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which of following statements about finger bowis is true?
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


which of following statements about finger bowis is true?



on arriving at the elegant chez moulln for a catered dinner ,
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


on arriving at the elegant chez moulln for a catered dinner ,



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Women’s Right Issue My interest in Women’s Rights Issue was kindled during my final year of study in college. I was brought up in a cultural environment where women were not treated
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Women’s Right Issue My interest in Women’s Rights Issue was kindled during my final year of study in college. I was brought up in a cultural environment where women were not treated “at par” with men. This was considered quite natural and I did not pay any attention to it and accepted it as a natural way of life. These cultural norms were part and parcel of our life. Women were respected in the society I was brought up but were considered inferior to men in terms of intelligence. They were regarded as emotional creatures that had no control on their emotions and could not handle difficult situations in everyday life. I had developed interest in literature and in order to expand my knowledge I started browsing through books written by established authors. To develop better understanding of female psyche, I focused on the literature written by women authors. My reaction to reading books written by women authors varied in nature and extended to feeling sorry for the writer, feeling confused at the way situations were described and handled in stories. At times I felt extremely angry and distressed. It was on a winter Friday night, that I decided to read The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins. The central message of the book “Winning will make you famous. Losing means certain death” made me seriously think about the characters of the book. The events turned out to be very shocking and led to disbelief. My view of women writers changed completely and I started wondering as to how a woman can write such type of stories with cool conscience. The story unfolds slowly and in a manner that is unique in nature. The nation of Panem was formed from a post-apocalyptic North America. . It is a country that consists of quite wealthy Capitol County. It is encircled by 12 poorer districts. The historical record state that a rebellion took place by 13rh district against the Capitol. It resulted in its total destruction, and gave rise to creation of an annual television event that was unique in nature. The event was known as Hunger Games. It was a kind of punishment for the rebels and a grim reminder of the power and grace of the Capitol. According to rules of the event, each district was required to send one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 to participate in the games. The choice of boys and girls was done through a lottery system. These “tributes’ are chosen during the annual Reaping and are forced to fight to death such that only one survivor remains as a victor. It was this cruelty that really made me wonder as to how a woman can conceive such a situation and still keep her cool. The story further unfolds to reveal a situation when 16 –year-old Katniss’s younger sister, Prim , is selected as the female representative of the District 12, Katniss offers herself as a volunteer to take her place and join the Hunger Games. She is joined by her male counterpart, Peeta, who together are pitted against several well trained representatives from other districts. It is almost like a sure shot death sentence for the two. However she along with Peeta plays a trick when they defy the Capitol by threatening to commit suicide. The Capital obviously is upset their defiance of the tradition, which acts as an inspiration in several other districts. Both Katniss and Peeta go around the districts, trying to subdue the rebellion. The net result of their tour to different districts is that very few participants remain in the Hunger Game. The arena, where the games are played is completely destroyed but the survivors of District 13 rescue the participants. The author Suzanne Collins describes the lives of these kids who are chosen from different districts. These kids are not very extraordinary. They are simple people having their aspirations in life. The kids dream of going to college, get married and settle down in life. They know that education is the most important way of achieving success in life. Katniss and Peeta, the main characters of the book have also similar dreams. They do not want to end up like other children. However, they know their fate is sealed once they attain the age of 12 as their names are automatically added to the “lottery system.” It is just a chance that will decide whether their names will be chosen to take part in this bloody game, where only one survivor exists and the rest of them are killed by the participants. Katniss wonders why people commit suicide. She believes that people should lead a normal life and be happy by settling down after getting married. But their lives are mired in fears, disappointments and yearnings that are expressed in a very subtle manner. There is no indication of suicidal tendencies that is a reflection of their quiet desperation. In fact, it was this act of Katniss and Peeta, when they threaten to commit suicide that lives of children in the Districts changes. It is a totally painful transformation and difficult to sustain. But slowly and slowly children come to terms with themselves. After I finished the story of Katniss, I felt asleep and suddenly woke up in the middle of the night with tears flowing down my cheeks. In my dream I had visualized myself in place of Katniss and realized how close my life was to hers. Throughout my life, I had admired and respected my elders for encouraging me to go to college, be intelligent and aware of worldly circumstances. They inspired me by making me realize the power of self control. My own mother was never a rebel but was easily influenced by others. She had to be dependent on others for small mercies. I rebelled against this traditional role of women and was afraid that I may also end up in the same circumstances as my mother. Prior to reading this book, I never realized how much courage was required by a person to live a life as a second hand citizen. Not only that, people were finding contentment in living through this type of life. It was during the night, when I awoke from my dream I realized how little I understood about my mother. Overnight, my respect for her inner strength, compassion and gentleness grew be leaps and bounds. Ever since reading the book, my relationship with people around me has evolved and I have become extremely close to my family members, especially my mother. In all probability, I will never adopt the same role in life as the one my mother choose to take. However my respect for her and the way she lived her life on her own terms made me understand why chose to remain silent all through. Reading of Katniss’s story as a human being and a rebel entirely changed my perspective toward life. It has changed the way I feel towards myself and my compassion for my mother has grown manifold. It has provided me with strength to view others around me in a more sensitive manner. my respect towards elders has now grown manifold.



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Women’s Right Issue My interest in Women’s Rights Issue was kindled during my final year of study in college. I was brought up in a cultural environment where women were not treated
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Women’s Right Issue My interest in Women’s Rights Issue was kindled during my final year of study in college. I was brought up in a cultural environment where women were not treated “at par” with men. This was considered quite natural and I did not pay any attention to it and accepted it as a natural way of life. These cultural norms were part and parcel of our life. Women were respected in the society I was brought up, but were considered inferior to men in terms of intelligence. They were regarded as emotional creatures that had no control on their emotions and could not handle difficult situations in everyday life. I had developed an interest in literature and in order to expand my knowledge I started browsing through books written by established authors. To develop better understanding of female psyche, I focused on the literature written by women authors. My reaction to reading books written by women authors varied in nature and extended to feeling sorry for the writer, feeling confused at the way situations were described and handled in stories. At times I felt extremely angry and distressed. It was on a winter Friday night that I decided to read, "The Hunger Games", by Suzanne Collins. The central message of the book was “Winning will make you famous, and losing means certain death”. This made me think about the characters of the book and how they are portrayed. The events in this book turned out to be very shocking and led to disbelief. My view of women writers changed completely and I started wondering as to how a woman can write such type of stories with cool conscience. The story unfolds slowly and in a manner that is unique in nature. The nation of Panem was formed from a post-apocalyptic North America. It is a country that consists of quite wealthy Capitol County. It is encircled by 12 poorer districts. The historical record state that a rebellion took place by 13th district against the Capital. It resulted in its total destruction, and gave rise to creation of an annual television event that was unique in nature. The event was known as Hunger Games. It was a kind of punishment for the rebels and a grim reminder of the power and grace of the Capital. According to rules of the event, each district was required to send one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 to participate in the games. The choice of boys and girls was done through a lottery system. These “tributes’ were chosen during the annual reaping and are forced to fight to death such that only one survivor remains as a victor. The males that were chosen were portrayed as strong and undefeatable. The women were looked upon as less aggressive. It was this cruelty that really made me wonder as to how a woman can conceive such a situation and still keep her cool. The story further unfolds to reveal a situation when 16 year-old Katniss’s younger sister, Prim , is selected as the female representative of the District 12, Katniss offers herself as a volunteer to take her place and join the Hunger Games. She is joined by her male counterpart, Peeta, who together are pitted against several well trained representatives from other districts. It is almost like a sure shot death sentence for the two. However she along with Peeta plays a trick when they defy the Capitol by threatening to commit suicide. The Capital obviously is upset their defiance of the tradition, which acts as an inspiration in several other districts. Both Katniss and Peeta go around the districts, trying to subdue the rebellion. The net result of their tour to different districts is that very few participants remain in the Hunger Game. The arena, where the games are played is completely destroyed, but the survivors of District 13 rescue the participants. The author Suzanne Collins describes the lives of these kids who are chosen from different districts. These kids are not very extraordinary. They are simple people having their aspirations in life. The kids dream of going to college, get married and settle down in life. They know that education is the most important way of achieving success in life. Katniss and Peeta, the main characters of the book have also similar dreams. They do not want to end up like other children. However, they know their fate is sealed once they attain the age of 12 as their names are automatically added to the “lottery system.” It is just a chance that will decide whether their names will be chosen to take part in this bloody game, where only one survivor exists and the rest of them are killed by the participants. Katniss wonders why people commit suicide. She believes that people should lead a normal life and be happy by settling down after getting married, but their lives are mired in fears, disappointments and yearnings that are expressed in a very subtle manner. There is no indication of suicidal tendencies that is a reflection of their quiet desperation. In fact, it was this act of Katniss and Peeta, when they threaten to commit suicide that the lives of children in the Districts changes. It is a totally painful transformation and difficult to sustain, but slowly children come to terms with themselves. After I finished reading the story of Katniss, I fell asleep and suddenly woke up in the middle of the night with tears flowing down my cheeks. In my dream I had visualized myself in place of Katniss and realized how close my life was to hers. Throughout my life, I had admired and respected my elders for encouraging me to go to college, be intelligent and aware of worldly circumstances. They inspired me by making me realize the power of self control. My own mother was never a rebel but was easily influenced by others. She had to be dependent on others for small mercies. I rebelled against this traditional role of women and was afraid that I may also end up in the same circumstances as my mother. Prior to reading this book, I never realized how much courage was required by a person to live a life as a second hand citizen. Not only that, but people were finding contentment in living through this type of life. It was during the night, when I awoke from my dream that I realized how little I understood about my mother. Overnight, my respect for her inner strength, compassion and gentleness grew beyond leaps and bounds. Ever since I read this book, my relationship with people around me has evolved and I have become extremely close to my family members, especially my mother. In all probability, I will never adopt the same role in life as the one my mother chose to take. However my respect for her and the way she lived her life on her own terms made me understand why chose to remain silent. Reading of Katniss’s story as a human being and a rebel entirely changed my perspective toward life. It has changed the way I feel towards myself and my compassion for my mother has grown manifold. It has provided me with strength to view others around me in a more sensitive manner and my respect towards elders has now grown.



