creating a society that is functional and manageable in nature. According to Woodside & McClam (2009), the introduction of Social Security Act of 1935 by President Roosevelt brought a drastic change the role played by the federal government in offering human services. Even now the Social Security Administration carries on the task of providing assurance of well- being to the unemployed or elderly and disabled persons. The focus is on providing them financial support and assists with the best possible way. Prior to 1900’s, disabled personnel and people with mental health deficiencies were treated as untouchables. There was no specific treatment available for them. Therefore, they were segregated from the other members of the society. The major focus of treatment was restraint and over- medication which sometimes resulted into death as well. In the 1950’s, a movement began to deinstitutionalize which enabled these patients to move out a specific community meant for their care. By 1970’s, the most important section of treatment of mental disability had been moved from complete segregation of the institution to multifaceted environment of the society (Woodside et al 2009). Willowbrook State School was one such institution that did excellent work in the field of human services. This opened the floodgates for shifting for the integration of physically challenged persons into the society and from this evolved the organizations which focused on providing the needed supports. Clinton administration focused on transforming the welfare system by focusing more on providing assistance, educating and development. For this purpose, small centers were created through Workforce Development Act. In these centers, customers were provided different types of services that were based on their geographical location. The unemployment agency, Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals (VESID) and some customized training programs were specifically useful that helped in finding out suitable jobs for the applicants. This was done by modifying their resumes and also helping them in searching for suitable jobs, matching their profiles. Prior to this era, the welfare system was basically acting as a support system that helped the poorer sections of society. However, it had its own faults and drawback, because people started taking it as granted and as a right. This in turn, put a heavy financial load on the resources of the government. It also failed to provide sufficient incentives to genuine receivers of the assistance. The introduction of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) helped in streamlining the procedures. Its rules were made more stringent and put in place the timeframe and amount that the recipient could receive from the federal government. According to new rules, the beneficiary must take part in the scheduled programs and then only they will be entitled to claim the benefits. In order to continue receiving the benefits, compliance with rules was also made mandatory. The system had advantage over the previous working as it ensured compliance and avoids the likelihood of misuse of federal funds. The period from 1930’s onwards was a crucial one as in this period focus was shifted from local to ultimately federal authorities who were made responsible for planning and funding as well as controlling the programs. These have been modified to align with the basic needs of human beings. The concept was to develop a welfare state, in which needs of people could be met with from federally sponsored programs. The introduction of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) brought a big change (Brill et al 2009). Later on several other organizations were established that helped in providing support to people having disabilities. All these organizations had helpful programs that provided meaningful support to the deserving persons. Subsequently, development of Supported Employment Program had specific guidelines to work along with other existing programs so that funding of resources could be streamlined. The major areas of this program were assessment of vocational capabilities, providing training and developing career options to the needy. It was made possible for people to receive training and help in finding suitable jobs for as long as possible. This helped the community to develop a job base that ultimately helped them become a useful part of the society. There has been a dramatic change in the recognition of importance of human service support in the last century. The change is from earlier existence of improper nutrition and absence of suitable healthcare. The conditions got changed due to industrial revolution. People had more food to eat and also had access to nutritious food items. Diseases were eliminated with better immunization practices and improved sanitation. The life expectancy went up and infant mortality also declined. (Start 1987). All this led to intense impact on the population which subsequently gave rise to the need to develop a suitable program to deal with the increase in population. Human service field has been supported by healthcare reform and other non- profit agencies. Even federally supported programs have played an important role in its implementation. Welfare reform has played a significant role in making the deserving persons receive the benefits (Woodside et al 2009). A lot of programs have been developed to make sure that people get benefits in society they live in. We have progressed from suppressing people to their recognition in the society and have developed a reformed approach to help out people in distress and need. References Brill, Naomi I., Levine, J. (2005). Working with People: The Helping Process Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Stark, Rodney. (1987) Sociology Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Woodside, M. R., McClam T. (2009) An Introduction to Human Services Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.



