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Essay Student’s name Name of the Institute Question 1 - Compare and contrast the attitudes and actions expressed by
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay Student’s name Name of the Institute Question 1 - Compare and contrast the attitudes and actions expressed by Europeans and/or Euro-Americans towards non-Europeans during the Age of Exploration and the Age of Imperialism by using two different primary sources (one from each time period). Answer – It was in the 15t century that the period of exploration, discoveries and new inventions took place. Initially these people were only excited and directed towards the exploration and discoveries whereas later they changed their attitudes and behavior as discussed. Europe due to these reasons entered into direct relationships with various other people in several parts of the world. In the age of the imperialism and the exploration, the Europeans and the Euro Americans were in the race of conquering the world and even discovering the new things. They wanted an unending succession on the entire world. They considered themselves very superior and did not give much attention to the people who were non-Europeans. They had developed their own rules, regulations and the means and standards of the ruling for the entire planet. Although they considered themselves very advanced and superior yet their attitudes and behavior varied from place to place and time to time. They wanted a direct control over the various countries and the colonies so that they may rule them and people remain their slaves and do as they desired. They were the ones who even believed in the cultural and racial superiority. They wanted that they should have monopoly in the entire world. There should be demands for them only and other non-Europeans were not at all important for them. The manifestation for the strong party dominating the weak one was stressed out in that period of imperialism. It was believed that each and every colony has to exist for the benefit of their country which is their mother. They supported each other and considered all others very weak. They considered that they had the right to conquer each and every part of the world as they were themselves united and considered all others to be exploited at will (Forbes, 2011). Question 2 - Compare and contrast the ideas of European (and Euro-American) men towards women and their role in society (including the family) during the Age of Enlightenment and the 19th century by using two different primary sources (one from each time period) Explain how the information provided in the secondary source textbook (Patterns)about the differing historical contexts help us better understand both the similarities and differences noted in your discussion. Answer – Women were considered weaker parts of the society in those days. They were treated as the slaves in case the Europeans had won some tribe or part, then all those women were made their slaves. These women were utilized for the upkeep of their houses, families and even them. These women were also treated as the source of completing their sexual desires and attractions. In the day times, these women were appointed to take care of their families and households and at night time, they had to oblige their masters. Women were quite weaker sections of the society. They remained slaves for quite a longer time. It was in the era of 17th and 18th century that the women were considered as the tool of getting the men satisfied. They were treated very badly and were not even given full food to eat. Later in the end of the 18th century which is said to be the age of enlightenment that the revolution started till 19th and even the 20th century. There were many philosophers and the people working for the social justice. These people laid down the importance of women in our society. They started thinking and even spreading the awareness on the education for the women and their right treatment. They wanted that women if not given equal rights then at least should be treated properly. These great people of their times, helped in the reviving of the position of the women in the society. They even boosted and motivated the women to act and fight for their rights. The rights and position that appeared as a fiction in the society for the women started becoming a reality with the advent of time. People realized the importance of women and started their education and giving them respect (Little, 1997). References Forbes, J. D. (2011). Columbus and other cannibals: The Wetiko disease of exploitation, imperialism, and terrorism. Seven Stories Press. Hutchinson, J. F. (Ed.). (1997). Cultural portrayals of African Americans: creating an ethnic/racial identity. Greenwood Publishing Group. Little, B. J. (1997). Expressing ideology without a voice, or obfuscation and the enlightenment. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 1(3), 225-241. Shields, S. A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women: Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology,10(2), 92. Valdes, F. (1995). Queers, Sissies, Dykes, and Tomboys: Deconstructing the Conflation of" Sex,"" Gender," and" Sexual Orientation" in Euro-American Law and Society. California Law Review, 83, 1-1.



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Essay Student’s name Name of the Institute Question 1 - Compare and contrast the attitudes and actions expressed by
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay Student’s name Name of the Institute Question 1 - Compare and contrast the attitudes and actions expressed by Europeans and/or Euro-Americans towards non-Europeans during the Age of Exploration and the Age of Imperialism by using two different primary sources (one from each time period). Answer – It was in the 15t century that the period of exploration, discoveries and new inventions took place. Initially these people were only excited and directed towards the exploration and discoveries whereas later they changed their attitudes and behavior as discussed. Europe due to these reasons entered into direct relationships with various other people in several parts of the world. In the age of the imperialism and the exploration, the Europeans and the Euro Americans were in the race of conquering the world and even discovering the new things. They wanted an unending succession on the entire world. They considered themselves very superior and did not give much attention to the people who were non-Europeans (Hutchinson, 1997). They had developed their own rules, regulations and the means and standards of the ruling for the entire planet. Although they considered themselves very advanced and superior yet their attitudes and behavior varied from place to place and time to time. They wanted a direct control over the various countries and the colonies so that they may rule them and people remain their slaves and do as they desired. They were the ones who even believed in the cultural and racial superiority. They wanted that they should have monopoly in the entire world. There should be demands for them only and other non-Europeans were not at all important for them. The manifestation for the strong party dominating the weak one was stressed out in that period of imperialism. It was believed that each and every colony has to exist for the benefit of their country which is their mother. They supported each other and considered all others very weak. They considered that they had the right to conquer each and every part of the world as they were themselves united and considered all others to be exploited at will (Forbes, 2011). Question 2 - Compare and contrast the ideas of European (and Euro-American) men towards women and their role in society (including the family) during the Age of Enlightenment and the 19th century by using two different primary sources (one from each time period) Explain how the information provided in the secondary source textbook (Patterns)about the differing historical contexts help us better understand both the similarities and differences noted in your discussion. Answer – Women were considered weaker parts of the society in those days. They were treated as the slaves in case the Europeans had won some tribe or part, then all those women were made their slaves. These women were utilized for the upkeep of their houses, families and even them. These women were also treated as the source of completing their sexual desires and attractions. In the day times, these women were appointed to take care of their families and households and at night time, they had to oblige their masters. Women were quite weaker sections of the society (Shields, 2007). They remained slaves for quite a longer time. It was in the era of 17th and 18th century that the women were considered as the tool of getting the men satisfied. They were treated very badly and were not even given full food to eat. Later in the end of the 18th century which is said to be the age of enlightenment that the revolution started till 19th and even the 20th century. There were many philosophers and the people working for the social justice. These people laid down the importance of women in our society. They started thinking and even spreading the awareness on the education for the women and their right treatment. They wanted that women if not given equal rights then at least should be treated properly. These great people of their times, helped in the reviving of the position of the women in the society. They even boosted and motivated the women to act and fight for their rights. The rights and position that appeared as a fiction in the society for the women started becoming a reality with the advent of time. People realized the importance of women and started their education and giving them respect (Little, 1997). References Forbes, J. D. (2011). Columbus and other cannibals: The Wetiko disease of exploitation, imperialism, and terrorism. Seven Stories Press. Hutchinson, J. F. (Ed.). (1997). Cultural portrayals of African Americans: creating an ethnic/racial identity. Greenwood Publishing Group. Little, B. J. (1997). Expressing ideology without a voice, or obfuscation and the enlightenment. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 1(3), 225-241. Shields, S. A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women: Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology,10(2), 92. Valdes, F. (1995). Queers, Sissies, Dykes, and Tomboys: Deconstructing the Conflation of" Sex,"" Gender," and" Sexual Orientation" in Euro-American Law and Society. California Law Review, 83, 1-1.



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Introduction In the memo addressed to the Executive Staff of Microsoft Gates indicates the
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Introduction In the memo addressed to the Executive Staff of Microsoft Gates indicates the company’s previous initiative and risks that have contributed to the overall success of the company. He highlighted all the projects completed by Microsoft over the last ten years which have brought huge success. He provided the right vision or focus to the company in the dynamic provisions of internet software services, indicating the main concerns and how to overcome the challenges. Major Concerns or Problems with Microsoft 1. Providing internet software services To seize today’s opportunity, Microsoft will utilize the internet to introduce powerful software that incorporates the services model due to which the work gets simplified. And the IT departments and developers have to do the simplified work while providing new capabilities. 2. Customer feedback Gates explains the Watson service that is built into Windows and Office to allow them to understand where their users are running into problems and lets them improve their experience. On-line help work gives them constant feedback about what topics are helping the users and which needs to be changed. 3. Staying ahead of the market Gates notes that this service is not completely new in the market and to lead they have to do far more. They will build their strategies around internet services and provide a broad set of service APIs and use them in all of their key applications. Competitors are the issue that always exists and being a big challenge. Therefore, Gates keeps his focus over the company’s vision, assets, experiences, and on its aspirations. 4. Unleashing the product The new product will unleash a “services wave” of applications and experiences available instantly over the internet to be accessible for millions users. The advertising is used by the companies as a new emerged powerful means for creation and delivery of software. 5. Quick and decisive entry into the market In order to execute on the available opportunity the company will act quickly and decisively taking into account the next generation of the internet. This is being delivered through the intended combination of various services, softwares as well as hardware. Some important arguments: Minto’s Key Line Gates argues that they must reflect upon what and for whom they are building, how best and effectively they can deliver the new functionality given the internet services model, the kind of platform that might enable their partners to build great profitable empires from this new context, and how the applications can be reshaped to create service-enabled experiences that compel both the users and the businesses in a unique manner. Sub- points i. The company delivers solutions across the entire range of both work-style and lifestyle digital scenarios, and do so at a scale, hence, reaching various users, developers and businesses across different markets. ii. In his memo, Ray outlines the great things Microsoft and their partners can do using the Internet Services approach. iii. They will reshape to suite the benefits of the users of their products, their partners and themselves as an organization. They will utilize their resources and past experience to cater for the dynamic needs of customers.



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The family-purpose doctrine The family purpose doctrine holds the responsibility for the damages caused by
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


The family-purpose doctrine The family purpose doctrine holds the responsibility for the damages caused by an accident when the vehicle is being used by an immediate member of the owner’s family with his/her consent. This law has five elements that govern the eligibility of vicarious liability. First, the defendant must have the ownership of the vehicle. In the case of Fred, he has an ownership interest in the car since he had already purchased it. The second element requires that Fred must have made the car available for family use. He had communicated to his family that the car was to be used to travel to work only. Fred’s mother used the car for a purpose that was not made available by the vehicle’s owner. The third element of the family-purpose doctrine is that the driver of the car at the time of the accident must be an immediate family member. This part holds in this case since the driver is the owner’s mother. The fourth part demands that the driver must be using the automobile for a family purpose at the time of the accident. Fred’s mother was using the car to drive Fred’s children to the hospital. This can be interpreted as a family purpose. The last element in the doctrine states that the driver should have the owner’s consent before using the car. In Georgia, the same elements of the family-purpose doctrine apply. The Georgia family-purpose doctrine does apply to not only cars, but also boats, airplanes and other vehicles. It also does not require the express permission of the car to use the car. In this case, some of the elements of the family purpose doctrine are not met has not yet finalized the possession of the car hence there not full ownership. Fred’s mother used the vehicle without the owner’s consent since it was to wait for a week before being used. This means that the plaintiff cannot sue Fred for negligence. The driver at the time of the traffic accident is to be held responsible for the damages of the accidents. Vicarious liability cannot hold when all the elements of the family-purpose are not met.



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Essay Details and Requirements (6 Pages Essay) Assignment Details
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay Details and Requirements (6 Pages Essay) Assignment Details This is extra credit opportunity; the paper should be a well-written six-page report and must contain a few outside sources besides the class text (use four credible sources, i.e. reputable online journal, books, or other periodical) to enlarge your scope of knowledge on the subject. You have the option of developing one of the short-response papers written during the course of the semester into a longer paper or developing a paper from scratch by selecting two other authors that we have discussed this class. Select works within the same genre. If you develop one of the short papers written during the semester, provide a more in depth discussion of the subject matter and bring in sources to support and extend the discussion. You could also broaden the original thesis statement to include an additional but related element of the work. Required Format Essay should include an introductory paragraph that mentions the two authors and works you will be discussing. It should also include a clearly worded thesis statement at the end of it. The thesis should be in the form of a claim that you must prove in the discussion. The body paragraphs should argue your thesis clearly and effectively by making claims and providing support. Textual support is required utilizing MLA format with page numbers in parentheses and a works cited page. The paper is not a summary of the essays. Use transitions when switching between authors/works in your discussion. Brief direct quotations (i.e. less than three lines) should appear in quotation marks (“ “). Long direct quotations (i.e. longer than four lines) should appear as “block quotes.” All text of block quotes is to be indented one inch from the left margin (with no extra indentation for the first word). Block quotes do not appear in quotation marks. Point of View You will provide an objective discussion; therefore, remain in 3rd person point-of-view. Refrain from using any of the following: 1st person, "I", "me", "we", "our", "us" or the informal 2nd person, "you" or "your." Paper Format Submit all papers as Word documents. 12-font, Times Roman, double-spaced—paper should have a heading (named, date, assignment number) and a title. Your own title at the top of the page should not be underlined or inside of quotation marks. Paper should be carefully proof-read and edited. Choose two authors, and make sure to select works within the same genre, this mean if you are not allowed to choose one author from short fiction and the second one from drama. Short Fiction 1. Alice Walker (Everyday Use) 6-18 2. William Faulkner (A Rose for Emily) 91-9 3. Eudora Welty (A worn Path) 270-275 4. Luigi Pirandello (War) 107-110 5. Sherman Alexie (This is what it means to say Phoenix, Arizona) 128-136 6. Amy Tan (Two Kinds) 192-202 7. Ralph Ellison (Battle Royal) 241-250 8. Tom Whitecloud (Blue Winds Dancing) 276-281 9. John Updike (A&P) 311-318“ 10. Toni Cade Bambara (The Lesson) 377-382 11. Flannery O’Connor (A Good Man is Hard to Find) 429-439 12. Aesop (The fox and the grapes) 329 13. St. Luke (The parable of the prodigal son) 338-339 Drama 1. Play: “Sophocles” 965-1005 2. Play: “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” 1127-1181 3. Play: “Fences” 1286-1333 Poetry 1. Poem by Thomas Hardy 490 2. Poem by Edward Arlington Robinson 535 3. Poem by William Wordsworth 539 4. Poem by Elizabeth Bishop 553 5. Poems by William Blake 522 & 592 6. Poem by William Shakespeare #18 608-9 7. Poem by Stephen Crane 825 8. Poems by Emily Dickinson 756-761 9. Poems: J341, J1078, J465, J49, J216 10. Poems by Robert Frost 770-775 11. “The Road Not Taken” 779 12. “Stopping by Woods” 490 13. Poems by Langston Hughes 774-788 14. “Let America Be America Again” 790 15. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” 794 16. “Theme for English B” 795 17. “The Weary Blues” 796