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STUDENT NUMBER: _________________________________________________ Examination Number 00786800 PLEASE PRINT Writing Assignment NAME _______
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


STUDENT NUMBER: _________________________________________________ Examination Number 00786800 PLEASE PRINT Writing Assignment NAME ___________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS ________________________________________________________________________ Writing Skills CITY _____________________________________________________________________________ STATE/PROVINCE ZIP/POSTAL CODE Check if this is a new address. PHONE _________________________________________________ When composing your essay, remember to • Choose a topic from your personal knowledge and experience. Remember that you must utilize your first-hand experience to prove your authority to write on a topic. Purely generalized and/or factual information is not acceptable. • Write in your own words, from your perspective or point of view, using the pronoun “I.” • Capture your reader’s attention with an interesting introductory paragraph. • Use specific examples from your personal experience. • Use concrete or vivid words. • Use complete sentences, varying your sentence length and structure. • Use fully developed paragraphs, where each paragraph has only one main idea with enough supporting details to develop that idea clearly and logically. • Write a total of 750 to 2,500 words on your topic. (If your essay is typed and double-spaced, your final draft should be between three and ten pages.) When you have completed your rough draft, be sure to proofread it carefully to correct any errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Type or neatly write your final draft. Before submitting your work to the school, be sure to make a copy for yourself. If you are mailing your exam for grading, please attach only your final draft to thisCOVERSHEET. If you are uploading your exam for grading, please click on Take Exam and follow the instructions given. Regardless of your submission method, please continue with your studies while waiting for your essay to be graded and returned to you.



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1-3. The First English Settlements Key Terms Roanoke Island Jamestown Plymouth John Smith Powhatan Pocahontas
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


1-3. The First English Settlements Key Terms Roanoke Island Jamestown Plymouth John Smith Powhatan Pocahontas John White Joint-Stock Co. 1622 Massacre John Rolfe Puritans Mayflower Compact King Phillip's War Metacom Opechancanough Squanto John Winthrop I. “Pull and Push” Among the English 1. The Rivalry with Catholic Spain 2. The Profit Motive 3. Unhappiness at Home 4. Religious Conflict II. Trial and Tribulation in Virginia 1. Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s Voyages 2. The Lost Colony of Roanoke 3. Jamestown -John Smith saves the colony -Powhatan and Pocahontas -John Rolfe introduces tobacco 4. The Powhatan Uprising (1622) III. Plymouth Pilgrims and Massachusetts Puritans 1. The Mayflower Separatists -Squanto and the first Thanksgiving -Captain Miles Standish and the destruction of Merrymount 2. John Winthrop’s “City Upon a Hill” 3. The “Generosity” of the Local Tribes 4. King Phillip’s War Metacom attacks the Puritans



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4. England’s Competitors in the New World Key Terms Quebec New France Samuel de Champlain
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


4. England’s Competitors in the New World Key Terms Quebec New France Samuel de Champlain Jesuit Missionaries Huron Indians New Amsterdam The Beaver Wars Henry Hudson Peter Stuyvesant New Sweden Iroquois Indians Columbian Exchange I. The Trading Colony of New France 1. Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec 2. Three important differences between the French and the English -Reciprocation -Population -Religious Toleration -French Jesuits accept half-way conversions II. New Netherlands and New Sweden 1. Henry Hudson, Manhattan Island, and New Amsterdam 2. The Beaver Wars (Iroquois v Huron) 3. Finns and Swedes settle along the Delaware River III. The “Columbian Exchange” 1. Impact on Indian society + Technology - Depletion of resources - Warfare and disease 2. Impact on European society + Survival skills + Deerskins and furs + Diet and population growth



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ADMG 302 Financial Analysis Project – Step 3 -- Analysis Questions (100 points) This assignment pertains to Chapter 9, although some of the questions rely on your knowledge from previous chapters.
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