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HISTORICAL ERAS IN HUMAN SERVICES History of human services provides us with interesting information, for example there has been a lot of moral progress in the last century and a half. This progre...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


HISTORICAL ERAS IN HUMAN SERVICES History of human services provides us with interesting information, for example there has been a lot of moral progress in the last century and a half. This progress has been as a result of greater scientific knowledge and inheritance of our visionary and courageous leaders, who were instrumental in reforming state institutions , founded hospitals and not-for- profit organizations and were advocates for services for senior citizens and people with physical challenges. Contributions of elected leaders, who mobilized political opinion to create programs that brought hope and opportunity to the poor and needy. There has also been a dramatic change in public attitudes. As a result, we have greater approval and acceptance of human diversity, and even greater respect for need of every person to achieve highest potential in work and personal life. Instead of treating disabled persons with disdain, we now care for them and help seniors and people with disabilities to live their life as independently as possible and also as long as possible. We have not been able to change human nature though. We also have not been able to abolish human suffering. There is also an argument whether state or county government should pay for human services or not is not resolved as yet. However, the fact is that we have been able to make a positive difference in the lives of the people we serve. If we keep up the momentum, there is a possibility that we will be able to make an even bigger difference in the quality and nature of the society we live in. Right from the start of this century till date, there has been a very strong progress in the way individuals’ rights and services to be provided to them have been identified. Tremendous amount of development has been made in the organizations that are responsible for the care and well – being of the poor, children and mentally as well as physically challenged persons. The main focus has been in creating a society that is functional and manageable in nature. According to Woodside & McClam (2009), it was President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who introduced the Social Security Act of 1935, which fundamentally changed the role of the federal government in providing human services. Even now the Social Security Administration carries on the task of providing assurance of well- being to the unemployed or elderly and disabled persons. The focus is on providing them financial support and assists with the maintenance of contributing citizens of society. Prior to 1900’s, disabled personnel and people with mental health deficiencies were treated s outcasts with no identified cause or treatment. Hence, they were institutionalized in order to isolate them from the rest of the society. The main focus of treatment was restraint and over- medication which sometimes resulted into death as well. In the 1950’s, a movement began to deinstitutionalize which enabled these patients to move out to the community for outpatient care. By 1970’s, the major section of mental health treatment had been moved from sheer isolation of the institution to the complex atmosphere of the community (Woodside et al 2009). Willowbrook State School was one such institution that did excellent work in the field of human services. This opened the floodgates for shifting for the integration of physically challenged persons into the society and from this evolved the organizations which focused on providing the needed supports. Clinton administration focused on transforming the welfare system by putting more emphasis on short- term assistance, training and providing education. For this purpose, one-stop centers were created through Workforce Development Act, where clients could receive a variety of services located in one geographic area. These services were unemployment agency, Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals (VESID), specifically designed training programs, and the aid for job development where job searches and refining of résumé were carried out. Before this era, the welfare system provided a support on which poor relied quite a lot. But then it was taken for granted by generations, and thus put a great financial burden on the financial resources of the government. It also did not provide adequate incentives for people receiving assistance. Subsequently, Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) was developed under strict guidelines for participants with requirements to find work and put a timeline on the duration of funds received filtering into offspring of recipients. The new rules mandate that the individuals must participate in work programs to claim their benefits. They also have to comply with the rules and regulations to continue getting these benefits. This system makes sure that compliances is adhered to and thus avoids the possibility of misuse of federally funded programs. The period from 1930’s onwards saw a gradual shift from local to state, and regional and ultimately to federal planning , funding and control of major programs. These have been designed to deal with the basic needs of human beings. The concept was to develop a welfare state, in which needs of people could be met with from federally sponsored programs. “The trend changed with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)." (Brill et al 2009). Organizations such as VESID, OMRDD (Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities), and OMH (Office of Mental Health) were developed to provide the supports to populations with disabilities. Within each of these organizations are valuable programs that provide support. The evolution of the Supported Employment Program works in conjunction with the guidelines set forth through the welfare system and also by the funding sources that enable the agencies to thrive. Within this particular program, vocational assessment, training and job development are the key components. People can receive on the job training and assistance with work place assimilation for an undetermined amount of time, thus enabling an individual to seek community base job placement and ultimately become a production part of society. The overall development and recognition of human service supports has changed most dramatically in the last 100 years. Prior to this, many areas were stricken with poverty, lack of proper nutrition and healthcare. "The Industrial Revolution suddenly began to change these conditions. People began to eat much more food, which was also much more nutritious. Sanitation and immunization practices eliminated many common diseases. Infant mortality declined rapidly as the average life expectancy doubled." (Stark, p. 122) This had a profound impact on the population and the need arose to develop appropriate systems to deal with the growth of this population. Healthcare reform, non-profit agencies and federally regulated programs have all played a major role in the human services field. "Welfare reform has decreased the number of families on the welfare rolls and increased the number of the families who are employed." (Woodside et al 2009) This is a positive prospective on the future of the modern day family and the path which human services is headed. Programs have been developed to enable the individual person to thrive in society while providing the supports necessary to attain this level. We have gone from the day of suppressing many different populations of people due to their, what appeared to be, abnormal existence to a world in which the powers that be have laid a basis for understanding which led to a reformed approach to helping people. References Brill, Naomi I., Levine, J. (2005). Working with People: The Helping Process Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Stark, Rodney. (1987) Sociology Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Woodside, M. R., McClam T. (2009) An Introduction to Human Services Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.



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History International Trade Impact on the Bahamian Economy (G.D.P.) Contents Introduction 3 International trade 3 Bahamian economy 8 Business environment 10 Taxation 11 Areas of oppor...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


History International Trade Impact on the Bahamian Economy (G.D.P.) Contents Introduction 3 International trade 3 Bahamian economy 8 Business environment 10 Taxation 11 Areas of opportunity 11 Conclusion 15 Introduction The purpose of international trade is to exchange capital, goods and services across international borders. Most of the times, this trade is representative of a large share of gross domestic product (GDP). International trade has been in existence for quite some time. Its economic, social and political importance has been realized recently. Several factors have contributed to the growth of international trade, such as large scale industrialization, breakthrough in infrastructure, growth of multinational corporations and need to outsource production and services. Globalization necessitates increase in international trade. One can safely infer that without international trade, countries would be forced to make use of goods and services produced within their boundaries. In principle, international trade is not much different from domestic trade. This is because the pattern and reason for trade is fundamentally the same, whether it is conducted within or outside the border. The international trade turns out to be more costly due to additional costs of doing business. These costs typically result from tariffs, legal conditions imposed by countries where goods are transported and delay at the border areas due to unforeseen circumstances. Furthermore, factors of production such as capital and labor are more mobile within a country than across countries. This in turn results in bringing about difference in domestic and international trade. It is for this reason international trade is more confined to trade in goods and services and not in capital or labor. However trade in goods and services act as a substitute for trade in factors of production. International trade The basic reason for international trade is to sell something to others that we don’t need and to buy something for which we have a need. Trade helps in creating jobs, and attracts investments. It also helps in exchanging and making use of newer technology and offers a wide variety of choice in products and services to customers. Instead of concentrating on factors of production, a country can import goods that make use of these factors of production. For instance, instead of importing Chinese labor into United States, one can import labor intensive goods manufactured in China. Trading is a value added function for the economic activity. Specific risks are borne by the trader, in locating suitable markets for the products. The money earned by people in doing jobs is spent in paying taxes, or buying goods. The government, in turn uses these taxes to provide services, which in turn creates more jobs. When people save, the capital market gets