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Student Name Professor Name ENG COURSE NUMBER Date Tyger by Blake and Daffodills by Wordsworth
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Student Name Professor Name ENG COURSE NUMBER Date Tyger by Blake and Daffodills by Wordsworth Pondering the poems The Tyger by William Blake and Daffodils by William Wordsworth would help one understand how effectively a poem can paint a picture in readers’ minds. The poems use appropriate choice of words to show the intensity of the emotions evoked in the poet’s mind at the situation. They are both good examples of how words can be used in a poem to create different effects and moods. The Tyger comprises words that create a sense of awe of the majesty of the tiger. It also takes one to think about the universal creator who made all creatures. By referring to God’s hands as immortal hand strikes the right note by the realization of the fact reminded by the word that God is an immortal and his hand can establish anything. By the use of words fearful symmetry (line 4), the poet gives another reminder and the thought that if the appearance of a tiger could be fearful, how much more fearful and intense its creator would be like. The words hammer, chain, furnace, anvil in stanza four of the poem creates a mental picture of a furnace and a workshop where a blacksmith makes strong objects using his might and also make them fine-looking using his creativity. This leads readers to imagine how God planned every detail of the tiger’s forms and designed its entire being with his creativity. Thinking a little more on the process of creation in a place like a furnace, the tiger’s superior might can be perceived. The following lines intensify the emotion to the next level by saying even the stars dropped their weapons and shed tears in awe of the creation. In the very same stanza, the poet draws readers’ attention to the making of the Lamb and line 20 creates a different feeling in quick succession as just the mention of the word Lamb reminds of the Lamb of God created to be submissive and win over evil. The poem leaves readers in wonder of God who has a mighty and fearful persona and also his compassionate self who sent his only son to save his creations. While The Tyger makes readers admire the different qualities of God and leaves them in a feeling of awe, Daffodils has a totally different calming effect on its readers’ minds. The poet compares his loneliness to that of clouds which seldom have any company. He paints a beautiful picture of the daffodils along the water body that could light up a cheerless mind with the use of right words. Wordsworth describes how the aerial view of the scene looks with a dash of the flowers as bright as shining stars on the Milky Way. Imagining how a sight with ten thousand daffodils as said in line 11 and all of them tossing their heads rhythmically to the breeze blowing there creates a calming effect. He compares the water waves and daffodils and concludes that the flowers give more cheerfulness to the scene than the waves. Usually waves are perceived to create a happy mood in people but the fresh and bright flowers look brighter than the waves. He also acknowledges the elated level of happiness and bliss in his mind at the sight of daffodils and relates it eventually to a real life situation when he is in a vacant or pensive mood. He also says how the sight of the cheerful daffodils gives him the realization that solitude is beautiful in its own way. The poem leaves the readers with a calm and happy mind with the idea that solitude is not as bad and unlucky as it is perceived. Both works by the poets create a different effect in readers’ minds with the use of words that describe the little details that indirectly and in some instances, directly, to human minds and making it apparent that not only a picture but also a poem with right words can speak a lot.



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English Essay Requirements 1. Select one of the essay prompts below.
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


English Essay Requirements 1. Select one of the essay prompts below. 2. You will provide an objective discussion; therefore, remain in 3rd person point-of-view. Refrain from using any of the following: 1st person, "I", "me", "we", "our", "us" or 2nd person, "you" or "your." 3. The paper is not a summary of the stories. The thesis should be in the form of a claim that you must prove in the discussion. Textual evidence with page number must be provided, using MLA format. Be certain that you have reviewed the sample essays in the book that were part of the assigned readings listed in the Course Schedule. 4. Your answer to the prompt question should be formulated into a singular thesis/argument about the readings you will discuss. 5. Your thesis should be placed at the end of your introductory paragraph. 6. Your essay should include two of the following works: - Sophocles play: Oedipus - Shakespeare's play: A Midsummer’s Night’s Dream - August Wilson's play: Fences. Essay’s Prompts Select one of the prompts below 1. Characters In the plays some characters are portrayed positively or negatively or both. Think about the characteristics, details, dialogue, and actions the author uses to elicit such responses in the reader. Explain how you feel the author is portraying the character and the reasons for such a portrayal. 2. Setting Closely examine the setting of two plays. What are the main locations and how does the author use such devices as description, imagery, staging, props, and other details to enliven the story? Do the characters and settings work together effectively to make a convincing story? Discuss the techniques used by the author to make the settings authentic. 3. Time Period How are two particular plays shaped by the period in which they were written? How do the characters, actions, themes relate to the setting? Consider the ways in which the characters are depicted, their beliefs portrayed, and how the issues that they must contend with are particular to the period. 4. Gender How are male and female characters portrayed in two of the plays? Are choices limited by gender, and/or does gender influence choices. Explore how gender affects plot and character development in the plays and how would events change if the events were to take place today? 5. Detail After a close examination of two readings, find an important detail that piques your interest. This can include theme, symbol, plot, language, tone, or other area. Examine this area more carefully and discuss how it relates to the plays’ overall meaning. 6. Conflict Examine the nature of conflict in two of the plays. What struggles or decisions does the main character encounter? Did he or she make the right choice? How does he or she address this challenge? You might also consider the question of identity of a particular character or group; issues of assimilation and acculturation; identity transformations.



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Peter Singer – “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” Introduction In this article “Famine, Affluence and Morality” Peter Singer provides a unique
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Peter Singer – “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” Introduction In this article “Famine, Affluence and Morality” Peter Singer provides a unique explanation of the way we think about famine relief, charity and morality. However, not many people have agreed to the conclusions he has arrived at. In light of these facts, one can say about the arguments put up by Singer that it does not disclose any specific answers to the questions raised and also no conviction. However, Singer’s deliberations indicate that people do react the way he has projected his views. Arguments put forth by Singer do provide answers, even though partially and if the same are analyzed, then may prove to be convincing as well. Peter Singer argues that rich people have an obligation to mitigate the sufferings caused by world famine by doing a small amount of sacrifice. What is the meaning of small or excessive sacrifice is explained by Singer in the form of two principles- one strong and the other moderate. Singer’s famine relief argument consists of three assumptions and a conclusion. The first premise states “that suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and medical care are very bad”. The usual effects of starvation are suffering, the annihilation of capacities, and in the same way effect of death are intrinsic evils which could be relieved if not altogether prevented. Singer believes the truth of this first premise is clear to most of us. This explanation does not need any major examples as it is not at all controversial, even if not examined closely. However the second premise of Singer’s famine relief argument is the most controversial and difficult to digest. It is based on two principles. The first one is stronger of the two and states, “if it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it”. The second, principle is moderate and states, “If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything morally significant, we ought, morally, to do it”. The third and final premise is also simple and states that since we are affluent, we have the capability to mitigate and also prevent starvation. This will be true if more and more people think in the same way and fulfill their obligation to extend help to famine relief. As per Singer, definition of affluent simply means that “we have income we can dispose of without giving up the necessities of life”. It is our affluence that enables us to help , which is a necessary but not sufficient condition , for our being morally obliged to provide relief to those affected. In conclusion of the argument for famine relief, Singer makes a point that affluent are morally bound to alleviate famine in the world. Based on which principle is given more importance, the amount of time affluent give will vary in nature. If strong principle is considered, then affluent persons are more obligated to give maximum because they need not sacrifice anything from their end which is of comparable moral importance. If we abide by the more modest principle, affluent people are morally required to give as much as they can. Singer argues that the strong version of his principle leads to marginal utility because the amount of help needed in Third-world countries drastically outweighs the amount of help that is likely to be provided. If every affluent Westerner were to donate a small amount of time and/or money to famine relief, the prevention of unnecessary death and suffering among Third-world countries would not require affluent donors to be reduced to the level of marginal utility. However, the fact is that most will not give, and those who do must consider the probable failure of others when determining the amount of their donations. Until a sufficient number of other affluent persons participate in famine relief, those who do should keep on giving until they reach marginal utility. According to the strong version of Singer’s principle, almost any possible donation to famine relief falls under the zone of moral obligation and not that of supererogation, so long as the donation would not reduce one below the level of marginal utility. Singer argues that the category of moral obligation encompasses many kinds of acts which are generally thought to fall elsewhere in the traditional moral scheme. Singer begins his defense with the now famous shallow pond example: “If I am walking past a shallow pond and see a child drowning in it, I ought to wade in and pull the child out. This will mean getting my clothes muddy, but this is insignificant, while the death of the child would presumably be a very bad thing. “ Singer argues that, because he can save the child at a relatively low cost, he has a duty, a moral obligation to do so, even though he has done nothing to cause or contribute to the child’s misfortune. If he saves the child, he has done nothing praiseworthy. On the other hand, if he fails to attempt to save the child, he deserves severe moral blame. Just as a capable passerby is obligated to save the drowning child, Singer contends that affluent persons are obligated to help relieve famine-related suffering in Bengal. He argues that the differences in circumstance between the shallow pond example and the Bengal example are irrelevant in regard to his principle’s applicability. He addresses two points of difference between the two cases which a proponent of traditional or common-sense morality might cite in arguing that affluent persons have no obligation to provide famine relief: (1) the number of people who are in a position to help and (2) the proximity of those who need help. Singer argues that neither of these differences affects our moral obligation to provide famine relief. I argue that there are hard and soft moral reasons for the affluent to provide famine relief. Affluent persons have hard moral reasons to give their fair share, which is to say, they are morally obligated to do so. Beyond this, they are not required to give anything. The amount of a person’s fair share is contingent upon several variables: for instance, factors such as the amount of aid needed to prevent famine-related death and suffering, the number of other people who are in a position to help, and the degree of an individual’s affluence relative to the affluence of others will all play a role in making such a determination. Conclusion Singer’s argument demonstrates that we need to reevaluate our traditional moral views regarding charity to the distant needy. He also goes a long way toward showing that we do have moral obligations to help such people. However, the requirements set forth by the two versions of his principle are excessive. The fault of his argument becomes clear when we appreciate a crucial distinction between Singer’s shallow pond and Bengali famine. Whereas the rescue-task in the shallow pond example is not divisible, the rescue-task in the case of Bengali famine can and should be divided among affluent persons. In contrast to Singer’s conclusion, I argue, first, that there are hard moral reasons (which amount to a moral obligation) for us to contribute our fair share to the divisible rescue-task of famine, and second, that there will likely be soft moral reasons to give even more. Failure to give my fair share is a severe moral shortcoming. failure to fulfill at least some ‘soft acts’ can be a severe moral shortcoming as well. However, just because there are moral reasons to give beyond my fair share does not mean that I should give every time a ‘soft act’ presents itself. Rather, it seems that I ought to give beyond my fair share from time to time and in such a way that I am not objectionably selfish. The more I do this, the better person I become. References Hume, David. An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Edited by Tom L. Beauchamp. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999 Singer, Peter. “Famine, Affluence and Morality”, Ethical Theory: An Anthology, edited by Russ Shafer-Landau. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007 Urmson, J. O. (1958. )“Saints and Heroes,” in Essays in Moral Philosophy, ed. Abraham I. Melden. Seattle and London, Singer, Peter. “Reconsidering the Famine Relief Argument.” Why Food Aid? Ed. Vernon W. Ruttan, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993, pp. 68-83. Whelan, John M. Jr. “Famine and Charity.” The Southern Journal of Philosophy, vol. 29, no. 1 (1991), pp. 149-166.