ADMG 302 Financial Analysis Project – Step 3 -- Analysis Questions (100 points) This assignment pertains to Chapter 9, although some of the questions rely on your knowledge from previous chapters. Before answering these analysis questions, complete the first two steps of the project (see the Canvas module). To answer these questions, you will need the two Home Depot worksheets from Steps 1 and 2. You will also need Lowe’s Inc.’s financial statements. For those statements, • Go to www.lowes.com • At the bottom, under Company Info, click “Investor Relations”. • Scroll down. On the right, under Investor Packet, click “2013 Annual Report”. • On the bottom left, click “Download PDFs”. Download the 2013 Form 10-K (for the year ended Jan. 31, 2014). • Scroll down to the financial statements (Item 8). You will need the Income Statement and Balance Sheet to answer the first seven questions. (As you know, Lowe’s might use alternative names for these statements.) In order to answer the questions, you will need to study Chapter 9 and the “Chapter 9 Notes from Your Instructor” in the Canvas module. A few of the questions also relate to material you learned in previous chapters. NOTE: Some of the questions ask you if numbers are greater than, less than, or equivalent. For purposes of this assignement, consider all numbers to be different from each other if there is a perceptible difference when you round to two decimal places. For example, a company with a Quick Ratio of 0.43 is more liquid than with a Quick Ratio of 0.42. You will enter the answers to these questions in CengageNOW. Because most questions have only two or three options, there are no “Check My Work” opportunities, and you may submit the assignment only once. Your results (and the correct answers) will be made available in CengageNOW after the deadline for the assignment. I encourage you to work with classmates to discuss the questions and answers, but each student must complete his/her own assignment in CengageNOW. Questions (2.5 pts. each) Answers #1 In terms of the most current year's revenues and expenses, which company is larger? Home Depot, Inc. Lowes, Inc. The two companies are the same size. #2 In terms of dollars, which company has had the highest net income for the last two years? Home Depot, Inc. Lowes, Inc. Net income has been the same for both companies. #3 For the most current year, which company had the highest Gross Profit Margin? NOTE: The Gross Profit Margin is a ratio (calculated on the Ratio Worksheet) and is different from the Gross Profit. Home Depot’s gross profit margin was much higher than Lowe’s. Lowes gross profit margin was much higher than Home Depot’s. The companies’ gross profit margins were close to the same, but Home Depot’s was higher than Lowe’s. The companies’ gross profit margins were close to the same, but Lowe’s was higher than Home Depot’s. #4 For the most current year, which company had the highest Net Profit Margin? Home Depot, Inc. Lowes, Inc. Both companies had the same Net Profit Margin. #5 In terms of total assets at the end of the most current year, which company is larger? Home Depot, Inc. Lowes, Inc. Both companies are the same size. #6 Which company had the highest total liabilities at the end of the most current year? Home Depot, Inc. Lowes, Inc. Both companies had the same amount of liabilities. #7 Although it is confusing to financial statement readers, many companies use the term "Long-Term Debt" when referring to bank loans. (Of course, "debt" means liabilities, so to call only the bank loans "debt" is a bit of a misnomer. There are other long-term liabilities besides bank loans--retirement plan obligations, for example.) One thing that makes this confusing on the balance sheet is that bank loans are separated into the current portion (the amount that must be paid within 12 months after the date of the financial statement) and the long-term portion (the portion to be paid after one year). The current portion is shown under Current Liabilities, and the long-term portion is shown as part of long-term liabilities. Look carefully at Home Depot's and Lowe's balance sheets, and you will see both companies show the current and the long-term portions of "Long-Term Debt" (bank loans). What is the total amount Home Depot owed to banks (current portion plus long-term portion) at the end of the most current year? Include all the zeros in your answer. (Remember, Home Depot’s financial statements are in millions of dollars.) _________________________ #8 YOU WILL NOT NEED LOWE'S FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE QUESTIONS. Assume Home Depot's sales managers were given a budget goal of a 3.5% increase in Net Sales from the previous year to the most current year. Did they meet the sales increase goal? They did not meet the sales increase goal. They just barely met the sales increase goal. They exceeded the sales increase goal. #9 Comparing Home Depot's most current year to the previous year, which increased more: The cost of products (Cost of Sales) or Selling, General and Administrative expenses? The cost of products sold increased the most. Selling, General, and Administrative expenses had the greatest increase. #10 Comparing Home Depot's most current year to the previous year, did Home Depot's income taxes (as a percent of Net Sales) increase or decrease? Income Taxes as a percent of Net Sales increased Income Taxes as a percent of Net Sales decreased. Income Taxes as a percent of Net Sales stayed the same. #11 Comparing Home Depot's most current year to the previous year, which increased more: Inventories or Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment? Inventories increased the most. Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment had the greatest increase. #12 Has Home Depot sold any preferred stock? Yes No #13 Does Home Depot have any treasury stock? NOTE: Remember from Chapter 8 that treasury stock is stock repurchased by the company. Yes No #14 What was the amount of Home Depot's working capital at the end of the most current year? Include all the zeros in your answer. ___________________________ #15 Comparing the end of the current year to the end of the previous year, did the amount of Home Depot's working capital increase or decrease? The amount of working capital increased The amount of working capital decreased The amount of working capital stayed the same. #16 Comparing the Current Ratio for the most current year to the previous year, did Home Depot's ability to pay its current obligations (its upcoming bills) improve or decline? The company’s ability to pay its current obligations improved. The company’s ability to pay its current obligations got worse. The company’s ability to pay its current obligations stayed the same. #17 Considering both the Current Ratio and the Quick Ratio, for the most current year, how does Home Depot's ability to pay its current obligations compare to its competitors? (Compare to the industry averages.) Home Depot is in a significantly better position to meet its current obligations than its competitors are. Competitors are in a significantly better position to meet their current obligations than Home Depot is. Home Depot’s ability to meet current obligations is about the same as its competitors, but Home Depot is a little more liquid than its competitors. #18 NOTE: Before answering this question and the next several questions, be sure to study the “Chapter 9 Notes from your Instructor” documents in the Canvas module. Assume managers have been working with the Home Depot warehouses to decrease inventories as much as possible in order to save money on warehousing costs, insurance, utilities, and costs associated with obsolete inventory. In the most current year, on average, how many days did it take Home Depot to purchase, stock, and sell its inventory? Round your answer to two decimal places. HINT: Think of “turnover” as how many times per year something is happening, so Inventory Turnover is the number of times per year, on average, Home Depot sells its entire inventory. That number does not answer this question. ______ days #19 Comparing the most current year to the previous year, has Home Depot's inventory management improved or declined? Home Depot’s inventory management has improved. Home Depot’s inventory management has gotten worse. Home Depot’s inventory management has stayed the same. #20 How does Home Depot's inventory management compare to its competitors? Home Depot is moving its inventory through the system faster than its competitors are. Competitors are moving inventory through their systems faster than Home Depot is. Home Depot and its competitors are moving inventory through the system at the same rate. #21 In the most current year, on average, how many days did it take Home Depot to collect cash from its customers (after the sale of products to customers)? Round your answer to two decimal places. _____ days #22 Comparing the most current year to the previous year, did Home Depot's ability to quickly collect its Accounts Receivable improve or decline? Home Depot improved its collection time in the current year. Home Depot took slightly longer to collect from customers in the current year than in the previous year. #23 Over the past two years, did Home Depot take more or less time than its competitors to collect Accounts Receivables from customers? Home Depot collected faster than its competitors did. Competitors collected faster than Home Depot did. Home Depot and competitors took the same amount of time to collect from customers. #24 If a manager at Home Depot saw that DSO was increasing over time, it would be a good idea to investigate the following to determine why it was taking longer to collect from customers: a. Whether or not Home Depot's products or services are defective b. Customers’ financial condition c. Home Depot’s credit terms offered to customers d. Whether or not Home Depot’s financial management software is outdated e. Accounts Receivable aging schedule f. All of the above should be investigated. #25 How does the amount of time Home Depot takes to collect from its customers compare to the amount of time it takes to pay its own Accounts Payable to its vendors? Home Depot pays its own bills much more quickly than it takes to collect from customers. Home Depot collects from customers much more quickly than it takes to pay its own bills. The time it takes to collect from customers is about the same as the amount of time Home Depot takes to pay its vendors. #26 Does Home Depot pay its own Accounts Payable more quickly or less quickly than its competitors pay their vendors? Home Depot pays its vendors more quickly than its competitors pay their vendors. Competitors pay their vendors more quickly than Home Depot pays its vendors. Home Depot and its competitors take about the same amount of time to pay their vendors. #27 What risks might Home Depot be taking with a high DPO? a. Home Depot's cash position will be worse. b. Home Depot's customers might experience financial difficulty. c. Home Depot's vendors might not offer as good of prices or credit terms. d. All of the above are true. #28 Why would Home Depot want a higher DPO than DSO? a. Home Depot keeps its cash longer. b. It can lead to more independence from lenders or outside investors. c. Home Depot’s customers and vendors will be more satisfied. d. A. and B. are true. e. All of the above are true. #29 Considering the Cash Conversion Cycle, which of the following statements is true? a. Home Depot has increased the number of days between paying for products and collecting from customers. b. Home Depot has increased the average amount of working capital it needs to run its business. c. Home Depot has improved its overall working capital management. d. Overall, Home Depot’s competitors are managing working capital more efficiently than Home Depot. e. B. and C. are true. f. All of the above are true. #30 Comparing the Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities for the most current year to the previous year, are Home Depot's noteholders (creditors such as banks) likely to feel more or less comfortable in the current year about being paid on time? (In other words, are they more or less likely to extend further loans to Home Depot?) Bankers are probably more comfortable about making loans to Home Depot in the current year than they were in the previous year. Bankers are probably less comfortable about making loans to Home Depot in the current year than they were in the previous year. #31 Considering the Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders' Equity, does Home Depot use more debt (loans) or more equity (selling stock) to finance its operations? Home Depot uses more debt than equity to finance its operations. Home Depot uses more equity than debt to finance its operations. #32 Considering the Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities and the Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity, for the most current year, did Home Depot use more or less debt to finance its operations than its competitors used? Home Depot used more debt than its competitors did. Competitors used more debt than Home Depot did. Home Depot and its competitors used the same proportion of debt. #33 In the most current year, on average, for every dollar of product Home Depot sold, how many cents in profit did it make after accounting for the cost of the products? 65.25 cents 57.21 cents 34.75 cents 11.63 cents 6.83 cents #34 In the most current year, on average, for every dollar of product Home Depot sold, how many cents in profit did it make after accounting for all expenses (product costs, selling and administrative expenses, taxes, interest, and other)? 65.25 cents 57.21 cents 34.75 cents 11.63 cents 6.83 cents #35 On average, for the most current year, is Home Depot's Net Profit Margin better or worse than its competitors? Home Depot has a better Net Profit Margin than its competitors. Home Depot has a worse Net Profit Margin than its competitors. Home Depot’s Net Profit margin is equivalent to its competitors. #36 Considering the Ratio of Net Sales to Assets, is Home Depot more or less effective than its competitors at using its assets to generate sales (the top line)? Home Depot is more effective at using assets to generate sales than its competitors are. Home Depot is less effective at using assets to generate sales than its competitors are. Home Depot and its competitors are equivalent in their use of assets to generate sales. #37 Considering the Rate Earned on Total Assets (also called Return on Assets, or ROA), is Home Depot more or less effective than its competitors at using its assets to generate profits (the bottom line)? Home Depot is more effective at using assets to generate profits than its competitors are. Home Depot is less effective at using assets to generate profits than its competitors are. Home Depot and its competitors are equivalent in their use of assets to generate profits. #38 Considering the Rate Earned on Stockholders' Equity and Earnings Per Share, are Home Depot's stockholders likely to be more happy in the most current year or in the previous year with the company's ability to earn profits on their investment in the company? Stockholders would be more happy in the most current year. Stockholders would have been more happy in the previous year. Stockholders would feel the same about both years. #39 Considering Home Depot's Price-Earnings (P/E) Ratio, do investors appear to expect Home Depot's future earnings to be more or less favorable than its competitors' future earnings, on average? It appears investors expect Home Depot’s future earnings to be more favorable than its competitors’ earnings. It appears investors expect Home Depot’s future earnings to be less favorable than its competitors’ earnings. It appears investors expect the same earnings results from Home Depot and its competitors. #40 If you owned 1000 shares of Home Depot common stock in the most current year and in the previous year, which year would you have received the largest dividend check? You would have received more dividends in the most current year. You would have received more dividends in the most previous year. You would have received the same amount of dividends in both years.