money to lend to others, who in turn will spend it on consumer goods or establish / expand their businesses. This also helps in creating additional jobs. Quite obviously, spending money leads to creating demand, which create new jobs. If there is a hindrance to this process, the cycle gets reversed and expansion slows down. This could be due to higher taxes, or increased rate of interest. Trade is balanced if it is fair. Several businesses create a surplus of inventory of goods and services. For example, some countries produce more food than consume, or they manufacture more products than use. Similarly these countries cannot produce all the items and also cannot make all the items they would like to use. Both trading partners get something they need by trading something they don’t need. Businesses receive money from selling their products or services to foreign businesses. When foreign businesses buy local products, it creates jobs for local people. Exports are extremely important for a country to create jobs. When trade is balanced, businesses remain profitable and also grow exponentially. Investment invariably follows trade. Several foreign companies invest in offices, factories or building up distribution warehouses in order to streamline their trade and reduce cost of operations. This type of investment is also responsible for creating jobs. By obtaining new technology, competitiveness and profitability is promoted. Businesses improve their productivity with the help of latest technology and thus become more competitive. Access to diverse products and services has become easier with international trade. With knowledge of better technology, it is possible to store or manufacture items of diverse nature. Foreign trade turns world into a huge market for a variety of items. One can also use new type of services such as banking, travel consultation and so on. Businesses do not compete on a national level anymore but on the contrary against worldwide businesses. This has resulted into availability of goods of better quality, at reasonably lower price and better functionality. Global market has made is easier to buy and sell goods internationally. This has its own benefits but disadvantages as well. This kind of trade can make countries prosperous but at the same time lead to exploitation of other countries. Their cultural identity is lost and this can cause irreparable damage to the psyche of their inhabitants. When countries make use of their land and surplus production, without considering the welfare of their own countrymen, then it can lead to great hardships. For example, landowners in Nicaragua and El Salvador want farmers to grow coffee beans because it is a very profitable cash crop, however, the farmers would like to use the land to grow more food for their families. The farmer’s wishes are ignored because they do not actually own the land. There are issues about cultural identity. Culture helps in displaying and promoting values and lifestyle of a country. It is a major area of export. Products carry along with them cultural ideas and hidden messages. These values of culture are built into the product. For instance, Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Nike, and Microsoft all sell products that symbolize American values and symbolize and reflect American corporate culture. There are social welfare values that need to be considered. These issues include maintaining statutory safety standards, payment of minimum wages, compensation to workers, health care and so on. All these cost money to any business. By not maintaining safety conditions employees’ health can get affected. Businesses are urged by the government and environmental groups through laws and regulations to keep the air, land and water clean. This is a costly process so businesses decide to move their operations to countries; i.e. Mexico, where it is less regulated. Precious commodities such as gold, diamond, oil or farmland are so important for countries to have control that wars have been started and as a result people are killed. Trade of these items has caused political alliances that do not help the people in the trading nation but only the powerful corporations that control the commodity. A lot of trade in the world is not between far off places but confined to economies within the region. This can have both advantage or disadvantage. Trading done in close proximity reduces the costs but increases the chances of economic imbalance in one regional trading partner and affecting the other one. One of the major factors in rapid increase in trade is due to growth of emerging economies. Emerging economies have experienced GDP growth of the order of 6 % while developed economies lingered around 2 %. According to IMF, growth in emerging markets has slowed down since the financial crisis of 2008. However, mature markets have by and large remained stable. It is estimated that GDP growth in emerging and developing economies could decline from 5.5 % in 2013 to 5 % in 2014. This is a substantial drop of 10 % and quite significant in nature as contribution of emerging economies to the world GDP growth is of the order of 2.4%. Growth in emerging and developing economies invariably slows down because big benefits dry up due to reallocation of resources. This forces the government to carry out structural reforms so that growth can take place. These reforms create more stronger domestic markets for goods and service, but gives rise to the need to having strong financial and governmental regulations. International trade can flourish only if the governments reduce procedural delays due to red tape and curtail other barriers to trade. The biggest risk to the global