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Tasks for Week #4 This week, we are transitioning to the second essay. The assignment sheet is
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Tasks for Week #4 This week, we are transitioning to the second essay. The assignment sheet is posted separately in the week 4 folder, and it will give you more specific information about the paper itself. Here, I would like to give you an overview of the assignment and what to do for this week. We are beginning in the gathering information stage, and getting to know our next source. We already know our first source, which is Hayakawa’s article that we just summarized. Next, we need to research our second source, which is two letters written by the artist, Vincent Van Gogh. So, to get to know our second source: • Read the assignment page • Read Van Gogh’s biography on the Links page (listed in red) • Read the letters on the Links page (listed in red) For this essay, we will practice using multiple sources. The first stage of a paper is always research. So this week, we will be reading, reading, reading. It is important that you read carefully—Van Gogh is a very poetic writer, so you will not “get it” immediately—you will need to read his letters more than once. For letter #531 (the number of the letter is in the top, right corner), please read the whole thing. For letter #605, please read page #1 of the letter (or more, if you want to—I am only requiring the first page). The basic overview of the assignment is that we will apply the criteria that we found in the Hayakawa article to Van Gogh to “test” if he is a creative person, according to Hayakawa’s definition. The assignment page explains more of the essay’s objectives. So for now, familiarize yourself with Van Gogh’s letters by reading them carefully. And, let me know what questions you have overall. Keep in mind that you do not need to know every little detail about Van Gogh’s life to be successful on this assignment—he refers to many other artists, paintings, books, and authors. This is confusing at first, and I know that. Read more for his big ideas—what stands out to you that he says? By the end of the week, I will post an exercise that will help us get ready for the essay itself. Stay tuned…



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SYNOPSIS This case deals with designing a program to help students in finding the information
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


SYNOPSIS This case deals with designing a program to help students in finding the information about any company and its activities. This program will be helpful to the librarian of the college, whose responsibilities include advising and helping students on business studies courses, since he is asked quite frequently on how to access information and other data, pertaining to a company The role of a librarian is to help find facts and figures. To achieve this, they organize information and also assist people in finding relevant books, magazines, journals, videos as well as websites, where this information is contained. Additionally, librarians also take a decision on the types of books, periodicals, magazines etc to purchase and keep in the library. Their primary role is to arrange books and other items in the library in such a way that people who need them can find them easily. Since the task involved is quite big, the librarians generally work as a team. Today the job of librarian has become highly specialized. Some of them on arts, while others work on technical books. They work in schools, colleges, public libraries or offices and business premises, in fact every other place where people need to find information quickly. Computers have made the job of a librarian extremely easy. Librarians build data base and also web sites, which makes it easier for them to provide information to the people quickly and use it to their advantage. Some librarians are known as Reference or Research Librarian. They help people do research and also find information which they need. The help provided by them could be in the form of a research on a particular question asked by the student. It can also be in the shape of giving directions on the efficient use of databases or other source of information such as web sites, videos etc. They invariably help in getting materials from other sources and also provide them (students) access to use of rare information. Let us assume that a student wants to get information about the products of a FMCG company (say Proctor & Gamble) The information sought by the student could be • Balance sheet • Account statement • Profit and loss statement • Comparative figures for the performance of companies operating in similar fields • Growth prospects of the company in domestic market • Possible areas of operation in the foreign market • Range of products Taking a cue from there, the role of librarian, step by step will be as follows The librarian would first guide the student to the following web site http://www.pg.com/en_US/index.shtml This is the basic web site of the company in question (Proctor & Gamble). Once the student visits this web site, he can get all the information about the company such as Products and company details The web site also gives the viewer, at a glance, the salient features of the company, its achievements, and awards it has won in the past. This information can be used by the viewer to get details of the company’s standing in the market. Further it gives information about the company’s product range By sampling looking at the picture, the viewer can get some idea of the products manufactured by the company. So the first query of the student, viz. to know about the company and its products, can be answered by this help provided by the librarian. The products are listed as per their segment classification starting from Personal & beauty House and home Health and wellness Baby and family Pet care and nutrition As can be seen, complete picture of the products of the company is available on the web site. By providing the information about the web site of the company, the librarian has made the task of the student simpler. The web site not only provides information about the products of the company but also gives a bird’s eye view of all the new products of P & G. The idea is to provide the student with latest information about the products of the company (current and forthcoming launches as well) Besides giving a general idea of the product range, it also gives complete information about the various products, expert advice, sales promotion in the form of coupons etc. A complete picture about the company and its product range is available to the viewer (in this case the student) and he is now well versed with the full range. Now if he wants to compare the products range with other company’s products, he can ask for information from the librarian. Suppose the student wants to know about the company, then the librarian can guide him to the” company “icon. By simply clicking on this, the student would know Purpose, Values, and Principles Diversity and also Learn More about the Company The purpose, values and principles icon given information about the company, its vision and mission statement and what it stands for, which in this case is • Integrity • Leadership • Ownership • Passion for Winning • Trust All these are further described in details under separate heading. So once again, the task of the student is simplified Talking about the company, it gives information about, global operations, product range, and its history starting from 1837 onwards, diversity, in addition to Purpose, Values, and Principles A detailed note about the science behind the products / brands gives information about its complete R & D mission, Product innovation, technology resources, heritage, and diverse careers in technology. The company has following commitments • Sustainability • Product safety • Environmental responsibility • Social responsibility For environmental safety the company makes sure that it does tasks in the areas of:- Environmental Science Department Environmental Quality Policy History Multidisciplinary Research The Science of Risk Assessment Environment and Safety Perspectives For product safety, P & G has ensured the availability of the following Product Safety Policy and Practices Environmental Quality Policy Worldwide Business Conduct Manual All this information is about the products and the company. When financial aspects of the company need to be determined, the librarian has to provide link to the financial parameters. This information is available under the heading “investor” http://www.pg.com/investors/sectionmain.shtml As can be seen in this link, following information is available Company at a glance Financial results and events Investment opportunities in P & G My share holder account (gives complete information to the individual share holder about his holding etc in the company) Under company at a glance, the viewer can get complete picture of Management biographies Corporate sustainability and governance This page also gives information about the status of share price and other details, as listed on NYSE PG Listed NYSE Last: 51.73 Change: -2.18 (-3.89%) Volume: 16,082,059 52 Wk High: 73.57 52 Wk Low: 43.93 Aug 6 2009 12:55PM The financial results and events page gives information about stock performance and financial performance. Under stock information, one can get complete picture of the following Investor Fact Sheet (PDF) Price History Share Ownership Statistics Splits and Dividends Stock Charts Similarly, under the financial performance, the viewer gets information about the following Annual Reports Financial Trends Quarterly Result SEC Filings The header “investing in P & G “provides information to the viewer about How to invest Investment forms and Helpful investing links The entire page is so designed that full information is available at a glance and the student does not have to go any where else to get information. In fact , nothing is left to chance or fate and the student gets to know full facts of the company, types of share being offered, the relevant form to be filled, where to submit the forms, rights of shareholders, in case he is already a holder then how he can go about exercising his rights etc. There is also a column Shareholder FAQs which answers all the queries of shareholders. In case any thing is left uncovered or unanswered, the site also gives contact no or touch points where the investor can log in and get full information about his queries Coming to the “My shareholder account “this is one column which is very user friendly. Many a times, the investor or the shareholder has to carry out several transactions such as buy, sell, transfer of shares etc. This particular page provides information about “how – to – guide common transactions “ Under this the investor can know about the following Transfer Shares Sell Shares Purchase Shares Certificates Account Instructions and Maintenance A complete list of “transaction forms “are also provided in the following format Sell Program Shares and Certificate Withdrawal (PDF) Stock Transfer Form (PDF) Certificate Safekeeping Form (PDF) More Forms All these are PDF files, and are self explanatory. User has to just take a print out of the form or if he has the facility can also submit them on line Thus in conclusion, we can say that the librarian can help the student in a big way in pursing his business studies by guiding him to a relevant site and its various headings (as explained above). This makes the task of student simpler and easier. References http://www.bls.gov/k12/reading04.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Librarian http://www.pg.com/en_US/index.shtml http://www.pgeverydaysolutions.com/pgeds/articles-library/beauty-wellness.jsp http://www.pg.com/investors/sectionmain.shtml



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Essay #3: Analysis and Synthesis Instructor: Kim Greenfield Office: Stocker 244 Office Phone: X7117 Email: Kgreenfi@lorainccc.edu
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay #3: Analysis and Synthesis Instructor: Kim Greenfield Office: Stocker 244 Office Phone: X7117 Email: Kgreenfi@lorainccc.edu Due Date: October 23, by midnight in the drop box for week 10 Note: Any late papers will lose one point per day, each day they are late Required Sources: Three readings of your choice from Chapter 21: “Making Men and Women” in Literature and Composition Overview of the Assignment: In Essay #2, we learned to define a concept and apply it to a piece of literature. For this essay, we will be focusing more on using literature to support a thesis a bit more broadly (i.e., not using such strict criteria). In this essay, I want to focus on the kind of analysis we used to read van Gogh’s letters: literary analysis. I would also like to focus on the skill of synthesis, which means to use two differently-authored sources to develop the same topic (in the same paragraph). Objective: For this essay we will be considering the issue of gender. The main question that you will want to consider for your thesis is: Do men and women act the way they do naturally, or is behavior socially constructed? Use this question to guide you, but know that you can come to any kind of focus you would like to. This time, I will assess thesis statements before you begin your paper. This paper is also different in that, even though we will spend time analyzing the texts we discuss, coming to a thesis will be up to you. One thing to do is to look for connections between the texts we read and those you choose to read on your own. Any time you have an idea about how to use the texts, run your ideas by me, and most likely, we can turn it into a thesis. After you construct an arguable thesis, you will write a persuasive argument convincing your readers of your position. The number of main points is up to you, but make sure you give yourself enough points to develop. Getting to Your Thesis: Here are some questions you may want to consider as we discuss the texts in class: • Is there an essence of man or of woman? • Are we truly similar creatures, or do we butt heads for a reason? • What does it mean to be a man? To be a woman? • Are we all androgynous (meaning, do we all innately have the same characteristics)? • Since we are intelligent animals, can we overcome urges to act a certain way (if our behavior is biological)? • Are there traits that are specific to each sex? Your thesis can focus on any of these issues, as they relate to the readings. These are just ideas to get you thinking. If you don’t like any of the prompts, don’t use them! Length Your paper should be at least three full pages in length (double spaced). Requirements Your paper should be typed, using a 12 point standard font, like Times New Roman or Palatino. Your work should be double-spaced. Your paper should be formatted using MLA style. You will need to have a Works Cited page. Also, please make sure you submit your work as a WORD file (Works is not compatible with our computers on campus or mine at home). HELP! Please make sure to approve your topic with me before beginning your paper. And, remember that I am here to help at any point in the writing process. My best advice is to DRAFT EARLY so I can help you develop your points and revise.



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Tips and Tricks for Organizing An Essay
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Tips and Tricks for Organizing An Essay Introductions Introduction should include: • Full name of the author(s) • Full name of the sources (in italics or quotation marks—see page 469 in the Quick Access Handbook) • Overall, broad theme of the essay—an extremely brief summary • Thesis statement (that includes your three main points) Main body The main body of your essay should be organized by topics, and you should have topic sentences for each of your body paragraphs. Each topic sentence should contain a key word or phrase from your thesis statement. Please refer to the topic sentence handout in the week 6 folder. Additionally, • For topic sentence help, see pages 60-62 in the Quick Access Handbook. • For thesis help, see pages 47-48 in the Quick Access Handbook. • For paragraphing and revising tips, see chapters 10 and 11, beginning on page 53, in the Quick Access Handbook. Conclusions Conclusions should include: An overall assessment of what you discussed in the paper. I like to think of it as the “result” of the arguments you made in the main body paragraphs. The conclusion is NOT a place to repeat all of your main points. You’ve just gone through all the trouble of writing an introduction (the plan) and a main body (the execution of the plan)—so why would you just want to rehash all of that in the final paragraph(s)? The conclusion is the RESULT of all that planning!