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Ch. 7 (c)Exercises and Problems correct answer Problem 7-4 Depreciation by Two Methods; Sale of Fixed Asset
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Ch. 7 (c)Exercises and Problems correct answer Problem 7-4 Depreciation by Two Methods; Sale of Fixed Asset New tire retreading equipment, acquired at a cost of $140,000 at the beginning of a fiscal year, has an estimated useful life of four years and an estimated residual value of $10,000. The manager requested information regarding the effect of alternative methods on the amount of depreciation expense each year. On the basis of the data presented to the manager, the double-declining-balance method was selected. In the first week of the fourth year, the equipment was sold for $23,300. Instructions: 1a. Determine the annual depreciation expense for each of the estimated four years of use, the accumulated depreciation at the end of each year, and the book value of the equipment at the end of each year by the straight-line method. (For this schedule, assume the equipment will be owned all four years.) Wrong answers in Book Value, End of Year: Correct answers in Book Value, End of Year: 1b. Determine the annual depreciation expense for each of the estimated four years of use, the accumulated depreciation at the end of each year, and the book value of the equipment at the end of each year by the double-declining-balance method. (For this schedule, assume the equipment will be owned all four years.) 2. Illustrate the effects on the accounts and financial statements of the sale at the beginning of the fourth year. Assume the double-declining-balance method of depreciation is used. (Because the sale is very close to the beginning of the year, assume no depreciation is recorded in the year of sale.) If no account or activity is affected, select "No effect" from the dropdown and leave the corresponding number entry box blank. Some wrong answers in Question 2: Correct answers in Question 2: Teacher’s explanation: Problem 7-5 Amortization and Depletion Entries Data related to the acquisition of timber rights and intangible assets of Gemini Company during the current year ended December 31 are as follows: On December 31, Gemini Company determined that $3,000,000 of goodwill was impaired. Governmental and legal costs of $920,000 were incurred by Gemini Company on June 30 in obtaining a patent with an estimated economic life of 8 years. Amortization is to be for one-half year. Timber rights on a tract of land were purchased for $1,350,000 on March 6. The stand of timber is estimated at 15,000,000 board feet. During the current year, 3,300,000 board feet of timber were cut and sold. Instructions: 1. Determine the amount of the amortization, depletion, or impairment for the current year for each of the foregoing items. Round the interim calculation of board price per foot to the nearest tenth of a cent, or to three decimal places. 2. Illustrate the effects on the accounts and financial statements of recording the following transactions. If no account or activity is affected, select "No effect" from the dropdown and leave the corresponding number entry box blank. a. On December 31, Gemini Company determined that $3,000,000 of goodwill was impaired. b. Governmental and legal costs of $920,000 were incurred by Gemini Company on June 30 in obtaining a patent with an estimated economic life of 8 years. Amortization is to be for one-half year. Some wrong answers in b: Correct answers in b: c. Timber rights on a tract of land were purchased for $1,350,000 on March 6. The stand of timber is estimated at 15,000,000 board feet. During the current year, 3,300,000 board feet of timber were cut and sold. Some wrong answers in c: Correct answers in c: Teacher’s explanation: Note: There are correct answers and explanations for each Exercises/Problem questions that are completed. You may check them by clicking “Grades” tab, then click on the score for a particular assignment you want to check. Keep good work. Thanks!



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Chapter 9 Exercise Demonstrations Demonstration of Exercise 9-2 -- Vertical analysis of income statement
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Chapter 9 Exercise Demonstrations Demonstration of Exercise 9-2 -- Vertical analysis of income statement http://www.cengage.com/accounting/discipline_content/warren_survey_show_mes/video.html?asset=show_me_e9-2 Demonstration of Exercise 9-3 -- Common-sized income statement http://www.cengage.com/accounting/discipline_content/warren_survey_show_mes/video.html?asset=show_me_e9-3 Demonstration of Exercise 9-5 -- Horizontal analysis of the income statement http://www.cengage.com/accounting/discipline_content/warren_survey_show_mes/video.html?asset=show_me_e9-5 Demonstration of Exercise 9-6 -- Current position analysis -- working capital, current ratio, quick ratio http://www.cengage.com/accounting/discipline_content/warren_survey_show_mes/video.html?asset=show_me_e9-6



Fair Market Value of Assets 10,000 35,000 150,000 80,000 900,000 500,000 30,000 Patents 20,000 1,725,000 Fair Market Value of Liabilities
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Fair Market Value of Assets 10,000 35,000 150,000 80,000 900,000 500,000 30,000 Patents 20,000 1,725,000 Fair Market Value of Liabilities 30,000 600,000 250,000 880,000 755,000 *"Net Assets" means Assets minus Liabilities Amount paid for XYZ Co. $1,000,000 - 755,000 $245,000 Accounts Payable Goodwill is a long-term asset categorized as an intangible asset. Goodwill arises when a company acquires another entire business. The amount of goodwill is the cost to purchase the business minus the fair market value of the tangible assets, the intangible assets that can be identified, and the liabilities obtained in the purchase. The amount in the Goodwill account will be adjusted to a smaller amount if there is an impairment in the value of the acquired company as of a balance sheet date. (from Accountingcoach.com) Here is an example. Assume ABC Co. wants to purchase XYZ Co. ABC Co. hires an appraiser to determine the fair market value of all of XYZ's identifiable assets and liabilities, and this is what the appraiser determinies: Cash Accounts Receivable XYZ Co. Inventory Land Buildings Equipment Furniture Total Assets Goodwill purchased Bank Loans Payable Retirement Benefits Payable Total Liabilities ABC Co. sees that if it purchases XYZ Co, it will have $1,725,000 in additional assets and will have to pay an additional $880,000 in liabilities. In other words, it would have a net of $755,000 after paying the liabilities. Because ABC Co. believes XYZ Co. has other valuable attributes that are not objectively able to be valued (good location, good customer base, excellent employees, good reputation, etc.), ABC Co. offers the owners of XYZ Co. $1,000,000 for the business, and the owners accept. To record the purchase of XYZ Co., ABC Co. would increase its asset accounts for each of the fair market values above, and increase its liabilities for the amounts it will now have to pay. Assuming, for simplicity's sake, that ABC Co. pays cash, it would also decrease Cash by $1,000,000. After recording the identifiable assets, liabilities, and decrease in cash, there will be a difference of $245,000 ($1,000,000 - $755,000). That difference is the amount ABC Co. paid for the unidentifiable attributes of the company. This is called Goodwill. So, ABC Co. would also increase an asset account called Goodwill by $245,000. In other words, ABC Co. purchased $1,725,000 in identifiable assets, $245,000 in other valuable attributes (Goodwill), and assumed $880,000 in liabilities. ($1,725,000 + 245,000 - 880,000 = $1,000,000) Net fair market value of identifiable assets and liabilities purchased Fair Market Value of Net Assets* 2011 2010 2009 2008 $ 2,328 $ 1,952 $ 2,292 $ 1,539 4,581 4,163 3,391 4,359 437 389 367 435 939 780 1,066 911 8,285 7,284 7,116 7,244 13,146 11,640 10,118 10,165 5,591 5,193 4,960 4,817 4,408 4,218 4,280 5,040 3,294 3,170 3,078 2,754 7,247 7,081 6,824 6,529 33,686 31,302 29,260 29,305 18,143 16,917 15,843 15,827 15,543 14,385 13,417 13,478 2,326 2,200 2,229 3,165 1,231 1,033 1,482 1,746 3,557 3,233 3,711 4,911 $ 27,385 $ 24,902 $ 24,244 $ 25,633 Each year after the purchase of XYZ Co., ABC Co. will determine if ABC Co. is still as valuable as it was when it was purchased. This is a fairly complicated calculation that we will not cover in this class. If it is determined that XYZ Co. has lost value, ABC Co. will need to record an Impairment Loss on its income statement (which reduces Net Income) and reduce Goodwill on its balance sheet. Impairment Losses must be explained fully in the Notes to the Financial Statements. Prior to 2008, FedEx purchased Kinko's, and in that transaction recorded a large amount of Goodwill on its balance sheet. In 2009, Kinko's brand name lost significant value, and FedEx was obligated to record an Impairment Loss for this loss of value. Notice in the partial Balance Sheet below the reduction in Goodwill, and notice on the Income Statement the $1.2 billion Impairment Loss in 2009 and the effect this had on 2009 Operating Income and Net Income. FedEx's net income is typically over $1 billion. In 2009 it was $98 million. Companies do not like to record Impairment Losses. I am sure FedEx suffered a drop in stock price from this event. Because it has an indefinite life, Goodwill is not amortized. It stays in the asset section of the balance sheet at its original cost until there is an impairment or until the company disposes of the company it purchased. Aircraft and related equipment Package handling and ground support equipment Computer and electronic equipment Vehicles ASSETS CURRENT ASSETS Cash and cash equivalents Receivables, less allowances of $182, $166, and $196 Spare parts, supplies and fuel Prepaid expenses and other Total other long-term assets TOTAL ASSETS FEDEX CORPORATION CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (partial) (in millions) as of May 31, Facilities and other Less accumulated depreciation Net property, plant and equipment OTHER LONG-TERM ASSETS Goodwill Other Intangible assets, net of accum. amortization Total current assets PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT, AT COST Below is a real-life example of the effect of a Goodwill impairment. 2011 2010 2009 $ 39,304 $ 34,734 $ 35,497 $ 15,276 $ 14,027 $ 13,767 5,674 4,728 4,534 2,462 2,359 2,429 1,973 1,958 1,975 4,151 3,106 3,811 1,979 1,715 1,898 89 18 1,204 5,322 4,825 5,132 36,926 32,736 34,750 2,378 1,998 747 (86) (79) (85) 9 8 26 (36) (33) (11) (113) (104) (70) 2,265 1,894 677 (813) (710) (579) $ 1,452 $ 1,184 $ 98 INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES Provision for Income Taxes NET INCOME Impairment loss Other Total Operating Expenses OPERATING INCOME OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE): Interest expense Years ended May 31, Interest income Other, net Total Other Income (Expense) Salaries and employee benefits Purchased transportation Rentals and landing fees Depreciation and amortization Fuel Maintenance and repairs REVENUES OPERATING EXPENSES: FEDEX CORPORATION CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (in millions, except per share amounts)