trade is the interconnectivity that trade creates. Business and economic zones are increasingly interconnected, that give rise to immediate and instant release of information with respect to supply / demand and financial conditions from one region to another. The disaster at Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors not only caused a disruption to the global supply chain, but also caused trade to and from the world’s third largest economy to big setback. By reducing supply chain barriers, one can give a big boost to GDP. It is much better than removing barriers due to tariffs. In the same way, improving administration at the borders and transport and communications infrastructure could also increase global GDP by 5 %. Improving infrastructure and administration costs money, which may be a tougher sell to governments facing fiscal constraints even if the benefit is greater than repealing tariffs. Additionally, the existence of barriers protects some domestic industries from competition, and removing these barriers may cause friction. Prioritizing which supply chain barrier to focus on will provide businesses with a clear set of objectives to work with, rather than having companies guess what is going to happen when planning for 10, 15, or 20 years in the future. Bahamian economy The Bahamas are a stable and developing nation whose economy is largely dependent on tourisms and offshore banking. A steady growth in tourism receipts and a boom in the construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences have led to a drastic growth in GDP over a period. However, slowdown in the U.S. economy, followed by attacks of September 11, 2001, held back the growth in these sectors in the following years. Financial services constitute the second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for about 15% of GDP. However, since December 2000, when the government enacted new regulations on the financial sector, many international businesses have left The Bahamas. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of more than 80% of the visitors. Besides tourism and banking, support is provided by the government to another area of increasing importance viz. e- commerce. The Bahamian economy is almost entirely dependent on tourism and financial services to generate foreign exchange earnings. Tourism alone provides an estimated 60% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about half the Bahamian workforce. In 2004, over half a million tourists visited The Bahamas, most of who are from the United States and Canada. Financial services constitute the second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for up to 17% of GDP, due to the country's status as an offshore financial center. As of December 1998, the government had licensed 418 banks and trust companies in The Bahamas. Agriculture and fisheries industry together account for 5% of GDP. The Bahamas exports lobster and some fish but does not raise these items commercially. There is no large scale agriculture, and most agricultural products are consumed domestically. The Bahamas imports more than $250 million in foodstuffs per year, representing about 80% of its food consumption. The government aims to expand food production to reduce imports and generate foreign exchange. It actively seeks foreign investment aimed at increasing agricultural exports, particularly specialty food items. The government officially lists beef and pork production and processing, fruits and nuts, dairy production, winter vegetables, and mariculture (shrimp farming) as the areas in which it wishes to encourage foreign investment. The Bahamas is largely an import, service economy. There are about 110 U.S.-affiliated businesses operating in The Bahamas, and most are associated with tourism and banking. With few domestic resources and little industry, The Bahamas imports nearly all its food and manufactured goods from the United States. American goods and services tend to be favored by Bahamians due to cultural similarities and heavy exposure to American advertising. Business environment The Bahamas offers attractive features to the potential investor: a stable democratic environment, relief from personal and corporate income taxes, timely repatriation of corporate profits, proximity to the U.S. with extensive air and telecommunications links, and a good pool of skilled professional workers. The Government of The Bahamas welcomes foreign investment in tourism and banking and has declared an interest in agricultural and industrial investments to generate local employment, particularly in white-collar or skilled jobs. Despite its interest in foreign investment to diversify the economy, the Bahamian Government responds to local concerns about foreign competition and tends to protect Bahamian business and labor interests. As a result of domestic resistance to foreign investment and high labor costs, growth can stagnate in sectors which the government wishes to diversify. The country's infrastructure is best developed in the principal cities of Nassau and Freeport, where there are relatively good paved roads and international airports. Electricity is generally reliable, although many businesses have their own backup generators. In Nassau, there are two daily newspapers, three weeklies, and several international newspapers available for sale. There also are eight radio stations. Both Nassau and Freeport have a television station. Cable TV also is available locally and provides most American programs with some Canadian and European channels. Taxation The Bahamas has no income tax, corporate tax, capital gains tax, value-added tax (VAT), or wealth tax. Payroll taxes fund social insurance benefits