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Introduction: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay The Impact of Mother’s Employment Introduction: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of who contributes to the quality of the relationships. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952,Pg.158) The attachment theory appears so obviously true that it is a wonder why it is necessary. Initially formalized by psychiatrist John Bowlby in the 1950s, it was a response to then dishevelment of thousands of youth displaced from their homes in the Western world by the ravages of war and social policy. In analyzing the causes of natural home breakup for these youth, Bowlby listed such causes as illegitimacy, economic conditions, illness, psychopath of the parent (Bowlby, 73). Those causes resulting in the non-functioning of the natural home were such as war, famine, and death of parent, divorce, full-time employment of the mother. Children deprived of a natural home life were also deprived of maternal love resulting in children who became isolated and withdrawn, unable to ‘develop libidinal ties with other children or with adults and consequently have no friendships worth the name.’ (Bowlby, 32). This is basis of Bowlby's theory, as provided in the opening quote: ‘Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ (Bowlby, 158). Commissioned by the World Health Organization, after World War II, to write a report on childcare and the mental health of homeless youth, Bowlby's influential report was published (first in 1951, then again) in1952 as Maternal Care and Mental Health. Establishing the seeds of the attachment theory, the important conclusion of Bowlby's work was the observation that ‘the prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so on the whole of his future life’ (Bowlby, 46). Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Children: In this 1952 classical study, Bowlby draws upon studies from four different countries. These studies all show deviant development and retardation effects upon children who had been placed in institutions at early ages. These effects were a laundry list of pathological depression schema. They included withdrawal, sadness, insomnia, and lack of appetite, listlessness, agitated despair, excessive demanding, intense possessiveness, acute jealousy, bed-wetting, and violent temper tantrums. But these outward expressions of wants and needs, Bowlby explains, may be less ‘sinister than the case of the child who responds either by withdrawal or by an undiscriminating and shallow friendliness.’ (Bowlby, 26). Behavior differences of institutionalized youth would appear usually after a few weeks or a month. Bowlby reports on a study by Spitz and Wolf found a development quotient of grave retardation placed on a group of babies who were kept in an institutional environment for a year. (Spitz, 1945). Spitz had divided the babies into four groups, distinguished by social class. The 'unselected urban class' representing the babies who were institutionalized went down 52 points, from 124 to 72 points. Of the three groups with mothers, the one that did not show a rise in development quotient, but was yet at the highest level, was the social class of professional mothers, dropping two points (133 to 131). The peasant and delinquent mother classes went up one (107 to 108) and three points (101.5 to 105) respectively. (Bowlby, 18) Maternal deprivation affects the child under two and a half years of age. At this age the child is still living in the present. After five, the child can begin to conceptualize and record the differences from a mother returning and may become less manipulative to thoughts of absence. But repercussions begin to occur on the behavior of youth five to eight who had already experienced maternal deprivation. Even for the child returning to the care of mother after separation and experience with the effects of retardation in a mental institution, Bowlby underlines the change in the child's physical and mental being. His observations yield the piercing statement: ‘So painful, indeed are the agonies which these children suffer on separation that it may well be that those who have their care shut their eyes in self-protection.’(Bowlby, 22). These effects, which Bowlby also draws out in a (personal) narrative, may later effect one's relationships with other people resulting in aggressive, extremely moody dealings which may effect, he explains, parenthood in later life. Studies that support Bowlby’s Theory: Becoming head of the Children's Department at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II, Bowlby concentrated his studies on mother-child separation. Other researchers who played important parts in the development of the attachment theory soon joined him. Most important of these was perhaps Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian. With expert parent-child investigations in Uganda and in Baltimore, Ainsworth would later work with Bowlby's to help development attachment theory and later add to it her important finding of the Strange Situation classification. The Strange Situation, formulated by Ainsworth involved a 20-minute play period with mother and infant that was invaded by a stranger and followed with the mother disappearing for a 3-minute period and then returning. Infant response revealed three patterns of behavior that later became codified into the Adult Attachment Interview (Steele, 2). Still widely used today the classifications, now expanded into four, are insecure-avoidant, secure, insecure-ambivalent, or insecure-disorganized (Washington, 1). On the basis of ethological studies of bonding in animals and observation of disturbed children in a London psychoanalytic clinic, Bowlby(1951) was convinced of the importance of the mother-baby bond; he warned against separating mother and baby without providing good substitute care giving. Ainsworth, after studying attachment in African babies in Uganda through naturalistic observation in their homes (Ainsworth, 1967), devised the Strange Situation, a now-laboratory-based technique designed to assess attachment patterns between an infant and an adult. Typically the adult is the mother (though other adults have taken part as well), and the infant is 10 to 24 months. Other research (Main & Solomon, 1986) has identified a fourth pattern, disorganized-disoriented attachment. Babies with the disorganized pattern often show inconsistent, contradictory behaviors. They greet their mother brightly when she returns but they turn away or research without looking at her. They seem confused and afraid. This may be the least secure pattern and is most likely to occur to occur in babies whose mothers are insensitive, intrusive, or abusive (Carlson, 1998). Substitute maternal care in the infant's second and third years does not occur without its psychological adjustment problems, some severe. Spitz & Wolf outlined a state 'agitated despair' which the infant may suffer. Showing signs of 'pathological development', a regression in behavior may result. Bowlby summarizes an unpublished observation: ‘[the child] wets his bed, masturbates, gives up talking, and insists on being carried, so that the less experienced nurse may suppose him to be defective. (Bowlby, 23). This behavior is especially illustrative of children who have had maternal care. For less abrupt separations, Bowlby points out the study of Burling ham & Freud where infants aged one and a half to two and a half experienced regressive behavior patterns in slow staged, 'managed', separation (from parents). (Bowlby, 24). Bowlby began to formulate this thesis as early as 1944 when he produced an examination of 44 cases of child thieves. (Bowlby, 1944). The negative symptoms of these youth he concluded were due to histories of maternal separation and deprivation (Bretherton, 4). These ideals would formulate into one of the major theses underlying his studies, that early maternal deprivation may affect future psychological character. He adduces: "There is a specific connection between prolonged deprivation in the early years and the development of an affectionless psychopathic character given to persistent delinquent conduct and extremely difficult to treat." (Bowlby, 35). In Western society, Bowlby noted, ‘...it is emotional instability and the inability of parents to make effective family relationships, which are the outstanding cause of children becoming deprived of a normal home life.’ (Bowlby, 82). Bowlby emphasized the mother as the main provide of this maternal love relationship. But he also promoted the thought of the mother substitute with the idea being that this initial love requirement is continuous and no disruptive. He worked to produce empirical evidence that children required a continuous close and loving relationship from their mothers, or mother substitutes, as infants to prosper with good mental health. Without such continuous care, his warning was the child's personality would develop as affectionless and psychopathic. In the seminal 1951 study he structured his finding and reviewed the work of other researchers to demonstrate that healthy emotional development of the child was largely based on the child's early years experience in the family. At what age would maternal deprivation occur that would negatively affect the child? Bowlby writes: For the present, therefore, it may be record that deprivation occurring in the second half of the first year of life is agreed by all students of the subject to be of great significance and that many believe this to be true also of deprivation occurring in the first half, especially from three to six months. (Bowlby, 48-49). At what age can the provision of mothering be (re-) introduced to offset some of the damages of deprivation? For one researcher, Bowlby points, it is two and a half years. But for him the upper age limit is 12 months. Babies must be adopted between six and nine months to defeat the provisions of maternal deprivation. (Bowlby, 49). As far as group foster homes, Bowlby concludes, ‘... group residential care is always to be avoided for those under about 6 years ... it is suitable for short-stay children between 6 and 12, and for both short-stay and some long-stay adolescents.’ (Bowlby, 137). Researcher Bretherton identifies a trilogy three of important works Bowlby wrote that led to consolidation of the attachment theory. (Bretherton, 18). In Attachment (1969), Bowlby developed a theory of motivation and behavior for his theory and distinguished it from Freud's work. His effort was to make his theory stand on its own. He defines attachment behavior as behavior that has proximity to an attachment figure as a predictable outcome and whose evolutionary function is protection of the infant from danger, insisting that attachment has its own motivation and is in no way derived from systems sub serving mating and feed. (Bretherton, 20). Bowlby's second and third volumes were Separation (Bowlby, 1973) and Loss (Bowlby, 1980). These volumes chiefly dealt with reworking Freud's fear and motivation theories, establishing and refining Bowlby's concepts of internal working models of self and attachment figures, and explaining his concepts of defensive, repressive, and dissociative phenomenon (Bretherton, 24-26). In Loss, Bowlby would also work out his overall models of the behavior system. The last years of his life, Bowlby worked on developing and reconciling psychotherapy into methods of the attachment theory. This project reestablished his interest in 'the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns' and importantly helped to distinguished attachment theory from hereditary and behavior models of psychology. The Impact of Early Child Care Effects of early child may depend on the type, amount, overall quality, and stability of care, as well as the age at which children start receiving it. In home settings, where infants are likely to stay, quality of paid care is related to family income; the higher the income the better the care is. This is less true in child care centers, more commonly used for older preschoolers; there poor children who benefit from federal subsidies may receive better care than those from middle-class families. (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network,1997b). Researchers today have worked to provide more empirical evidence to Bowlby's attachment theories. They have also sought to extend the identity of the attachment provider to other adult figures, the father, and the childcare network. But it is exactly the 'institution', boarding house, or foster-care provider whom Bowlby initially built his criticisms upon. Important questions are how would the attachment theory engage the issue of increasing divorce rates in many Western countries resulting in redefining of the nuclear family? How would they deal with the challenges of the teenage mother? Bowlby does deal with teenage pregnancy, but in the negative light of the 1950s moral quotient. Essential to his thought is: ‘... deprived and unhappy children grow up to make bad parents.’ (Bowlby, 82). He writes of a study in America where the girl wichmentth the illegitimate baby, ‘...often comes from an unsatisfactory family background and has developed a neurotic character, the illegitimate baby being in the nature of a symptom of her neurosis.’ (Bowlby, 93). Of course, one would have to look at the youth, the children of these units. In many Western cities, the question is answered by the violence among such youth. These children of teenage parents whom in city after city are given new meaning to violence and death. Are these youth missing the quotient of early maternal love that Bowlby has defined as necessary for positive mental health? In this aspect it is worthwhile to look at Bowlby's summarization of a study of unmarried young mothers. In all of them there appeared a strong unconscious desire to become pregnant, motivated sometimes by the need for a love-object which they had never had and sometimes by the desire to use the shame of an illegitimate baby as a weapon against their dominating parents... Running side by side with the need to use the baby, as a weapon against the parents was the need to use it as a weapon against them. (Bowlby. 94). Conclusion: Today attachment theory continues to affect social welfare policy and to provide an ongoing field of study for research. Encumbering the mother figure as it does, it encounters both debate and expanded supportive thought in feminist literature. (Washington, Franzblau). Yet its application today may be met by challenges from newly established life patterns and rhythms now accepted in today's world. These patterns define the working ma, the working single ma. They define homosexual couples trying to get into the adoption world. There is today a new positioning of the father figure and of the nuclear family. Just as there is a shaking up of forces in the current world economic malaise, it follows; perhaps, there will also be a shaking up of forces in the concept of family and childrearing. But this unfortunate thought could never reach truth. The nuclear family will always sustain itself as the working model. And Bowlby's conclusive thought will always ring true: The proper care of children deprived of a normal home life ... is essential for the mental and social welfare of a community. (Bowlby, 157) References 1. Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. 2. Bowlby, J. (1944) Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25, 107-128 3. Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal Care and Mental Health. New York: World Health Organization 4. Bretherton, Inge. (1992) The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Accessed March, 2009 at http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4294320/attachment-theory 5. Burling ham, D. & Freud, A. (1944) Monthly report of Hampstead nurseries, May (unpublished) 6. Franz Lau, S. (1999) Attachment Theory. Feminism & Psychology, 9(1): 5-9. 7. Spitz, R.A. & Wolf, K. (1945) Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early children. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74 8. Washington, Karla. MSW. (2008) Attachment and Alternatives: Theory in Child Welfare Research. Advances in Social Work, 1(9), 8-16. Accessed March, 2009 at http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/viewFile/174/167 9. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 1986;NICHD Early Child Care Research Network 1996; 10. Human Development, Ninth Edition, Diane E.Papalia, Sally Wendkos Olds, Ruth Duskin Feldman. 11. Web references: www.mhhe.com/papaliah9.



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The Impact of Mother’s Employment
Posted On: Nov. 13, 2017
Author: Shipra