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English Discussion 1: Renaissance Genius A. If you could walk into the studio of Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo or Raphael and observe the artist at work, which artist would you ...
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


English Discussion 1: Renaissance Genius A. If you could walk into the studio of Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo or Raphael and observe the artist at work, which artist would you choose, what two things you would ask him, and why? Leonard da Vince wore several hats such as those of a scientist, sculpture, writer and painter among many other things. He is considered as one of the greatest painters of all times. He was a renowned painter, but was more famous as an inventor. His works of Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are the most famous and reproduced portraits and religious paintings of all time. Michelangelo’s real interest was in the arts, even though his father wanted him to study grammar. He excelled himself at a very young age and made a name for himself. He was an undisputed master of drawing in the 16th century Italy. He was one of the greatest sculptors of the Italian Renaissance and one of its greatest painters and architects. His work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling is a masterpiece and one of the most famous work of art till date. He wrote a lot of poems during his life time and excelled in poetry, sculpture, painting, and architecture. Both are greatest artists of their time. I would pick up Michelangelo for a very simple reason. He changed the way bodies were painted, from fragile bodies to more strong and titanic ones. Even from artistic point of view, Michelangelo wins hands down. He had the ability to make paintings look like sculptures and sculptures look lifelike and monumental. He painted over 400 human frescos on the Sistine ceiling and his statue of David is over 18 feet tall. Michelangelo beats Da Vinci is sculpting, as Da Vinci only planned one sculpture, and Michelangelo had a good bunch of masterpieces. On the other hand, The Creation of Adam, The Last Supper, these two pieces together are worth more than any painting Leonardo did combine. The two things I would ask Michelangelo are, how did he come up with intricate engineering design, especially when his interest was only in arts? And the second one, how did he manage to bring so much of pain and romance in this paintings and sculpture. B. From the humanist perspective, “genius” is a critically important quality. Identify another person of the Renaissance (described in Chapters 14 or 15) who would fulfill the qualities outlined by Giorgio Vasari and explain reasons why the individual fits Vasari’s description. Being genius is an important aspect of humans. Giorgio Vasari was a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Vasari was perhaps more successful as an architect than as a painter. In 1550 Vasari retrospectively viewed the development of the rebirth of classical art as an evolutionary process in three phases, each corresponding to a phase in human life. The first phase could be compared to childhood, and was introduced by Cimabue and Giotto in painting, Arnolfo di Cambio in architecture and Pisani in sculpture. The second phase, corresponding to adolescence, was represented by Masaccio, Brunelleschi and Donatello. The third phase that of adulthood, was initiated by Leonardo da Vinci and brought to full growth by Raphael, reaching its pinnacle with Michelangelo, the great uomo universale. In discussing Michelangelo's David (1501 - 1504), 'Vasari said that the gracefulness of the figure and the serenity of the pose had never before been realized in such a way; the harmonious proportions of the head and hands are unparalleled and each part is in harmony with the beauty of the whole. Even works where Michelangelo deviated from accepted norms and proportions, such as the sculptures in the Medici Chapel, Vasari saw as examples of perfect excellence. In this regard he said that Michelangelo had created a style that was more varied and original than that of any other master. Vasari's conclusion on Michelangelo's work was that, in every respect, it fulfilled the criteria for perfection in disegno and maniera, as well in the other criteria that have been previously mentioned. . Discussion 2: Renaissance Self-Help Books A. Machiavelli’s instruction on how a ruler can attain and retain power is often summed up in his statement, “the end justifies the means.” Identify a current political leader who seems to follow Machiavelli’s principles outlined in The Prince, and explain your choice. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote his famous dissertation on power, The Prince, in 1517. His thoughts on the rules of power encompass the struggles for every level of power, from the proletariat struggling in the corporate world to strategies performed by the world leader in the sixteenth century to now. Adolfe A. Berle wrote that The Prince is "the greatest single study of power on record." The philosophies set in The Prince, known as Machiavellianism, have been viewed as evil throughout the centuries, but as most business leaders and politicians agree Machiavelli has only defined the physics of power. In fact he wrote The Prince as a guide book for his own prince, Lorenzo De Medici, to promote himself into the political arena of Italy. He analyzed power and the way Italy could gain enough to become its own state and keep control. His extensive explanations were driven by his own fascination with power and his desire for an independent Italy. Just like a guide book, The Prince goes directly to the unarguable axioms of power for the leader to follow like a strategy. Machiavelli was only interested in directly discussing the elements of power. B. Whether a wife or a courtesan, a lady of the Renaissance was expected to exemplify the qualities outlined by Castiglione in The Courtier, though some women chose to assert their higher intellectual abilities. Identify and describe a contemporary woman who demonstrates the qualities advocated by d’Este, Cereta, or Marinella. It is a known fact that some women chose to assert their higher intellectual abilities. It is not common though, but visible in small parts. Isabella d’Este was one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissances a major cultural and political figure. She was a patron of the arts as well as a leader of fashion, whose innovative style of dressing was copied by women throughout Italy and at the French court. A contemporary woman I can think of who demonstrates these qualities are the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. She was a dynamic lady, way ahead of her contemporaries and ruled England with an iron hand. She was also stylish in her dressing and oozed an appeal which to some was very appealing.



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English Discussion 1: Renaissance Genius A. If you could walk into the studio of Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo or
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


English Discussion 1: Renaissance Genius A. If you could walk into the studio of Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo or Raphael and observe the artist at work, which artist would you choose, what two things you would ask him, and why? Leonard da Vince wore several hats such as those of a scientist, sculpture, writer and painter among many other things. He is considered as one of the greatest painters of all times. He was a renowned painter, but was more famous as an inventor. His works of Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are the most famous and reproduced portraits and religious paintings of all time. Michelangelo’s real interest was in the arts, even though his father wanted him to study grammar. He excelled himself at a very young age and made a name for himself. He was an undisputed master of drawing in the 16th century Italy. He was one of the greatest sculptors of the Italian Renaissance and one of its greatest painters and architects. His work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling is a masterpiece and one of the most famous work of art till date. He wrote a lot of poems during his life time and excelled in poetry, sculpture, painting, and architecture. Both are greatest artists of their time. I would pick up Michelangelo for a very simple reason. He changed the way bodies were painted, from fragile bodies to more strong and titanic ones. Even from artistic point of view, Michelangelo wins hands down. He had the ability to make paintings look like sculptures and sculptures look lifelike and monumental. He painted over 400 human frescos on the Sistine ceiling and his statue of David is over 18 feet tall. Michelangelo beats Da Vinci is sculpting, as Da Vinci only planned one sculpture, and Michelangelo had a good bunch of masterpieces. On the other hand, The Creation of Adam, The Last Supper, these two pieces together are worth more than any painting Leonardo did combine. The two things I would ask Michelangelo are, how did he come up with intricate engineering design, especially when his interest was only in arts? And the second one, how did he manage to bring so much of pain and romance in this paintings and sculpture. B. From the humanist perspective, “genius” is a critically important quality. Identify another person of the Renaissance (described in Chapters 14 or 15) who would fulfill the qualities outlined by Giorgio Vasari and explain reasons why the individual fits Vasari’s description. Being genius is an important aspect of humans. Giorgio Vasari was a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Vasari was perhaps more successful as an architect than as a painter. In 1550 Vasari retrospectively viewed the development of the rebirth of classical art as an evolutionary process in three phases, each corresponding to a phase in human life. The first phase could be compared to childhood, and was introduced by Cimabue and Giotto in painting, Arnolfo di Cambio in architecture and Pisani in sculpture. The second phase, corresponding to adolescence, was represented by Masaccio, Brunelleschi and Donatello. The third phase that of adulthood, was initiated by Leonardo da Vinci and brought to full growth by Raphael, reaching its pinnacle with Michelangelo, the great uomo universale. In discussing Michelangelo's David (1501 - 1504), 'Vasari said that the gracefulness of the figure and the serenity of the pose had never before been realized in such a way; the harmonious proportions of the head and hands are unparalleled and each part is in harmony with the beauty of the whole. Even works where Michelangelo deviated from accepted norms and proportions, such as the sculptures in the Medici Chapel, Vasari saw as examples of perfect excellence. In this regard he said that Michelangelo had created a style that was more varied and original than that of any other master. Vasari's conclusion on Michelangelo's work was that, in every respect, it fulfilled the criteria for perfection in disegno and maniera, as well in the other criteria that have been previously mentioned. . Discussion 2: Renaissance Self-Help Books A. Machiavelli’s instruction on how a ruler can attain and retain power is often summed up in his statement, “the end justifies the means.” Identify a current political leader who seems to follow Machiavelli’s principles outlined in The Prince, and explain your choice. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote his famous dissertation on power, The Prince, in 1517. His thoughts on the rules of power encompass the struggles for every level of power, from the proletariat struggling in the corporate world to strategies performed by the world leader in the sixteenth century to now. Adolfe A. Berle wrote that The Prince is "the greatest single study of power on record." The philosophies set in The Prince, known as Machiavellianism, have been viewed as evil throughout the centuries, but as most business leaders and politicians agree Machiavelli has only defined the physics of power. In fact he wrote The Prince as a guide book for his own prince, Lorenzo De Medici, to promote himself into the political arena of Italy. He analyzed power and the way Italy could gain enough to become its own state and keep control. His extensive explanations were driven by his own fascination with power and his desire for an independent Italy. Just like a guide book, The Prince goes directly to the unarguable axioms of power for the leader to follow like a strategy. Machiavelli was only interested in directly discussing the elements of power. B. Whether a wife or a courtesan, a lady of the Renaissance was expected to exemplify the qualities outlined by Castiglione in The Courtier, though some women chose to assert their higher intellectual abilities. Identify and describe a contemporary woman who demonstrates the qualities advocated by d’Este, Cereta, or Marinella. It is a known fact that some women chose to assert their higher intellectual abilities. It is not common though, but visible in small parts. Isabella d’Este was one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissances a major cultural and political figure. She was a patron of the arts as well as a leader of fashion, whose innovative style of dressing was copied by women throughout Italy and at the French court. A contemporary woman I can think of who demonstrates these qualities are the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. She was a dynamic lady, way ahead of her contemporaries and ruled England with an iron hand. She was also stylish in her dressing and oozed an appeal which to some was very appealing.