and amount to 3.9% paid by the employee and 5.9% paid by the employer. In 2010, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 17.2%. Areas of opportunity The best U.S. export opportunities remain in the traditional areas of foodstuffs and manufactured goods: vehicles and automobile parts; hotel, restaurant, and medical supplies; and computers and electronics. Bahamian tastes in consumer products roughly parallel those in the U.S. With approximately 85% of the population of primarily African descent, there is a large and growing market in the Bahamas for "ethnic" personal care products. Merchants in southern Florida have found it profitable to advertise in Bahamian publications. Most imports in this sector are subject to high but nondiscriminatory tariffs. The Bahamas has experienced an economic downturn as a result of the worldwide economic recession. In addition to the decrease in tourism, other economic challenges facing The Bahamas include meeting continued employment demands, jumpstarting a lagging privatization process, and monitoring increasing levels of government debt. Currently, Bahamians do not pay income or sales taxes. Most government revenue is derived from high tariffs and import fees. Reduction of trade barriers will probably require some form of taxation to replace revenues. Government as well as private sector leaders have voiced the need for a value added tax (VAT). The Bahamas is taking steps toward its goal of joining the World Trade Organization. In December 2008 the Bahamian Government signed an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). A number of planned hotel projects have promised to increase economic growth and create short- and long-term employment. The Atlantis Resort and Casino on Paradise Island remains a major tourist draw and an engine of the economy; this resort is currently planning its "4th phase" of upgrades. The government is currently redeveloping Nassau’s Lynden Pyndling International Airport and has turned over its management to private operators. The new U.S. arrivals and departures terminal at the airport was completed in March 2011. The Bahamian Government also has adopted a proactive approach to courting foreign investors and has conducted major investment missions to Asia, Europe, Latin America, India, and Canada. The government continues to pay particular attention to China to encourage tourism and investment. The Bahamas has opened an embassy in Beijing; the Chinese are funding the construction of a new $30 million sports stadium in New Providence and are providing more than $100 million in road construction projects. While the FNM government has expressed a desire to increase Bahamian ownership interests in developments, The Bahamas' dependence on foreign investment is unlikely to change. Financial services constitute the second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for up to 11.3% of GDP, due to the country's status as a tax haven and offshore banking center. The Stop Tax Haven Abuse bill, which has been proposed in the U.S. Congress and which names The Bahamas as one of 34 secrecy jurisdictions, has generated considerable discussion in local media and amongst politicians. Many Bahamians feel the inclusion of The Bahamas in such a bill would result in significant job losses in the financial services sector. As of 2005, the government had licensed 262 banks and trust companies in The Bahamas. The Bahamas promulgated the International Business Companies (IBC) Act in January 1990 to enhance the country's status as a leading financial center. The act served to simplify and reduce the cost of incorporating offshore companies in The Bahamas. Within 9 years, more than 84,000 IBC-type companies had been established. In February 1991, the government also legalized the establishment of Asset Protection Trusts in The Bahamas. In 2000, in response to multilateral organizations' concerns, the government passed a legislative package of stronger measures to better regulate the financial sector and prevent money laundering in the country's banking sector, including creation of a Financial Intelligence Unit and enforcement of "know-your-customer" rules. Some of these measures have been challenged in Bahamian courts, and the number of offshore banks registered in The Bahamas has declined substantially since 2002. As many as half of the IBCs have also closed shop. The government is considering additional legislation to keep the industry competitive while complying with international standards, including possible reform of the regulatory structure. As of March 2010, The Bahamas had signed 20 bilateral Tax Information Exchange Agreements, 14 with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members and seven with G-20 members. These agreements helped The Bahamas avoid placement on the OECD “gray” list of countries that are not compliant with OECD tax information exchange regulations. Agriculture and fisheries together account for about 1% of GDP. The Bahamas exports lobster and some fish but does not raise these items commercially. There is no large-scale agriculture, and most agricultural products are consumed domestically. Following an outbreak of citrus canker on Abaco in 2005, The Bahamas lost a main agricultural export, and the Ministry of Agriculture banned the export of plant materials from Abaco. The Bahamas imports more than $250 million in foodstuffs per year, representing about 80% of its food consumption. The Hawksbill Creek Agreement established a duty-free zone in Freeport, The Bahamas' second-largest city, with a nearby industrial park to encourage foreign industrial investment. The Hong Kong-based firm Hutchison Whampoa operates the container port in