Essay The Impact of Mother’s Employment Introduction: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of who contributes to the quality of the relationships. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952,Pg.158) The attachment theory appears so obviously true that it is a wonder why it is necessary. Initially formalized by psychiatrist John Bowlby in the 1950s, it was a response to then dishevelment of thousands of youth displaced from their homes in the Western world by the ravages of war and social policy. In analyzing the causes of natural home breakup for these youth, Bowlby listed such causes as illegitimacy, economic conditions, illness, psychopath of the parent (Bowlby, 73). Those causes resulting in the non-functioning of the natural home were such as war, famine, and death of parent, divorce, full-time employment of the mother. Children deprived of a natural home life were also deprived of maternal love resulting in children who became isolated and withdrawn, unable to ‘develop libidinal ties with other children or with adults and consequently have no friendships worth the name.’ (Bowlby, 32). This is basis of Bowlby's theory, as provided in the opening quote: ‘Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ (Bowlby, 158). Commissioned by the World Health Organization, after World War II, to write a report on childcare and the mental health of homeless youth, Bowlby's influential report was published (first in 1951, then again) in1952 as Maternal Care and Mental Health. Establishing the seeds of the attachment theory, the important conclusion of Bowlby's work was the observation that ‘the prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so on the whole of his future life’ (Bowlby, 46). Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Children: In this 1952 classical study, Bowlby draws upon studies from four different countries. These studies all show deviant development and retardation effects upon children who had been placed in institutions at early ages. These effects were a laundry list of pathological depression schema. They included withdrawal, sadness, insomnia, and lack of appetite, listlessness, agitated despair, excessive demanding, intense possessiveness, acute jealousy, bed-wetting, and violent temper tantrums. But these outward expressions of wants and needs, Bowlby explains, may be less ‘sinister than the case of the child who responds either by withdrawal or by an undiscriminating and shallow friendliness.’ (Bowlby, 26). Behavior differences of institutionalized youth would appear usually after a few weeks or a month. Bowlby reports on a study by Spitz and Wolf found a development quotient of grave retardation placed on a group of babies who were kept in an institutional environment for a year. (Spitz, 1945). Spitz had divided the babies into four groups, distinguished by social class. The 'unselected urban class' representing the babies who were institutionalized went down 52 points, from 124 to 72 points. Of the three groups with mothers, the one that did not show a rise in development quotient, but was yet at the highest level, was the social class of professional mothers, dropping two points (133 to 131). The peasant and delinquent mother classes went up one (107 to 108) and three points (101.5 to 105) respectively. (Bowlby, 18) Maternal deprivation affects the child under two and a half years of age. At this age the child is still living in the present. After five, the child can begin to conceptualize and record the differences from a mother returning and may become less manipulative to thoughts of absence. But repercussions begin to occur on the behavior of youth five to eight who had already experienced maternal deprivation. Even for the child returning to the care of mother after separation and experience with the effects of retardation in a mental institution, Bowlby underlines the change in the child's physical and mental being. His observations yield the piercing statement: ‘So painful, indeed are the agonies which these children suffer on separation that it may well be that those who have their care shut their eyes in self-protection.’(Bowlby, 22). These effects, which Bowlby also draws out in a (personal) narrative, may later effect one's relationships with other people resulting in aggressive, extremely moody dealings which may effect, he explains, parenthood in later life. Studies that support Bowlby’s Theory: Becoming head of the Children's Department at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II, Bowlby concentrated his studies on mother-child separation. Other researchers who played important parts in the development of the attachment theory soon joined him. Most important of these was perhaps Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian. With expert parent-child investigations in Uganda and in Baltimore, Ainsworth would later work with Bowlby's to help development attachment theory and later add to it her important finding of the Strange Situation classification. The Strange Situation, formulated by Ainsworth involved a 20-minute play period with mother and infant that was invaded by a stranger and followed with the mother disappearing for a 3-minute period and then returning. Infant response revealed three patterns of behavior that later became codified into the Adult Attachment Interview (Steele, 2). Still widely used today the classifications, now expanded into four, are insecure-avoidant, secure, insecure-ambivalent, or insecure-disorganized (Washington, 1). On the basis of ethological studies of bonding in animals and observation of disturbed children in a London psychoanalytic clinic, Bowlby(1951) was convinced of the importance of the mother-baby bond; he warned against separating mother and baby without providing good substitute care giving. Ainsworth, after studying attachment in African babies in Uganda through naturalistic observation in their homes (Ainsworth, 1967), devised the Strange Situation, a now-laboratory-based technique designed to assess attachment patterns between an infant and an adult. Typically the adult is the mother (though other adults have taken part as well), and the infant is 10 to 24 months. Other research (Main & Solomon, 1986) has identified a fourth pattern, disorganized-disoriented attachment. Babies with the disorganized pattern often show inconsistent, contradictory behaviors. They greet their mother brightly when she returns but they turn away or research without looking at her. They seem confused and afraid. This may be the least secure pattern and is most likely to occur to occur in babies whose mothers are insensitive, intrusive, or abusive (Carlson, 1998). Substitute maternal care in the infant's second and third years does not occur without its psychological adjustment problems, some severe. Spitz & Wolf outlined a state 'agitated despair' which the infant may suffer. Showing signs of 'pathological development', a regression in behavior may result. Bowlby summarizes an unpublished observation: ‘[the child] wets his bed, masturbates, gives up talking, and insists on being carried, so that the less experienced nurse may suppose him to be defective. (Bowlby, 23). This behavior is especially illustrative of children who have had maternal care. For less abrupt separations, Bowlby points out the study of Burling ham & Freud where infants aged one and a half to two and a half experienced regressive behavior patterns in slow staged, 'managed', separation (from parents). (Bowlby, 24). Bowlby began to formulate this thesis as early as 1944 when he produced an examination of 44 cases of child thieves. (Bowlby, 1944). The negative symptoms of these youth he concluded were due to histories of maternal separation and deprivation (Bretherton, 4). These ideals would formulate into one of the major theses underlying his studies, that early maternal deprivation may affect future psychological character. He adduces: "There is a specific connection between prolonged deprivation in the early years and the development of an affectionless psychopathic character given to persistent delinquent conduct and extremely difficult to treat." (Bowlby, 35). In Western society, Bowlby noted, ‘...it is emotional instability and the inability of parents to make effective family relationships, which are the outstanding cause of children becoming deprived of a normal home life.’ (Bowlby, 82). Bowlby emphasized the mother as the main provide of this maternal love relationship. But he also promoted the thought of the mother substitute with the idea being that this initial love requirement is continuous and no disruptive. He worked to produce empirical evidence that children required a continuous close and loving relationship from their mothers, or mother substitutes, as infants to prosper with good mental health. Without such continuous care, his warning was the child's personality would develop as affectionless and psychopathic. In the seminal 1951 study he structured his finding and reviewed the work of other researchers to demonstrate that healthy emotional development of the child was largely based on the child's early years experience in the family. At what age would maternal deprivation occur that would negatively affect the child? Bowlby writes: For the present, therefore, it may be record that deprivation occurring in the second half of the first year of life is agreed by all students of the subject to be of great significance and that many believe this to be true also of deprivation occurring in the first half, especially from three to six months. (Bowlby, 48-49). At what age can the provision of mothering be (re-) introduced to offset some of the damages of deprivation? For one researcher, Bowlby points, it is two and a half years. But for him the upper age limit is 12 months. Babies must be adopted between six and nine months to defeat the provisions of maternal deprivation. (Bowlby, 49). As far as group foster homes, Bowlby concludes, ‘... group residential care is always to be avoided for those under about 6 years ... it is suitable for short-stay children between 6 and 12, and for both short-stay and some long-stay adolescents.’ (Bowlby, 137). Researcher Bretherton identifies a trilogy three of important works Bowlby wrote that led to consolidation of the attachment theory. (Bretherton, 18). In Attachment (1969), Bowlby developed a theory of motivation and behavior for his theory and distinguished it from Freud's work. His effort was to make his theory stand on its own. He defines attachment behavior as behavior that has proximity to an attachment figure as a predictable outcome and whose evolutionary function is protection of the infant from danger, insisting that attachment has its own motivation and is in no way derived from systems sub serving mating and feed. (Bretherton, 20). Bowlby's second and third volumes were Separation (Bowlby, 1973) and Loss (Bowlby, 1980). These volumes chiefly dealt with reworking Freud's fear and motivation theories, establishing and refining Bowlby's concepts of internal working models of self and attachment figures, and explaining his concepts of defensive, repressive, and dissociative phenomenon (Bretherton, 24-26). In Loss, Bowlby would also work out his overall models of the behavior system. The last years of his life, Bowlby worked on developing and reconciling psychotherapy into methods of the attachment theory. This project reestablished his interest in 'the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns' and importantly helped to distinguished attachment theory from hereditary and behavior models of psychology. The Impact of Early Child Care Effects of early child may depend on the type, amount, overall quality, and stability of care, as well as the age at which children start receiving it. In home settings, where infants are likely to stay, quality of paid care is related to family income; the higher the income the better the care is. This is less true in child care centers, more commonly used for older preschoolers; there poor children who benefit from federal subsidies may receive better care than those from middle-class families. (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network,1997b). Researchers today have worked to provide more empirical evidence to Bowlby's attachment theories. They have also sought to extend the identity of the attachment provider to other adult figures, the father, and the childcare network. But it is exactly the 'institution', boarding house, or foster-care provider whom Bowlby initially built his criticisms upon. Important questions are how would the attachment theory engage the issue of increasing divorce rates in many Western countries resulting in redefining of the nuclear family? How would they deal with the challenges of the teenage mother? Bowlby does deal with teenage pregnancy, but in the negative light of the 1950s moral quotient. Essential to his thought is: ‘... deprived and unhappy children grow up to make bad parents.’ (Bowlby, 82). He writes of a study in America where the girl wichmentth the illegitimate baby, ‘...often comes from an unsatisfactory family background and has developed a neurotic character, the illegitimate baby being in the nature of a symptom of her neurosis.’ (Bowlby, 93). Of course, one would have to look at the youth, the children of these units. In many Western cities, the question is answered by the violence among such youth. These children of teenage parents whom in city after city are given new meaning to violence and death. Are these youth missing the quotient of early maternal love that Bowlby has defined as necessary for positive mental health? In this aspect it is worthwhile to look at Bowlby's summarization of a study of unmarried young mothers. In all of them there appeared a strong unconscious desire to become pregnant, motivated sometimes by the need for a love-object which they had never had and sometimes by the desire to use the shame of an illegitimate baby as a weapon against their dominating parents... Running side by side with the need to use the baby, as a weapon against the parents was the need to use it as a weapon against them. (Bowlby. 94). Conclusion: Today attachment theory continues to affect social welfare policy and to provide an ongoing field of study for research. Encumbering the mother figure as it does, it encounters both debate and expanded supportive thought in feminist literature. (Washington, Franzblau). Yet its application today may be met by challenges from newly established life patterns and rhythms now accepted in today's world. These patterns define the working ma, the working single ma. They define homosexual couples trying to get into the adoption world. There is today a new positioning of the father figure and of the nuclear family. Just as there is a shaking up of forces in the current world economic malaise, it follows; perhaps, there will also be a shaking up of forces in the concept of family and childrearing. But this unfortunate thought could never reach truth. The nuclear family will always sustain itself as the working model. And Bowlby's conclusive thought will always ring true: The proper care of children deprived of a normal home life ... is essential for the mental and social welfare of a community. (Bowlby, 157) References 1. Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. 2. Bowlby, J. (1944) Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25, 107-128 3. Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal Care and Mental Health. New York: World Health Organization 4. Bretherton, Inge. (1992) The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Accessed March, 2009 at http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4294320/attachment-theory 5. Burling ham, D. & Freud, A. (1944) Monthly report of Hampstead nurseries, May (unpublished) 6. Franz Lau, S. (1999) Attachment Theory. Feminism & Psychology, 9(1): 5-9. 7. Spitz, R.A. & Wolf, K. (1945) Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early children. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74 8. Washington, Karla. MSW. (2008) Attachment and Alternatives: Theory in Child Welfare Research. Advances in Social Work, 1(9), 8-16. Accessed March, 2009 at http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/viewFile/174/167 9. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 1986;NICHD Early Child Care Research Network 1996; 10. Human Development, Ninth Edition, Diane E.Papalia, Sally Wendkos Olds, Ruth Duskin Feldman. 11. Web references: www.mhhe.com/papaliah9.



VIEW FILE
The Impact of Mother’s Employment
Posted On: Nov. 11, 2017
Author: Shipra