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Euthyphro – Plato Western philosophy is based on the life and teachings of Socrates. He lived in Athens during a period of change; defeat of Athens at the hands of Sparta in the
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Euthyphro – Plato Western philosophy is based on the life and teachings of Socrates. He lived in Athens during a period of change; defeat of Athens at the hands of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War led to the end of the Golden Age of Athenian civilization. It left an incredible influence on the youth of Athens. Socrates did not leave any records of his thoughts and views. So the only record of his life and thoughts are revealed to us from study of his contemporaries. Since these accounts are not by Socrates himself, there are chances of them being biased in nature. They also depend on the interpretations of the author who studies the same. Socrates meets Euthyphro outside the court of Athens. The charge against him is that of impiety by Meletus and Euthyphro has been entrusted with the task of prosecute his own father for having done the crime of unintentionally killing a murderous hired hand. The dialogue starts with Socrates praising Euthyphro, during which he suggests that Euthyphro must be an expert in religion as he is ready to take up the challenge of prosecuting his own father on a charge, the basis of which is debatable. Euthyphro is convinced about having full knowledge of what is holy and pious (West et al 1998). When challenged by Socrates to teach him, what according to him is holiness, Euthyphro puts forward his arguments. Socrates feels there is selfish motive in learning about holiness, as it would help him in his trial against Meletus. The first argument put forward by Euthyphro about holiness is that it deals with persecuting religious offenders. However this definition is not satisfactory for Socrates .as there are several other holy actions besides persecuting offenders. Upon prodding to give a general definition, Euthyphro puts forward his view and says that there is one feature that is common to all holy deeds. According to Euthyphro, what is holy is what is agreeable to the Gods. Socrates counter argues that even Gods fight among themselves. Therefore, what is agreeable to one might not be agreeable to all and sundry. The most forceful argument of Euthyphro is to define holiness as something that is approved by the Gods. However Socrates does not agree with this logic and says that the two cannot be treated at par. He argues that what is holy gets approved by the Gods because it is holy, so what is holy determines what gets approved of by the Gods. And then what gets approved of by the Gods in turn determines what is approved of by the Gods. It follows from this reasoning that what is holy cannot be the same thing as what is approved of by the Gods and the other is determined by what gets approved of by the Gods. The next argument put forward by Euthyphro is that holiness is a kind of justice, which deals with looking after the Gods. However, Socrates wonders what he means by “looking after Gods” means as Gods are supposed to be omnipotent. Therefore they don’t need looking after or any other help from us. Euthyphro finally suggests that holiness is a kind of trade with the Gods, where we sacrifice and they grant us boons for our prayers. Our sacrifices are not providing any help to Gods, but on the contrary, are a means of showing gratitude to them(Plato 1988). However Socrates trashes the argument by saying that holiness is gratifying the Gods is the same as that holiness is what is approved of by the Gods. This puts us back to the same riddle, where we started from. Euthyphro gets confused and leaves the place frustrated by the questioning of Socrates. While the argument between Socrates and Euthyphro starts as if Socrates is ignorant and is keen to learn from Euthyphro, it ends up in showing ignorance of Euthyphro, who knows nothing about the subject. The most interesting part of this dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is that it remains inconclusive at the end. This is something worth investigating further in details. Does it imply that there is no such thing as holiness? What are those common things that make deeds holy? Thy mystery of the dialogue is that if there are common things, then these do not get revealed in the argument between the two. The main learning point here is that knowledge only comes when we are able to justify and account for our true beliefs (Plato2004). Teaching does not mean giving right answers to the questions raised. It is a matter of leading the student toward finding the right answers and making sure that the student can explain on his own, and justify answers and not just repeat what has been taught. The dialogue form is an ideal and unique form of teaching and imparting knowledge. It shows Socrates leading Euthyphro through a process of reasoning and thus helping Euthyphro in sorting things all by himself and finds the right answers that are convincing to himself. The irony of the dialogue between the two is Socrates is treeing Euthyphro as a teacher, from he wants to learn. However it ends up in Socrates teaching Euthyphro everything. This kind of set up helps Euthyphro in analyzing his own thought process and his own arguments. It leads him to understand where the fault lies and get obtain answers which he himself can justify by reasoning. By leaving the ending of the dialogue as inconclusive, the reader is led to think independently and also struggle to devise an adequate definition all by himself. Taking on Socrates dialogue of what holiness means, one can say it is what is appealing to the Gods. But then, if it is appealing to the Gods, it implies that the definition is subjective in nature. We are always doing things that are approved by the Gods and not taking any action on our own. So where is the question of holiness then? It is pre- decided by the Gods and we have no role to play in defining holiness. Socrates’ skilful argument shows that the definition itself in insufficient and one has to use another line of thinking altogether to define holiness. All in all, this is a better way of learning and teaching by arguing and justifying the answers on your own. References West T.G., West G.S. (1998) Four Texts on Socrates: Plato's Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito, and Aristophanes' Clouds Cornell University Press, Plato (2004) Euthyphro Kessinger Publishing, Plato (1988) Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus Prometheus Books



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consider myself Black American, and I choose this term for myself because I was not born in Africa. I come from a lineage of African, Irish, and Indian. My great
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


consider myself Black American, and I choose this term for myself because I was not born in Africa. I come from a lineage of African, Irish, and Indian. My great grandfather was Irish on my maternal side; my grandmother was Cherokee Indian on my paternal side. But in this country because the other parent was of African descent my parents and grandparents were considered Negro. I follow the traditions and culture of Black Americans which were traditions of my African ancestors. I am also a southern girl born and raised by a mother from Georgia. Like most of my family we find comfort in southern food such as collard greens, cornbread, ham and etc. But also this type of food brings our family comfort and brings us closer together. I remember as a little girl every Sunday going to my grandmother’s house eating meals with my extended family. I was an only child so many family members had a hand in raising me, aunts, uncles, and cousins. So that term raised by a “village” is true in my case. I consider myself to be a traditionalist in how my husband and I raise our children. My daughter is sixteen and she knows that I expect her to be conservative in her dress yet I do understand that teenagers are trendy. All my children understand that they have to show respect when speaking to us and others or they will get a beat down (spanking or punished) there is zero tolerance for disrespect for any adult. I found my ethnicity sometimes affected communication with others because I would get stereotyped. I found this especially to be true when I lived in Alabama. Sometimes when someone would get to know me and learned about my background they would either change their demeanor to become more open to get to know me. Example would be that when they found out about me going to boarding school. Its shocks people when I tell them my daughter plays golf for her high school, this also catches people of my own ethnicity by surprise. I think because I have dealt with communication barriers and the element of surprise from others, it makes me more aware and respectable to other people with different traditions, cultures and ethnicities. Sole, K. (2011). Making Connections: Understanding interpersonal communication. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Many persons have pre-conceived notions about others that are based on their concept of what is right or wrong. For example, some people still hold black person in repulsion. Moreover, they treat them as inferior and not worthy of attention or respect. They don’t realize that things have changed and blacks have progressed in life equally as others. A simple incident like sending a child to boarding school may raise eyebrows as others may not approve of it. Ethnicity does affect the communication and people get stereotyped. It is very difficult to change the behavior of people and make them accept your own point of view. Studying what causes communication barriers helps one understand what makes people in a certain way.