Freeport. The Bahamian Parliament approved legislation in 1993 that extended most Freeport tax and duty exemptions through 2054. Conclusion The Bahamas offers attractive features to the potential investor: a stable democratic environment, relief from personal and corporate income taxes, timely repatriation of corporate profits, proximity to the United States with extensive air and telecommunications links, and a good pool of skilled professional workers. The Government of The Bahamas welcomes foreign investment in tourism and banking and has declared an interest in alternative energy, agricultural, and industrial investments to generate local employment, particularly in white-collar or skilled jobs. Despite its interest in foreign investment to diversify the economy, the Bahamian Government responds to local concerns about foreign competition and tends to protect Bahamian business and labor interests. As a result of domestic resistance to foreign investment and high labor costs, growth can stagnate in sectors which the government wishes to diversify. Bibliography Reuvid J., Jim Sherlock(2011) International Trade: An Essential Guide to the Principles and Practice of Export Kogan Page Publishers Connolly S.(2010) International Trade Amicus Publishing Barlas R.(2000) Bahamas Marshall Cavendish



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Waste In 2012, Americans alone produced over 250 million tons of garbage. One large component of this waste consisted of oil based plastic bags, which are utilized
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


History Waste In 2012, Americans alone produced over 250 million tons of garbage. One large component of this waste consisted of oil based plastic bags, which are utilized excessively by grocers, restaurants, and stores nationwide. In order to reduce this source of waste, many countries are banning plastic bags or taxing customers for their use. Using at least two scholarly or reputable resources and your textbook, discuss at least two environmental problems caused by such extensive plastic bag use. If you were in charge, what plan might you propose to reduce or eliminate their use? Discuss the economic impacts of implementing your plan versus the financial impacts of making no change in our current use. The most visible form of environmental pollution is the use of plastic. Its production in high volumes and use in large number is a matter of concern to those who understand the importance of environmental pollution. We see plastics floating in water or blowing around in the wind. Litter basically is problem created by human beings. Several factors are responsible for this overwhelming problem. Its use is considered as beneficial but, it has very little perceived residual value after use. Plastic products have no other use other than what they have been designed for which turns out to be of one single use. The plastics are cheap to produce. One is tempted to buy plastic items or items wrapped in plastic because of its utility of carrying or preventing damage to the product it is used to pack. The plastic bottle industry is causing a major environmental problem which is creating unprecedented amount of litter in the public places. Some organizations have however come to understand the importance of problems caused by use of plastic drinking bottles. To prevent further damage, some states have banned the use of plastic water bottles completely. In order to serve the customer, they have installed chilled water fountains instead for use by its citizens. The need of the hour is to start from educational institutes where students learn and understand the problems faced by use of plastic bottles. Plastic bags are present everywhere. They are so popular with consumers and retailers because of their convenience to use. Being lightweight, cheap and hygienic way to store and transport food and other products, they find extensive use in all areas. However what needs to be understood is that these bags contribute to greenhouse gases, besides clogging up landfills, and littering streets and streams as well. They are also known to create unbalance in the environment by killing or damaging wildlife. However, more and more business houses, government bodies and public offices have realized the fact that its continuous and rampant use will lead to disastrous results, not only for our generation but for generations to come. Knowing this, its use is being restricted and banned. Business houses are being encouraged to find alternate methods of using packing material instead of plastic bags. One method is by imposing tax on use of the bags, which would discourage its use. Studies have shown that tax levied by the government has been able to produce desired results, and the consumption of plastic bags has dropped by almost 90 %. IKEA in the USA witnessed a drop of 92% after it started levying a 4 percent surcharge on their bags. Another method is to encourage use of re-usable plastic bags for use by fast food restaurants, service stations, convenience stores, liquor stores and other shops. While some of these are recycled, most of them go to landfill after they are used. The alternate method of packing material to plastic is expensive at the moment and also not very convenient. Extensive research needs to be done to find out alternate material or methods of packing. These alternate materials, at the moment are bits expensive so government has to step in provide some financial incentives to encourage their use. x-x-x-x-x References Klein R.N. (2008) Progress in Waste Management Research Nova Publishers Wehr K. (2011) Green Culture: An A-to-Z Guide SAGE .



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