The Impact of Mother’s Employment Introduction: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of who contributes to the quality of the relationships. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health. (Bowlby, 1952,Pg.158) The attachment theory appears so obviously true that it is a wonder why it is necessary. Initially formalized by psychiatrist John Bowlby in the 1950s, it was a response to then dishevelment of thousands of youth displaced from their homes in the Western world by the ravages of war and social policy. In analyzing the causes of natural home breakup for these youth, Bowlby listed such causes as illegitimacy, economic conditions, illness, psychopath of the parent (Bowlby, 73). Those causes resulting in the non-functioning of the natural home were such as war, famine, and death of parent, divorce, full-time employment of the mother. Children deprived of a natural home life were also deprived of maternal love resulting in children who became isolated and withdrawn, unable to ‘develop libidinal ties with other children or with adults and consequently have no friendships worth the name.’ (Bowlby, 32). This is basis of Bowlby's theory, as provided in the opening quote: ‘Mother-love in infancy and childhood is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ (Bowlby, 158). Commissioned by the World Health Organization, after World War II, to write a report on childcare and the mental health of homeless youth, Bowlby's influential report was published (first in 1951, then again) in1952 as Maternal Care and Mental Health. Establishing the seeds of the attachment theory, the important conclusion of Bowlby's work was the observation that ‘the prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so on the whole of his future life’ (Bowlby, 46). Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Children: In this 1952 classical study, Bowlby draws upon studies from four different countries. These studies all show deviant development and retardation effects upon children who had been placed in institutions at early ages. These effects were a laundry list of pathological depression schema. They included withdrawal, sadness, insomnia, and lack of appetite, listlessness, agitated despair, excessive demanding, intense possessiveness, acute jealousy, bed-wetting, and violent temper tantrums. But these outward expressions of wants and needs, Bowlby explains, may be less ‘sinister than the case of the child who responds either by withdrawal or by an undiscriminating and shallow friendliness.’ (Bowlby, 26). Behavior differences of institutionalized youth would appear usually after a few weeks or a month. Bowlby reports on a study by Spitz and Wolf found a development quotient of grave retardation placed on a group of babies who were kept in an institutional environment for a year. (Spitz, 1945). Spitz had divided the babies into four groups, distinguished by social class. The 'unselected urban class' representing the babies who were institutionalized went down 52 points, from 124 to 72 points. Of the three groups with mothers, the one that did not show a rise in development quotient, but was yet at the highest level, was the social class of professional mothers, dropping two points (133 to 131). The peasant and delinquent mother classes went up one (107 to 108) and three points (101.5 to 105) respectively. (Bowlby, 18) Maternal deprivation affects the child under two and a half years of age. At this age the child is still living in the present. After five, the child can begin to conceptualize and record the differences from a mother returning and may become less manipulative to thoughts of absence. But repercussions begin to occur on the behavior of youth five to eight who had already experienced maternal deprivation. Even for the child returning to the care of mother after separation and experience with the effects of retardation in a mental institution, Bowlby underlines the change in the child's physical and mental being. His observations yield the piercing statement: ‘So painful, indeed are the agonies which these children suffer on separation that it may well be that those who have their care shut their eyes in self-protection.’(Bowlby, 22). These effects, which Bowlby also draws out in a (personal) narrative, may later effect one's relationships with other people resulting in aggressive, extremely moody dealings which may effect, he explains, parenthood in later life. Studies that support Bowlby’s Theory: Becoming head of the Children's Department at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II, Bowlby concentrated his studies on mother-child separation. Other researchers who played important parts in the development of the attachment theory soon joined him. Most important of these was perhaps Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian. With expert parent-child investigations in Uganda and in Baltimore, Ainsworth would later work with Bowlby's to help development attachment theory and later add to it her important finding of the Strange Situation classification. The Strange Situation, formulated by Ainsworth involved a 20-minute play period with mother and infant that was invaded by a stranger and followed with the mother disappearing for a 3-minute period and then returning. Infant response revealed three patterns of behavior that later became codified into the Adult Attachment Interview (Steele, 2). Still widely used today the classifications, now expanded into four, are insecure-avoidant, secure, insecure-ambivalent, or insecure-disorganized (Washington, 1). On the basis of ethological studies of bonding in animals and observation of disturbed children in a London psychoanalytic clinic, Bowlby(1951) was convinced of the importance of the mother-baby bond; he warned against separating mother and baby without providing good substitute care giving. Ainsworth, after studying attachment in African babies in Uganda through naturalistic observation in their homes (Ainsworth, 1967), devised the Strange Situation, a now-laboratory-based technique designed to assess attachment patterns between an infant and an adult. Typically the adult is the mother (though other adults have taken part as well), and the infant is 10 to 24 months. Other research (Main & Solomon, 1986) has identified a fourth pattern, disorganized-disoriented attachment. Babies with the disorganized pattern often show inconsistent, contradictory behaviors. They greet their mother brightly when she returns but they turn away or research without looking at her. They seem confused and afraid. This may be the least secure pattern and is most likely to occur to occur in babies whose mothers are insensitive, intrusive, or abusive (Carlson, 1998). Substitute maternal care in the infant's second and third years does not occur without its psychological adjustment problems, some severe. Spitz & Wolf outlined a state 'agitated despair' which the infant may suffer. Showing signs of 'pathological development', a regression in behavior may result. Bowlby summarizes an unpublished observation: ‘[the child] wets his bed, masturbates, gives up talking, and insists on being carried, so that the less experienced nurse may suppose him to be defective. (Bowlby, 23). This behavior is especially illustrative of children who have had maternal care. For less abrupt separations, Bowlby points out the study of Burling ham & Freud where infants aged one and a half to two and a half experienced regressive behavior patterns in slow staged, 'managed', separation (from parents). (Bowlby, 24). Bowlby began to formulate this thesis as early as 1944 when he produced an examination of 44 cases of child thieves. (Bowlby, 1944). The negative symptoms of these youth he concluded were due to histories of maternal separation and deprivation (Bretherton, 4). These ideals would formulate into one of the major theses underlying his studies, that early maternal deprivation may affect future psychological character. He adduces: "There is a specific connection between prolonged deprivation in the early years and the development of an affectionless psychopathic character given to persistent delinquent conduct and extremely difficult to treat." (Bowlby, 35). In Western society, Bowlby noted, ‘...it is emotional instability and the inability of parents to make effective family relationships, which are the outstanding cause of children becoming deprived of a normal home life.’ (Bowlby, 82). Bowlby emphasized the mother as the main provide of this maternal love relationship. But he also promoted the thought of the mother substitute with the idea being that this initial love requirement is continuous and no disruptive. He worked to produce empirical evidence that children required a continuous close and loving relationship from their mothers, or mother substitutes, as infants to prosper with good mental health. Without such continuous care, his warning was the child's personality would develop as affectionless and psychopathic. In the seminal 1951 study he structured his finding and reviewed the work of other researchers to demonstrate that healthy emotional development of the child was largely based on the child's early years experience in the family. At what age would maternal deprivation occur that would negatively affect the child? Bowlby writes: For the present, therefore, it may be record that deprivation occurring in the second half of the first year of life is agreed by all students of the subject to be of great significance and that many believe this to be true also of deprivation occurring in the first half, especially from three to six months. (Bowlby, 48-49). At what age can the provision of mothering be (re-) introduced to offset some of the damages of deprivation? For one researcher, Bowlby points, it is two and a half years. But for him the upper age limit is 12 months. Babies must be adopted between six and nine months to defeat the provisions of maternal deprivation. (Bowlby, 49). As far as group foster homes, Bowlby concludes, ‘... group residential care is always to be avoided for those under about 6 years ... it is suitable for short-stay children between 6 and 12, and for both short-stay and some long-stay adolescents.’ (Bowlby, 137). Researcher Bretherton identifies a trilogy three of important works Bowlby wrote that led to consolidation of the attachment theory. (Bretherton, 18). In Attachment (1969), Bowlby developed a theory of motivation and behavior for his theory and distinguished it from Freud's work. His effort was to make his theory stand on its own. He defines attachment behavior as behavior that has proximity to an attachment figure as a predictable outcome and whose evolutionary function is protection of the infant from danger, insisting that attachment has its own motivation and is in no way derived from systems sub serving mating and feed. (Bretherton, 20). Bowlby's second and third volumes were Separation (Bowlby, 1973) and Loss (Bowlby, 1980). These volumes chiefly dealt with reworking Freud's fear and motivation theories, establishing and refining Bowlby's concepts of internal working models of self and attachment figures, and explaining his concepts of defensive, repressive, and dissociative phenomenon (Bretherton, 24-26). In Loss, Bowlby would also work out his overall models of the behavior system. The last years of his life, Bowlby worked on developing and reconciling psychotherapy into methods of the attachment theory. This project reestablished his interest in 'the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns' and importantly helped to distinguished attachment theory from hereditary and behavior models of psychology. The Impact of Early Child Care Effects of early child may depend on the type, amount, overall quality, and stability of care, as well as the age at which children start receiving it. In home settings, where infants are likely to stay, quality of paid care is related to family income; the higher the income the better the care is. This is less true in child care centers, more commonly used for older preschoolers; there poor children who benefit from federal subsidies may receive better care than those from middle-class families. (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network,1997b). Researchers today have worked to provide more empirical evidence to Bowlby's attachment theories. They have also sought to extend the identity of the attachment provider to other adult figures, the father, and the childcare network. But it is exactly the 'institution', boarding house, or foster-care provider whom Bowlby initially built his criticisms upon. Important questions are how would the attachment theory engage the issue of increasing divorce rates in many Western countries resulting in redefining of the nuclear family? How would they deal with the challenges of the teenage mother? Bowlby does deal with teenage pregnancy, but in the negative light of the 1950s moral quotient. Essential to his thought is: ‘... deprived and unhappy children grow up to make bad parents.’ (Bowlby, 82). He writes of a study in America where the girl wichmentth the illegitimate baby, ‘...often comes from an unsatisfactory family background and has developed a neurotic character, the illegitimate baby being in the nature of a symptom of her neurosis.’ (Bowlby, 93). Of course, one would have to look at the youth, the children of these units. In many Western cities, the question is answered by the violence among such youth. These children of teenage parents whom in city after city are given new meaning to violence and death. Are these youth missing the quotient of early maternal love that Bowlby has defined as necessary for positive mental health? In this aspect it is worthwhile to look at Bowlby's summarization of a study of unmarried young mothers. In all of them there appeared a strong unconscious desire to become pregnant, motivated sometimes by the need for a love-object which they had never had and sometimes by the desire to use the shame of an illegitimate baby as a weapon against their dominating parents... Running side by side with the need to use the baby, as a weapon against the parents was the need to use it as a weapon against them. (Bowlby. 94). Conclusion: Today attachment theory continues to affect social welfare policy and to provide an ongoing field of study for research. Encumbering the mother figure as it does, it encounters both debate and expanded supportive thought in feminist literature. (Washington, Franzblau). Yet its application today may be met by challenges from newly established life patterns and rhythms now accepted in today's world. These patterns define the working ma, the working single ma. They define homosexual couples trying to get into the adoption world. There is today a new positioning of the father figure and of the nuclear family. Just as there is a shaking up of forces in the current world economic malaise, it follows; perhaps, there will also be a shaking up of forces in the concept of family and childrearing. But this unfortunate thought could never reach truth. The nuclear family will always sustain itself as the working model. And Bowlby's conclusive thought will always ring true: The proper care of children deprived of a normal home life ... is essential for the mental and social welfare of a community. (Bowlby, 157) References 1. Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. 2. Bowlby, J. (1944) Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25, 107-128 3. Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal Care and Mental Health. New York: World Health Organization 4. Bretherton, Inge. (1992) The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775. Accessed March, 2009 at http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4294320/attachment-theory 5. Burling ham, D. & Freud, A. (1944) Monthly report of Hampstead nurseries, May (unpublished) 6. Franz Lau, S. (1999) Attachment Theory. Feminism & Psychology, 9(1): 5-9. 7. Spitz, R.A. & Wolf, K. (1945) Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early children. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74 8. Washington, Karla. MSW. (2008) Attachment and Alternatives: Theory in Child Welfare Research. Advances in Social Work, 1(9), 8-16. Accessed March, 2009 at http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/viewFile/174/167 9. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 1986;NICHD Early Child Care Research Network 1996; 10. Human Development, Ninth Edition, Diane E.Papalia, Sally Wendkos Olds, Ruth Duskin Feldman. 11. Web references: www.mhhe.com/papaliah9.



VIEW FILE
This case deals with designing a program to help students in finding the information
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra


SYNOPSIS This case deals with designing a program to help students in finding the information about any company and its activities. This program will be helpful to the librarian of the college, whose responsibilities include advising and helping students on business studies courses, since he is asked quite frequently on how to access information and other data, pertaining to a company The role of a librarian is to help find facts and figures. To achieve this, they organize information and also assist people in finding relevant books, magazines, journals, videos as well as websites, where this information is contained. Additionally, librarians also take a decision on the types of books, periodicals, magazines etc to purchase and keep in the library. Their primary role is to arrange books and other items in the library in such a way that people who need them can find them easily. Since the task involved is quite big, the librarians generally work as a team. Today the job of librarian has become highly specialized. Some of them on arts, while others work on technical books. They work in schools, colleges, public libraries or offices and business premises, in fact every other place where people need to find information quickly. Computers have made the job of a librarian extremely easy. Librarians build data base and also web sites, which makes it easier for them to provide information to the people quickly and use it to their advantage. Some librarians are known as Reference or Research Librarian. They help people do research and also find information which they need. The help provided by them could be in the form of a research on a particular question asked by the student. It can also be in the shape of giving directions on the efficient use of databases or other source of information such as web sites, videos etc. They invariably help in getting materials from other sources and also provide them (students) access to use of rare information. Let us assume that a student wants to get information about the products of a FMCG company (say Proctor & Gamble) The information sought by the student could be • Balance sheet • Account statement • Profit and loss statement • Comparative figures for the performance of companies operating in similar fields • Growth prospects of the company in domestic market • Possible areas of operation in the foreign market • Range of products Taking a cue from there, the role of librarian, step by step will be as follows The librarian would first guide the student to the following web site http://www.pg.com/en_US/index.shtml This is the basic web site of the company in question (Proctor & Gamble). Once the student visits this web site, he can get all the information about the company such as Products and company details The web site also gives the viewer, at a glance, the salient features of the company, its achievements, and awards it has won in the past. This information can be used by the viewer to get details of the company’s standing in the market. Further it gives information about the company’s product range By sampling looking at the picture, the viewer can get some idea of the products manufactured by the company. So the first query of the student, viz. to know about the company and its products, can be answered by this help provided by the librarian. The products are listed as per their segment classification starting from Personal & beauty House and home Health and wellness Baby and family Pet care and nutrition As can be seen, complete picture of the products of the company is available on the web site. By providing the information about the web site of the company, the librarian has made the task of the student simpler. The web site not only provides information about the products of the company but also gives a bird’s eye view of all the new products of P & G. The idea is to provide the student with latest information about the products of the company (current and forthcoming launches as well) Besides giving a general idea of the product range, it also gives complete information about the various products, expert advice, sales promotion in the form of coupons etc. A complete picture about the company and its product range is available to the viewer (in this case the student) and he is now well versed with the full range. Now if he wants to compare the products range with other company’s products, he can ask for information from the librarian. Suppose the student wants to know about the company, then the librarian can guide him to the” company “icon. By simply clicking on this, the student would know Purpose, Values, and Principles Diversity and also Learn More about the Company The purpose, values and principles icon given information about the company, its vision and mission statement and what it stands for, which in this case is • Integrity • Leadership • Ownership • Passion for Winning • Trust All these are further described in details under separate heading. So once again, the task of the student is simplified Talking about the company, it gives information about, global operations, product range, and its history starting from 1837 onwards, diversity, in addition to Purpose, Values, and Principles A detailed note about the science behind the products / brands gives information about its complete R & D mission, Product innovation, technology resources, heritage, and diverse careers in technology. The company has following commitments • Sustainability • Product safety • Environmental responsibility • Social responsibility For environmental safety the company makes sure that it does tasks in the areas of:- Environmental Science Department Environmental Quality Policy History Multidisciplinary Research The Science of Risk Assessment Environment and Safety Perspectives For product safety, P & G has ensured the availability of the following Product Safety Policy and Practices Environmental Quality Policy Worldwide Business Conduct Manual All this information is about the products and the company. When financial aspects of the company need to be determined, the librarian has to provide link to the financial parameters. This information is available under the heading “investor” http://www.pg.com/investors/sectionmain.shtml As can be seen in this link, following information is available Company at a glance Financial results and events Investment opportunities in P & G My share holder account (gives complete information to the individual share holder about his holding etc in the company) Under company at a glance, the viewer can get complete picture of Management biographies Corporate sustainability and governance This page also gives information about the status of share price and other details, as listed on NYSE PG Listed NYSE Last: 51.73 Change: -2.18 (-3.89%) Volume: 16,082,059 52 Wk High: 73.57 52 Wk Low: 43.93 Aug 6 2009 12:55PM The financial results and events page gives information about stock performance and financial performance. Under stock information, one can get complete picture of the following Investor Fact Sheet (PDF) Price History Share Ownership Statistics Splits and Dividends Stock Charts Similarly, under the financial performance, the viewer gets information about the following Annual Reports Financial Trends Quarterly Result SEC Filings The header “investing in P & G “provides information to the viewer about How to invest Investment forms and Helpful investing links The entire page is so designed that full information is available at a glance and the student does not have to go any where else to get information. In fact , nothing is left to chance or fate and the student gets to know full facts of the company, types of share being offered, the relevant form to be filled, where to submit the forms, rights of shareholders, in case he is already a holder then how he can go about exercising his rights etc. There is also a column Shareholder FAQs which answers all the queries of shareholders. In case any thing is left uncovered or unanswered, the site also gives contact no or touch points where the investor can log in and get full information about his queries Coming to the “My shareholder account “this is one column which is very user friendly. Many a times, the investor or the shareholder has to carry out several transactions such as buy, sell, transfer of shares etc. This particular page provides information about “how – to – guide common transactions “ Under this the investor can know about the following Transfer Shares Sell Shares Purchase Shares Certificates Account Instructions and Maintenance A complete list of “transaction forms “are also provided in the following format Sell Program Shares and Certificate Withdrawal (PDF) Stock Transfer Form (PDF) Certificate Safekeeping Form (PDF) More Forms All these are PDF files, and are self explanatory. User has to just take a print out of the form or if he has the facility can also submit them on line Thus in conclusion, we can say that the librarian can help the student in a big way in pursing his business studies by guiding him to a relevant site and its various headings (as explained above). This makes the task of student simpler and easier. References http://www.bls.gov/k12/reading04.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Librarian http://www.pg.com/en_US/index.shtml http://www.pgeverydaysolutions.com/pgeds/articles-library/beauty-wellness.jsp http://www.pg.com/investors/sectionmain.shtml