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Q. What factors contributed to the Age of Exploration? Ans: The Age of Exploration referred to that period of 14th century in which
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


Q. What factors contributed to the Age of Exploration? Ans: The Age of Exploration referred to that period of 14th century in which Europeans began to dominate the world by settling colonies in the America. There are many factors which contributed to the Age of Exploration. Some of them are as follows: • To increase knowledge: Europeans travelers travel around the world to gain more knowledge on different subjects. Travelers want to gain experience of the different countries of the world so they explored more and more. This helps the people to know more about the other country which led to exploration. • To discover new routes: Travelers want to find out new routes for travelling from one place to another. This travelling could be done for many reasons such as trade, gain experience, in search of job, etc. • Advances of technology: Some of the advances of technology are new hulls for sail ships, compasses, cannons on the ships, new types of guns and map making. All these techniques help the European to dominate on the America. Q. How did the Age of Exploration affect the indigenous population of the New World? Ans: The affect of the Age of Exploration was seriously negative. Europeans dominated the America o the basis of new technology of gunpowder and cannons. They dominated the world through germs also. The culture and regional language of the indigenous people were oppressed. They were not able to fight with the diseases as their immune system is not strong. So they starve to death. Their lands were taken away by the Europeans and then the New World came into existence. Q. Summarize the aspects of the Columbian Exchange and evaluate their impact on the “old” and the “new” world. Ans: When Europeans arrived to North America in 1942, a massive transformation in the global ecosystem which was the result of the exchange of flora, fauna and disease between the Old World and the New World. This is called as Columbian Exchange. In the New World, Europeans came through many indigenous plant foods such as potatoes, beans, maize, etc which are cultivated by Americans. Europeans carried back these foods with them to their country and brought crops like wheat, rice, bananas, etc to America. They also bought domesticated animals to the New World which provides them the new source of energy and they can also be used as a valuable resource. Besides this, disease was also another dimension of this Exchange. Europeans brought animals with them which served as the carriers for transfer of disease from Europe to America. As Americans do not have strong immune system so they could not cope up with the disease and as a result they died off.



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DISCUSSION 1 WEEK 3 a. What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution and why did it originate in
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


DISCUSSION 1 WEEK 3 a. What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution and why did it originate in England? Ans: The Industrial Revolution takes place in England first because of the conditions available in the England. It has large deposits of coal which they used for further innovation. England has three main unique feature which started the revolution first there were education, modern attitude for work and modern government. It has a large workforce which is educated and capable to run machines. The government of Britain was so flexible to support such system. The Enlightenment helped the people to think better and to work very innovatively. There were many causes of the Industrial Revolution: • Population growth • Economy • Military. b. What were the economic effects of the Industrial Revolution? Ans: The economic effects of the Industrial Revolution were: • Production increased but consumption is less so there are many goods to sell in other markets that are why trade increases. • Assembly line came into existence. Henry Ford developed this for the production of his cars. This increases the production on a very large scale. It brings the division of labour which means the worker would perform that task only in which he was specialized. • Working class did not have enough land to fill their stomachs so they need some work in other factory. Now they are totally dependent on their employers for everything. • It also increases the standard of living because of mass production, the cost of production was reduced which enabled the workers to purchase luxury goods for themselves. • Now industries need more capital as the labour is totally dependent on them. So now the risk of entrepreneur is more than before. C . What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution? Ans: The social effects of the Industrial Revolution were: • Many cities such as Paris, London developed because of the migration of people to urban areas from rural areas. • This revolution improved the status of women by providing them jobs in the factory and thus making them self-dependent. • As machines such as washing machine were developed which save time and labour thus providing the people a lot of leisure time. Now they have more time to spend with their families. • As a result of better health and medical facilities, population of the world increases. • Now companies and government are spending more on the research and development. D. How did the Industrial Revolution affect both industrialized and non-industrialized nation-states in the modern world system? Ans: The Industrial Revolution affects both industrialized and non-industrialized nation-states in the modern world system by giving the power to the new nations to dominate over the non-industrialized nations. But this helped the other nation in turning out to be the producers of raw materials.



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TITLE OF PAPER: SECULARISM & RELIGION STUDENT’S NAME: COURSE NAME & NUMBER: INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: DATE SUBMITTED:
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


TITLE OF PAPER: SECULARISM & RELIGION STUDENT’S NAME: COURSE NAME & NUMBER: INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: DATE SUBMITTED: INTRODUCTION Secularism is that state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. It is that state where religion and the government are treated separately. It has two different meanings: • It shows the freedom of religion within a State. • It refers to a belief that human activities and decisions should be based on facts and evidences. They are treated equally before law irrespective of their caste, creed or religion, etc. The first one ensures that religious groups do not have the right to interfere in the affairs of the State. For example: In United Kingdom, there are two Christian denominations- Church of England and Presbyterian Church of Scotland. But they were separate from their States. They did not interfere between the affairs of the States. It ensures and protects freedom of religious beliefs and practices for all citizens. It only ensures that the right of individuals to freedom of religion is always balanced by the right to be free from religion. All citizens are equal before the eyes of law. It helps the democratic society by providing a framework to work effectively and efficiently. All people can live together peacefully and affection with each other. (What is Secularism, 2013) Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature and purpose of the universe. It is a set of beliefs and practices that agreed upon by the number of persons or sects. It is set of beliefs in which people acquire a deep conviction of the validity of religious principles. It is the set of attitude and feelings through which they can control others. Religion can be defined in many ways: • As a belief in God. • Ritual acts. • Moral code to be followed for God. • Prayer and other forms of communication with God. (Cline, 2013) Relationship of Secularism and Religion with the Modern World The disengagement of the secularism and the religion gives the birth to the self-awareness in the modern world. All the societies of the modern world have to move on by keeping secularism and religion in mind. The modern world treats them separately. They never mixed them up. Secularism played a very important role in the direction and nature of the development of the modern state. They believed that what exists today is based on science. They believe in finding the cause of anything rather than to connect it with religion. Secularism is playing major role in shaping the world. Besides its positivism, it also has some negativity. People are losing faith on religion. They are not blindly carrying on the religious practices. In secular state, one is free to present his or her view regarding any topic. In the modern world, one should be free to live as one like. Secularism has important influence over the views of the world. It changes the thinking of the people regarding the State and the religion. People are trying to shape their cultures, values and beliefs according to their likings. (Sweetman, 2010) Modernism is neither directly related to value nor damage wisdom. Modernity needs scientific methods to explain everything of the universe. It encourages the people to think rationally regarding their freedom and utilize their freedom to raise the standards. It created new values, beliefs and principles for the society and want the society to work accordingly. Secularism helped the people to think about their individuality and given them the religion autonomy and the free space. It says that religion is a private affair. One should be free to follow the religion which one likes to follow. Religion gives an identity to the citizen. It helped them in knowing what is good or bad. They connect God with them and this gave them the right way to think what to do or not. There are many religious practices which were not right but due to secularism people started thinking and now those practices were banned. But in reality modern politics cannot be separated from religion. Men were always different in their conceptions of divinity. Some of them believe on the existence of God but some not. In secularized civilization, the art of bringing its dominant motives under any kind of moral control is lost. The modern civilization is secularized because of the inability to adjust the ethical and spiritual interests of mankind. The reason behind the secularization of the modern world is also due to advance sciences. (Niebuhr, 1926) Secularism played a very major in modernizing the society. For example: It has given the challenge to Christian faith. It undermined the beliefs of people in God and Jesus. About 30 years ago, abolition was legalized but now it is not. So the society is changing. It is raising its voice against the evils. Each State has its own laws and regulations that provide guidance to their people. The religion of Africa is also an example of secularism. Secularism was the major step of the history which changes the shape of the history. People did not born with secularism. This develops in their minds later on. Secularism ideas and religious beliefs are accepted or rejected by them on the basis of their beliefs. Secularism and religion are not synonyms of each other. Religion is the belief in supernatural beings. Each religion teaches some moral values which are based on supernatural beliefs. Secularists did not have to believe in religious practices necessarily. It did not force them to follow the religious beliefs blindly without questioning. Religion taught their students how to shape up their lives and how it relates to others whereas secularism has world views. (Cline, 2013) Secularism contradicts with religion in the modern world many times such as anti gay couples were banned from becoming a foster parent, nurses were suspended from offering prayers for the recovery of her patients, etc. These examples were some of the points that show that religion is not in relation to religious beliefs. Religion represents the great system of thought and it is also the part of human life. It helps the people to understand the deeper meaning of life and to find the facts of the universe. Sometimes secularism raises conflicting situations. Secularism started from the separation of States from religion. According to secularism, religion is the only individual affair and it plays no role to control or lead the human life. It develops the individual physically, mentally, morally and intellectually. It is never against the secularism but it is against the necessity of religion in human life. It can be simply defined as a belief in the fulfillment of life in this world. (Jaklan, 2011) A secular state has nothing to do with religion. It should not discriminate between its citizens due to the caste, creed or religion. It is a modern idea which exists in today’s world. The state where people are civilized become secular itself. Now religion was losing its importance and no longer is the part of politics or any other spheres. Such society holds believe on their citizens and its approach towards the human problem are more human. The citizens of such state are very responsible and try to be punctual regarding their duties. Any society becomes truly secular when they are not agitated with religion. When religion is taken out of public ownership, then society becomes truly secular. Now people were able to think about themselves. Secularism started from the West and later on spread in the whole world. It has been a source of marginalization and sometimes even lead to hostile negations of religion. It is the process through which people develops an understanding regarding the world in which they live. It is only the secularism that brings modernity to the world. It is not against any ritual beliefs but it opposes the dependence of humans on the religion. (Jakelic, 2010) Secularism played the major role in forming the modern society but it had declined the morality of the society. It is an important principle of the modern societies. Now secularism is treated separately from the political issues. And politics today is not shaped by the religious institutions. Individuals who are religious find that secularism is putting a constraint on their beliefs. So they formed a negative image of secularism in their minds and opposed it. But on the same time, secularism freed individuals from the restrictions imposed by religion. It played a major role in forming the modern societies because it throws out the religious myths by thinking about them rationally. It focuses on how the society actually is rather than on focusing how the society should be. In the traditional societies, the lives of humans were governed by religions but now it is not. Societies are moving towards modernity. Now they are thinking carefully and simply not believing on the religious practices blindly. No religion can now govern the lives of the individuals as they did traditionally. Secularism is a modern concept as it supports rational thinking whereas religious beliefs are not rational. This is an important for a country to function democratically. It is necessary to keep the powers of the State different from the religious institutions. If the majority community has access to the State power then it might use it power wrongly and can discriminate against persons of other religions. Here, secularism prevents them from doing so by giving the right to individuals to raise their voice against the wrong. Religion also had significant importance in the lives of citizens. Secularism is not anti religion process. It is a process which aims to end religious privileges or persecutions and want full separation of religious institutions from the State. Secularism is neither atheism nor humanism. It is a political movement seeking specific policy end-points. It is not in opposition of religious practices. Religion is the path that takes human beings to their ultimate destination. Religion helps the people to regulate the behavior of themselves and others. It also teaches us self-sufficiency. But it is bad in that sense when it interferes with the political affairs. It hurts the feelings of the society. Most of the countries have different religious groups so they have to take care of the sentiments of all so that no one would get hurt. And it is not an easy task. So secularism form its way. It demands the separation of the State from the religious institutions. So that the laws and regulations, which are going to be formed later on, must not coincide with the rules of the religious institutions and should not hurt the feelings of the society. In reality, we traditionally practiced religious beliefs very much. So it is not easy to change the society as whole. Imagine the world without religion. All are free to do what they want to do. There are no norms to be followed. Then it will become a big problem one day as all will do what they like. There is nothing wrong or right. It will not be good. So religion also had its importance role to play in the modern society. Our young generations will be guided by the norms formed in the religion. They will be taught what to do and how to know the difference between wrong and right. This creates the sense of ethics in them and then they work accordingly. For any society to be successful there is need of cooperation. So religion played a major role in bringing the society together and to work for the improvement of it. Religion and secularism needs each other help, to make the society a better place to live in. It is only because of religion that one can believe on the rules and laws made by the State to be implemented on the citizens for their betterment. Religion gives them the power to believe in self and thus raises their confidence to live their lives accordingly. (Secularism, 2013) In the last, I want to conclude that secularism and religion had a great importance in the modern age. In the modern age, people lived in a secular state. They have different views and belong to different religions but still they had to survive. The modernity of the society is the gift of secularism but the maintenance of this modernity is done by religious beliefs. This course deals with the modern age and the ideas which changed the world. One of them all is secularism and religion. And this theme affected the world most according to me. Secularism developed the sense of rational thinking in the minds of people and helped them in modernizing. And religion developed their power to choose between right and wrong. It also helped them in bringing together and work for the success of their lives. References • What is Secularism. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.secularism.org.uk/what-is-secularism.html • Cline. A. What is Religion? Defining religion: the problem of definition. 2013. Retrieved from http://atheism.about.com/od/religiondefinition/a/definition.html • Sweetman. B. Secularism and Religion in Modern Democracies. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/08/04/secularism-and-religion-in-modern-democracies/ • Niebuhr. R. Our Secularized Civilization. 1926. Retrieved from http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=472 • Cline. A. Is Secularism a Religion. No: Secular lacks the attributes of religion. 2013. Retrieved from http://atheism.about.com/od/secularismseparation/p/SecularReligion.html • Jaklan. Secularism. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Secularism-626678.html • Jakelic. S. Secularism: A bibliographic essay. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.iasc-culture.org/THR/THR_article_2010_Fall_Jakelic.php • Secularism. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.ultius.com/ultius-blog/entry/essay-on-secularism-part-i.html



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The First World War began in August of 1914 to November 1918. This war was between two types of world powers that had alliances. These world powers were the Central Powers and the Entente Powers. T...
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


The First World War began in August of 1914 to November 1918. This war was between two types of world powers that had alliances. These world powers were the Central Powers and the Entente Powers. The cause of the First World War was because of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which was the heir to the Habsburg Empire and his pregnant wife. He was assassinated by Gavrilo Princep a Serbian that was part of a secret society in Serbia. The Second World War began in the late 1930s. The cause of this war was because Italy, Germany, and Japan were taking over weaker countries. The primary reason for the Second World War was because of Hitler and his Nazi Germany trying to dominate and take over Europe. Ans: Robert, I am agreed with your view regarding the causes of world wars. You are right the major cause of the First World War was the assassination of Ferdinand. And the main cause of the Second World War was the domination of Italy, Germany and Japan over other countries. The role of nationalism was expressed during both World Wars. All the world powers involved had allies that were loyal and devoted each other. This allies were loyal politically and loyal to their own nation. This attributes are consistent to nationalistic ways. Ans: Nationalism played a major role during both World Wars as all the world powers were loyal and devoted to each other. It also proved as a major tool for encouraging the expansion of empire. Imperialism and colonialism were expressed in both World Wars as well. In the First World War, Bosnia was controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the Second World War Hitler and his Nazi Germany was taking over much of Europe and was trying to build his own Empire. Ans: Imperialism as well as colonialism played a major role in both the World Wars. Imperialism is that practice in which powers of States were extended within the border. Bosnia was controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Later on in the Second World War, Hitler wanted to dominate the Europe by building up colonies. During the First and Second World Wars industrialization was important in both. The uses of weapons were used tremendously in both wars. Machine guns and artillery were being manufactured. These two weapons alone caused tragic numbers of death between all the world powers. In the First World War the Germans built a large naval fleet and in the Second World War the United States was at its height with industrialization. Tanks, weapons, and plans are some of many materials that were being manufactured during the Second World War. Ans: Industrialization played a major role in both the Wars. The technology helped in manufacturing the advanced weapons for the Wars. These weapons helped in winning the wars. People from different nations wanted a since of liberty and equality. No one wanted to be controlled by anyone during both World Wars. With that kind of thought, people would rather express themselves in nationalistic ways, like in the First World War. Ans: People of different countries wanted to do what they want. They want full freedom. They did not want to work under anyone. Reference Getz, T. R. & Brooke, J. E. (2012). World History: The Human Experience from 1500. Retrieved from https://www.ashford.edu/books/AUHIS104.12.1



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The cold war was caused because “super powers” had neither the inclination nor the want to understand the others point of view. I often see the cold war as the rival
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


The cold war was caused because “super powers” had neither the inclination nor the want to understand the others point of view. I often see the cold war as the rival bullies on the block going head to head in a form of psychological warfare. They both know they hold something that can kick the crap out of the other kid but in doing so would cause mass destruction and neither wants to be blamed hitting the big red button. Things came close a few times especially with the Cuban missile crisis but cooler heads managed to prevail. Ans: Jenifer, you are right in saying that the reason of cold war was super powers. They did not like each other but they did not want to cause mass destruction so they started on cold wars. Just as neither “super power” wants to be seen as the bad guy they both however want to be seen as the good guy, which is where the role of nationalism comes in. Each side needs to tout the evil that the other could bring. Russia explains to their people the wrong and seductive ways of the western capitalists and the United States extols the oppressive life of the people behind the iron curtain. What is interesting is that the “Long Telegram” states that a capitalist society and a socialist society can exist peacefully. This is an interesting statement as the largest bone of contention between the U.S. and the USSR was the politics and economy of each nation. Ans: Nationalism played a major role in the Cold War. Both the States did not want to create mass destruction. Each country dealt with their people in a very calm way and taught the people about the policies of each other. In the 1950’s the ideal economy was a capitalist one, however with the space race and the USSR win over the US with Sputnik it is little wonder that they had a moment of bolstered ego before the hit that took place in the 1980’s when the teenagers wanted jeans and high top sneakers. Ans: The economic effect of the war is the capitalist economy. With the space race of the USSR, it had a win over the USA. Some colonies have fared better than others and it is interesting to note that their initial brush and tie with the nation could be why. By this mean that the colonies that were formerly under the British Empire seem to be fairing extremely well and are even now on the rise. Look at some of the African countries and India as well. Sadly the same cannot be said for some of the areas that France was over like Southeast Asia from the Ivory Coast to Cambodia. Ans: A few of the colonies of the nations got affected by the Cold war. These colonies were on the rise later on. They progressed after the war and civilized their people and also raised their standards. Kennan, G. (1946). The “Long Telegram”. Retrieved from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/documents/episode-1/kennan.htm



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