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Due Date: Sept. 27; Papers will lose a point each day they are late.
Posted On: Nov. 7, 2017
Author: Shipra


Analysis: Essay #2 Due Date: Sept. 27; Papers will lose a point each day they are late. “For the literary reader, meaning is more like a quilt constructed from bits and pieces of the text by many people who consult and argue and admire each other’s skill and change each other’s minds about which pieces to include and where to put them.” The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing Application: Analysis is an extremely important skill to practice in your writing because, as the above definition suggests, it urges you to think critically about what you read. Analytical writing urges you to synthesize your own ideas with evidence from other texts. You will use analytical writing not only in your composition courses, but also in other courses that ask you to interact with a written text, such as Literature, Philosophy, History, Art, and other courses in the Humanities. Required reading: Primary text: The Letters of Vincent van Gogh, Edited by Mark Roskill, (Published by Atheneum, New York, 1963) Secondary text: “What It Means to Be Creative,” S.I. Hayakawa (handout taken from The Composition of Everyday Life, Edited by John Mauk and John Metz, Heinle Publishing, New York, 2003) What We’ve Already Done: So far, we have analyzed our first source, ““What It Means to Be Creative,” by S.I. Hayakawa. In your homework for week two, you identified at least three of his criteria from his definition of creativity. The next step is to take those three criteria (or any three from the article if you don’t like the ones you initially chose) and apply them to a supposedly creative person, Vincent Van Gogh. Just because he’s a painter, though, doesn’t mean he has to fit Hayakawa’s definition. In this essay, we’re going to test Hayakawa’s definition. Purpose of the Essay: Our goal is in this essay is to apply the skills of analysis to a written piece of work using an article that defines what it means to be creative. We assume that van Gogh must have been a creative person, but why? What characteristics make him one of the most valuable and well known artists in the history of the art world? By reading his letters, we will analyze how van Gogh “fits” Hayakawa’s definition of a creative person. You might come to the conclusion that van Gogh does not fit this definition at all. Getting to your Thesis: The questions we will pose about the text will be: • How do van Gogh’s letters support Hayakawa’s definitions about “what it means to be creative”? • What do you observe about van Gogh’s letters? What insights have you gained about the type of person he was? • How can you apply Hayakawa’s definitions to your observations? And most importantly, • Does van Gogh (at least the way we observe him through his letters) fit Hayakawa’s definition of what it means to be a creative person? The answer to this question will be the basis of your thesis statement. Using Hayakawa’s criteria, you will explain why van Gogh fits this definition or why he does not. Requirements: In addition to the general essay requirements, such as typing your paper using double-spaced text and a standard 12 point font, please review the following requirements. • You must have an arguable thesis that states your position on this issue and lists the reasons for this position. • You must use three of Hayakawa’s criteria, and you must analyze how these criteria apply to van Gogh as an artist. • You must use direct quotes from both texts (using parenthetical citation to give credit to the authors). • You must include a Works Cited Page. • You must format your paper using MLA. • Your paper must be at least 2-3 pages (typed). General Outline for Organization: Introduction: You should identify the texts you are using by title and author. You will also address how you will use Hayakawa’s article to support or not support van Gogh’s letters. Additionally, summarize (briefly) Hayakawa’s criteria. Thesis: You will answer the question listed above, “Does van Gogh fit Hayakawa’s definition of what it means to be a creative person?” Use Hayakawa’s criteria to support or not support your position. Body Paragraphs: You should compare Hayakawa’s criteria to van Gogh’s text and assert your position of where in the text van Gogh exhibit’s these characteristics. You should focus on one criterion (from the article) per paragraph. This means that you will have at least two main body paragraphs. A main body paragraph will use a topic sentence to introduce one criterion from the secondary source. You should add a sentence to analyze why this criterion is important (or unimportant). Next, back up this criterion using specific examples (either exact quotes or brief summary) from the primary text. How does this example support your analysis? Conclusion: End your paper with a final assertion of your analysis.



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opening remarks one europe many tribes
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra




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“FRED Bailey: An Innocent Abroad – A case study in cross cultural management” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Posted On: Oct. 31, 2017
Author: Shipra


“FRED Bailey: An Innocent Abroad – A case study in cross cultural management” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The case deals about Fred Bailey, a young American, who was recently deputed as the Director Kline & Associates Tokyo office, on a of three-year assignment. He was offered the position of managing director of the firm’s relatively new Tokyo office which had staff strength of forty, including seven Americans. Fred would be in charge of the whole office and would report to a senior partner who was in charge of the Asian region. It was indirectly hinted to Fred that if this assignment went as well as his past ones, it would be the last step before becoming a partner in the firm. This was once in a life time opportunity for Fred, which he did want to refuse. While Fred was excited, he was surprised to note that Jenny, his wife, was not at all enthusiastic at all. Her main concerns were about their children .She thought it would be extremely difficult for their children to go to a foreign school and live in that country. She herself was keen to take up a job ( as she had a degree in fashion designing and had also worked as an assistant buyer for a large women’s clothing store before she had children Fred explained to her that all their problems of accommodation etc will be taken care of , including that of schooling for children. The past seven months in Japan were traumatic for both Fred and Jenny. At work, he had a lot of trouble in making his assistants understand the work which he wanted to get. For instance, he had a big upcoming meeting between his firm and a significant prospective client – a top 100 Japanese multinational company. With his best attention, he tried to explain to them their proposal, but could not get a straight forward answer from them for his proposal. He decided to take help of his Japanese research associates Tashiro Watanabe, and thought he would be the best person to take the lead and submit a fresh report to the client. Tashiro could not give a straight answer, whether he would be able to prepare the report in time for submission next week. When it was time to submit the report, it was not ready and Fred was wondering if Tashiro could not prepare the report , why did he not say so in the beginning itself. His wife also complained that she could not get the stuff which she was used to back home e.g. everyday products like maple syrup, peanut butter, and quality beef and these were available only at one of the specialty stores, but it cost three to four times what it would cost in the United States. The washer and dryer were much too small, and she had to spend extra money by sending things out to be dry cleaned. All these problems made Fred think and wonder what exactly went wrong and why he could not settle down. SCOPE OF THE REPORT This report would deal with the facts of the case, as they appear in the case study and would examine the reasons thereof. It would also highlight the reasons as to what went wrong and why. Finally it would attempt to give possible solutions and recommendations / remedies to the problems so that such situations do not recur or in case, Bailey faces similar situations, he would be ready to face them and solve to the satisfaction of all concerned. ANALYSIS OF CASE (MAIN ISSUES) The main issues, facts of the case are as follows:- • After spending six months in Japan, with his wife Jenny and two children, Fed Bailey was apprehensive if he had taken the right decision in accepting this three year contract , which would possibly lead him to become a partner of the firm Kline & Associates • Before taking up the offer, Bailey was given to understand that the contract was only for three years and all his personal problems will be taken care of, such as admission for his school going children, living in expenses in Japan, additional allowances, remuneration towards expenses likely to be incurred towards shifting of furniture and other house hold goods from US to Japan. Even his house in Boston, will be taken up for rent by the company so he need to worry from that angle. There was an excellent prospect of him becoming a partner of the company, on successful completion of the project / contract in Japan. • He was in two minds , whether he should pack up and tell his home office that he was coming back or convince his wife to re look at the situation and make a fresh beginning and complete the assignment / contract • The offer given to Fred was quite lucrative, both salary and perquisite wise, with all personal problems taken care of by the company • However, Fred faced problems in dealing with local people and making his clients understand his views. The problem was not only with dealing with clients but also with his own Japanese Associates, who had similar ways of working • Jenny, wife of Fred had tremendous amount of cultural problems in adjusting to new way of life in Japan and was also fed up of the local ways of doing things. She had trouble finding things of daily use and could get them only at specialty stores, that too at a rate which were three to four times the rate at which she used to buy them back home in United States. Moreover, she had no social life and the only time she could interact with people was when she visited US club, where she could get a chance to meet the like minded persons. • This case can be analyzed by understanding the five cultural dimensions, as proposed by Geert Hofstede As highlighted in the case, Bailey could have handled the situation in a better way if he had understood the fact that there are cultural differences existing between different countries and these have to be taken into consideration while taking decisions. This is especially true, when the decision affects directly the concerned person of the country. Bailey took it for granted that the people in Japan would behave and understand a situation in the same way as Americans do. Which is not right, as also pointed out by Hofstede. This assumption led him to a situation when he could neither communicate with his own staff members but also failed to strike a deal with the Japanese delegation, with whom he had fixed up a meeting One of the cultural dimensions as proposed by Hofstede is Individualism versus Collectivism. The Japanese, being from eastern culture tend to behave and act collectively, while taking decision. Unlike Americans, who lay importance to individualism, they (Japanese) take views of every one and then arrive at a consensus decision. Another dimension is that of Uncertainty Avoidance index. People from western countries and those influenced by it look at a problem in a purely analytical way and have a clear thinking as to how to attach a problem. All the doubts and confusion should be removed and there should be total clarity, when arriving at a decision. However this is not the case with eastern culture, where people live with ambiguity and indecisions, and try to reach a solution by compromise. This is exactly what happened in the present case, where there was ambiguity and confusion, but there was no sign of stress on the Japanese team members. Lastly, long term orientation is another dimension of Hofstede, which indicates, that people associate values with long term orientation such as thrift and perseverance, and values with short term orientation deal with respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations and also protecting one’s “face “. This clearly happened in the case of Tashiro Watanabe, who was afraid as to what will be the outcome, if could not submit the report on time CONCLUSIONS While going through the case, one finds various instances of differences in behavior of the main character Bailey, who is faced with personal and work related situations, where the ability to tackle the issues head on is on test. It is quite clear, that Bailey could not handle the situations (both at work and at home) due to cultural differences and his different upbringing. He was not exposed to the culture of the Eastern country and was totally unprepared to handle the situation. In fact, at one time he was totally foxed and at a loss to understand what should be done. He seemed to have reached a stalemate and it appeared as if he had reached a point of no return where the only choice he had was to pack up and go back home, leaving everything as it is. But then better sense prevailed upon him, especially when he started analyzing and looking back at the events of the last several months, when he was in Japan. Watching the smooth flow of subway and the chaos of home bound traffic , from his hotel room , gave him some insight of the state of the things as they were, and he started looking at the situation once again from a different perspective. He had already handled some tough assignment prior to the one he had been assigned, even though they had no cultural differences. But then, it gave him courage and understanding to look at the problems from a local perspective RECOMMENDATIONS It is suggested that Bailey should try to understand the cultural differences that exist between Japanese and American people. For this he is in an enviable position as he has several Japanese associates working in his team and they can give him clear insight into the way the things work in their country. They also have knowledge about American way of working (since there are a few Americans working in this company) and they can compare and inform Bailey as to how best he can deal with the situations On the personal front, Bailey has a lot at stake. His career and future promotions are hung on his succeeding in this assignment. There are always problems when one shifts residence, the same get magnified when you are in a foreign country and face cultural differences as well. He has to explain this to his wife Jenny, and at the same time he has to find some time for his family as they are usually at home (especially his wife). So he has to make some social calls and visits together with his wife as this would also help him in understand the local culture and ways of doing things. QUESTIONS • What can you adduce from the fact that at the first meeting held by Bailey that Japanese and American staff does not sit together? Is it significant that Bailey does not notice this? Why is the matter significant? The first meeting held by Bailey was in his new office in Tokyo, which was held soon after his arrival, where all his staff Japanese and Americans was called up. Fred Bailey was very keen to mix up and know his staff, and for this only he called them all together. The idea was to put across his views as to how he would like to run the office and also ascertain views of his staff members. “Fred’s first order of business was to have a general meeting with all the employees of associate consultant rank and higher. Although Fred didn’t really notice it at the time, all the Japanese staff sat together, and all the Americans sat together.” (Example: Bailey 3). This is a very significant fact, which went unnoticed by Bailey. As a part of senior management, his job was to make sure that his staff mix up and get along with each other. However, the very fact that his staff, were sitting separately in small groups, in the order of nationality clearly showed that there was something wrong in the way things were being done in this office in Tokyo. The cultural gap was glaring and existing for all to see, but no body took notice or paid attention to it, least of all the top management. Going by Hofstede’s theory, it shows the individualism versus collectivism aspect. Being of eastern culture, it was clear that Japanese were following the theory of collectivism while Americans on the other hand were followers of Individualism It was important for Bailey to make a note of the same and try to understand the behavior of Japanese. If he had paid attention to this individual difference, he would have been able to make some amends and also make sure that his views are clearly understood by the entire staff member, including Americans and Japanese. In an organization, where people of mixed culture work, it is essential to give space to each other and understand their way of working. Then only, one can understand each other and the misunderstanding do not crop up at a later date. The culture of eastern countries and western countries is totally different and as has been explained by Hofstede, in his theory, the people should make a note of the same and also make suitable adjustments in their dealings. • What effect does Bailey have on his important new Japanese clients? At the first meeting Bailey just could not convey to his clients his views. He presumed that the Japanese team will be very busy and exchanged only pleasantries with them and straightway went ahead and explained the salient points of his proposal. Bailey got the impression that his clients did not understand him and assuming that it may be due to lingual problem, he summarized what he had explained in details. The Japanese team just nodded and did not express any views immediately. In totality the effect was disastrous to say the least as the purpose for which the meeting was called was defeated. The Japanese just could not understand the urgency in the message he was trying to convey and at the same time Bailey could not understand what the confusion his associate had in their mind was. From Hofstede’s point, it shows the Power Distribution Index, that is Japanese thought the power exercised by American was strong and they were not very comfortable with it The strange sounds that they were making while listening to him are clear indicators of their silent disapproval So, in totality, the effect was negative and the Japanese became more defensive in their approach. They felt that their culture was being threatened, and just closed their mind and refused to listen to what Bailey was saying. • What should Bailey have done to ensure that the important report being written by Tashiro Watanabe was presented on time? What does this say about his management? Assuming that Bailey and his team members did not know much about the client, they thought that they should take the help of some local Japanese person, who understands the local culture and thus engaged Tashiro Watanabe for this job. Once again, Bailey did not understand Japanese way of doing things. He literally forced his views on Tashiro and made him accept the job, without realizing that he is not interested or has not understood what exactly is required to be done. In fact his denials or murmurs of protests were understood as if he is a bit reluctant or hesitant and not confident. He was given this task of preparing report as if the company were doing him a favor, which again was a bad management style of functioning. “Hey, there’s nothing to say. We’re just giving you the opportunity you deserve.” (Bailey 4) It clearly shows the management style is autocratic, while Japanese style, which is consultative, should have been followed. • Why does Bailey have family problems? Bailey has several family problems. First of all his wife, Jenny was not at all keen to go along with his proposal of taking up this assignment in Tokyo, even if it meant promotion and career boost for Bailey. In fact she was hardly enthusiastic about the offer. Her first worry was how will their children live and go to a school in a foreign country. This was especially a matter of concern for his wife, as their elder daughter, Christine, was to go to middle school next year, which is very important stage in schooling. Moreover, now that the kids were going to school, Jenny herself was contemplating taking up a job. She had a degree in fashion design from a private university and was also working as an assistant buyer for women’s clothing store prior to her having kids. She was very keen to take up job and keep herself engaged. This is something she would miss out in Japan. Bailey‘s wife also had difficulty in getting everyday products like maple syrup, peanut butter, and quality beef. When she could locate the place from where these were available, she found that they were frightfully expensive, more than three or four times than what they would have cost them back home. Even for laundry she had problems and found to her dismay that the washer and dryer were much too small in size and once again she had to spend extra money by sending the linen out to be dry cleaned at the laundry. Lastly she had no one to talk to especially when Bailey had to be out for 10 to 16 hours a day, except for occasional visits to the American Club in downtown Tokyo. Finally Jenny kind of dropped a bombshell and gave him ultimatum that “Even though the kids seemed to be doing okay, Jenny was tired of Japan – tired of being stared at, of not understanding anybody or being understood, of not being able to find what she wanted at the store, of not being able to drive and read the road signs, of not having anything to watch on TV, of not being involved in anything.” (Example Bailey 4) • From a cross cultural management perspective, what recommendations would you give to Fred Bailey to overcome communication problems in his Tokyo office? There were some very visible signs of cross cultural communications in the office in Tokyo. The Japanese team working in the office sat away from the American members of the team, not mixing up with them. This in spite of the fact that the office had been functioning for quite some time and no body, not even the predecessor of Bailey bothered to notice or take action on this aspect. They had Japanese who spoke excellent English, but then never took interest in taking him into confidence or his help in making other Japanese members understand the American way of work. There was an opportunity to understand the Japanese style of work through him, which Bailey did not bother to understand. The visible signs of “that a couple of the Japanese simply made a sucking sound as they breathed and said that is was “difficult to say.” (Bailey 3) also did not act as a warning to Bailey. The communication problems were very apparent and evident. These communication problems were not just that of language but of cultural nature as well (as clearly explained by Hofstede theory) The first suggestion is that Bailey should have ensured that the Americans and Japanese in the company mix up more often and try to understand each other and their ways of doing things. By just imposing your views, especially on people who have been brought up in a different way than yours, you can not win them over. You have to make gradual attempt and effort to learn and unlearn things and then proceed. This could have been done by organizing meetings, both official and unofficial between American and Japanese members of the team and expressing views in the meetings. Views of Japanese, as to how the work should be done, should have been taken into account. The very fact that even his own employee was treated as if the company is dong a favor to him , by giving him a task, shows the attitude of Bailey, which is autocratic, No human being would like to receive doles and everyone has self respect which needs to be honored and respected. Even personal worries and views need to be considered. The Japanese employee was not confident of preparing the report and in time and was afraid of the consequence of not filing the report or filing it late. He should have been treated in a much better way and as a member of the team. What is missing in this company is the team culture, which is part of eastern countries way of working. Once again Hofstede says clearly in his theories “ Long term and short term orientation “ It is the perseverance that pays, and Japanese or for that matter, people of eastern countries do have this tendency to work in groups and act as a team , helping each other in their way of work. • What is the significance of the last paragraph of this case study? What clue could it give to Fred Bailey to solve his problems in Tokyo? Repeating the last paragraph of the case verbatim “Fred looked out the window once more, wishing that somehow everything could be fixed, or turned back, or something. Down below, the traffic was backed up. Though the traffic lights changed, the cars and trucks didn’t seem to be moving. Fortunately, in the ground below, one of the world’s most advanced, efficient, and clean subway systems moved hundreds of thousands of people about the city to their homes.” This clearly indicates two things, one the chaos prevalent in the city of Tokyo by way of chaotic traffic wherein traffic is moving at a snail’s place or not moving at all and on the other hand, there are subways which are very clean and efficient as well as advanced where people are making use of them to move from city to their respective homes. The message this paragraph conveys is things are not as bad as they seem to be. There is definitely some hope for Bailey in this chaotic condition which he finds too gloomy. What he has to do is to look at the positive side of the scene, such as how the system moves smoothly and in close coordination (the subway). People do support each other and a subway can not work without the cooperation and understanding of so many people. It requires tremendous amount of effort to make such a large system work smoothly and efficiently. The same example can be used by him in his company also and he can take the help of his juniors and also involve his counterparts by jointly sitting together and working out solutions. As William Ouchi has said, as per theory Z, the American companies, can combine their style of functioning with the Japanese style and earn better respect and also be profitable In the same way Bailey should adapt the American style of functioning in his dealing but also try to imbibe the best practices of Japanese way of working such as consultation, team spirit, perseverance, and collectivism to name a few. Such a style would not only ensure that the team spirit is imbibed easily but the Japanese can also adapt some of the good features of American companies, especially on achieving technical competence , respect of individuality etc. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. http://www.geert-hofstede.com/ ( accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 2. http://demoblography.blogspot.com/2008/01/geert-hofestede-and-intercultural.html ( accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 3. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html (accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 4. http://www.williamouchi.com/ (accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 5. http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia/theory-z (accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 6. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4869.html (accessed on June 7th 2010 ) 7. International Marketing Strategy: analysis, development and implementation , 5th Edition By Isobel Doole, Robin Lowe , SOUTH -WESTERN Cengage Learning 8. http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7article/article01.htm ( accessed on June 8th 2010 9. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2195.html (accessed on June 8, 2010 ) 10. The Japanese Way : Aspects of Behavior, Attitudes, and Customs of the Japanese, Noriko Takada, and Rita Lampkin



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My ePortfolio The entire time I was taking a shot at my portfolio, I have discovered that every on
Posted On: Oct. 30, 2017
Author: Shipra


Student name Unit Institution Date EPortfolio Reflection Essay My ePortfolio The entire time I was taking a shot at my portfolio, I have discovered that every one of the years in this school has helped me develop to be a superior individual. I have likewise discovered that all the work I've done all through every one of the semesters, my health aptitudes are far better than they were the point at which I was in secondary school. As an understudy, I've become tolerant with regards to health issues and I have possessed the capacity to clean my abilities in health field. My greatest goal now is to complete this degree and retire as a health service manager in demanding hospital in anywhere. One thing in the ePortfolio that I appreciated the most was composing my About Me. I appreciated retelling the account of how I've developed from being a credulous secondary school understudy and how I changed to wind up a develop undergrad consistently. The most difficult part I need to say is taking a shot at the Classes and Projects page since it was hard for me to review the names of the educators of a portion of the classes I brought furthermore finding the class work I had done was somewhat troublesome for me. Since some of my old class work had been lost. I was for the most part ready to do my portfolio take a shot at my own however without the direction of our teacher; I wouldn't have made it as decent as I have. The understudy innovation tutors likewise helped me a little when I had a couple questions. My companion in the class likewise helped me remain concentrated on attempting to complete my ePortfolio notwithstanding when I did not like it. Chipping away at ePortfolio was extraordinary diversion for me. I thought it would exhaust however it was even more a test for me to concentrate on building up a site that would clarify my identity. I have dependably been incredible at deduction and composing unmistakably yet taking a shot at my ePortfolio helped me considerably more. When I was composing about me and notwithstanding composing this reflection article, I used to battle finding the best words to utilize yet now it is less demanding for me to pick words that better express what I think. My vocabulary and punctuation aptitudes have enhanced significantly also. I have dependably been a PC shrewd individual yet I will learn so having the capacity to take a shot at my ePortfolio has given me more opportunity to hone with other advanced tasks. Having the capacity to enhance my PC aptitudes is dependably a good time for me in light of the fact that as a health specialist I have to adjust to the new innovation and PCs are the new workmanship apparatuses in the present and I require all the practice I can get. Taking a shot at the ePortfolio was much the same as taking a shot at a class venture that comprised of various things. One part of the ePortfolio is composing an article, and afterward there is the part where we showcase the class work we have done, and afterward there is the entire planning your page to make it look proficient. I have made associations in light of the fact that once potential managers see my ePortfolio, they will consequently realize that I have extraordinary aptitudes furthermore that I am a snappy learner. I anticipate keeping on chipping away at my ePortfolio in light of the fact that I need to show the best works I have done all through my school life and in the event that I need to show change in my abilities, showing them in my portfolio will indicate potential schools and work environments that I am fit for enhancing my aptitudes to better profit their organization when they enlist me. I have enhanced my exploration aptitudes, my capacity to fundamentally assess the creators of a paper or study, my time administration abilities. I don't think I enhanced my time administration abilities enough, since regardless I don't set my own particular objectives and benchmarks for getting my assignments finished on time to my own particular measures of value. I might want to enhance my capacity to take productive feedback and utilize it legitimately to enhance my expositions and papers. I think I additionally need to enhance my capacity to really deferentially listen to other individuals' conclusions without responding to them, particularly in a way that could be hostile to the speaker. I want to enhance my examination abilities too, since I feel I didn't prevail in genuinely utilizing them this year. I additionally don't really feel that I have enhanced my open talking aptitudes in any huge measure. The purpose of this ePortfolio is to me communicated effectively in my chosen profession. As a student studying health science we are taught how to perform and deal with patients as a health service manager this units communication in health will be the best equipment for me to necessary tools to communicate effectively to our patients the benefits of this ePortfolio is giving me so many advances to communicate to future patients through social media. The impact from learning this whole experience will greatly help me with my interaction with future patients. There are many things I will implement in my life. Journey as a health service manager will be the ability to interact professionally in a team of management experts and to be able to work together to help patients. This part of the journey enable me to see the importance of beings an active listener to enquire information from future patients. In every day topics I have learned so many things such as how to handle the emergency situation and how to communicate with different cultural people, different language people who is unable to understand your language. I see huge benefits in having one I will use it as an advertising tools for my upcoming health service management to provide information for my patients.



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