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Question 2 In Illustration 1, line 19 the second value to be printed is
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Question 2 In Illustration 1, line 19 the second value to be printed is



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Cloud computing Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Cloud computing Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. Examples of such nodes include end user computers, data centers, and Web Services. We term such a network of nodes as a cloud. An application based on such clouds is taken as a cloud application. Cloud computing is a mix of the latest ideas, technology and delivery models including Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS), and other models in the IT sector that use the Internet for delivering services to the user. Users can access infrastructure namely, the servers, software, and data center space or network equipment; the required computing platform and solution stack for a building an application, covering the cycle of development, testing, deployment, hosting and maintenance; and also most of the regular software applications; these are all provided cheaply and efficiently over the Internet. Cloud computing technology centralizes storage, memory, processing, and bandwidth, which allows much more efficient computing.The term "Cloud computing" seems to be relatively new, while it actually just means Internet storage & applications. The main idea is to use the existing infrastructure in order to bring all feasible services to the cloud and make it possible to access those services regardless of time and location. The most famous use of Cloud computing is social networking sites, including Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Twitter, and many others. Social Networking is mainly used to share information with others. The characteristics of cloud computing include on-demand self service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity and measured service. On-demand self service means that customers (usually organizations) can request and manage their own computing resources. Broad network access allows services to be offeredover the Internet or private networks. Pooled resources means that customers draw from a pool of computing resources, usually in remote data centers. Services can be scaled larger or smaller; and use of a service is measured and customers are billed accordingly. The computing infrastructure could include hard disk, development platform, database, computing power or complete software applications. To access these resources from the cloud vendors, organizations do not need to make any large scale capital expenditures. Organization need to "pay per use" i.e. organization need to pay only as much for the computing infrastructure as they use. The billing model of cloud computing is similar to the electricity payment that we do on the basis of usage. In the description below vendor is used for cloud computing service provide and organization is used for user of cloud computing services. The emergence of clouds has already caused an impact in the IT industry. Many enterprises are deciding to make use of virtual datacenters to facilitate infrastructure managing and sparing the need of hardware maintenance. Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm that is increasingly popular. Leaders in the industry, such as Microsoft, Google, and IBM, have provided their initiatives in promoting cloud computing Ref:- 1.http://www.academia.edu/4132105/Essay_Cloud_computing_as_a_means_of_access_to_digital_content 2.http://www.eugenecomputergeeks.com/Essay-cloud-computing-eugene-computer-geeks.html



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NanoTechnology Nanotechnology draws its name from the prefix "nano". Nano Technology is an art and science of manipulating atoms and molecules to create new Systems, materials and devices.
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


NanoTechnology Nanotechnology draws its name from the prefix "nano". Nano Technology is an art and science of manipulating atoms and molecules to create new Systems, materials and devices. The uniqueness of nano technology comes from its Star Trek stuff. This literally allows scientists and industries to build entirely new materials or machines that one may only imagined in the past, but now , the limits of the imaginations are being re-defined that allow us to think out of the box. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter—a distance equal to two to twenty atoms (depending on what type of atom) laid down next to each other. Nanotechnology refers to manipulating the structure of matter on a length scale of some small number of nanometers, interpreted by different people at different times as meaning anything from 0.1 nm (controlling the arrangement of individual atoms) to 100 nm or more (anything smaller than microtechnology). At the small end of this scale, the structure is controlled to atomic precision—each atom is exactly where it should be for the optimum function of the material or the device. The Foresight Institute is focused on this small end of the scale: atomically-precise manufacturing or "molecular manufacturing". Nanotechnology is so powerful and is so big that force many of us to think how big it could be, this is how big it is. NANO=1 billionth x’s smaller than the diameter of human hair. For ex.: A cubic micron of water contains about 90 billion atoms. A Micron is one thousandth of a millimetre, and a thousandth times larger than a nanometre. Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. Like we have NanoScale transistors, Magnetic RAM.Nanotechnology spread its benefits to Health, information technology, energy, environmental science, homeland security, food safety, and transportation, among many others. If we talk about the products what we got from nanotechnology than it is a surprising fact that we are unknowingly using more than hundreds of products in our daily life that is from nanotechnology, few of them is Cotton bed sheets , Flash memory cards, Solar geysers, Floor cleaner, Blankets and throws, computer hardware’s like LEDs etc. The nanotechnology is the most emerging technology which has drastic upward change to its acceptance. It has recorded the triple of its implementation since its release to the market. The researchers even say that the next big thing is really very small after nanotechnology. Major cite providers of nanotechnology products are Ultracell, GridShift, MagArray, Nanobiotix,SignaBlok etc. There is a vast scope of employment in nano technology. Few are some opportunities that really excites someone to be a part of this innovative and most emerging technology. 1. Equipment Engineer Cree, Inc 2. Scientific Engineering Associate, or Senior (Experimental Nanostructures), 75682 Lawrence Berkeley national laboratory 3. Manager, Microelectronics Fabrication Laboratory MIT Lincoln laboratory Ref: 1. http://www.understandingnano.com/nanomedicine-companies.html 2. http://nanogloss.com/nanotechnology/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-nanotechnology/#axzz2tEHK6Ekl



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SDLC SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It is essentially a series of steps
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


SDLC SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It is essentially a series of steps that provide a model for the development management of an application or piece of software. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process. It is a structure which is followed by a development team within the software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain and replace specific software. It defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process. It is a process that ensures good software is built. Each phase in the life cycle has its own process and deliverables that feed into the next phase. It starts with the analysis and definition phases. After analysis and definition phase development phase is done. Next, in the software development life cycle is the testing phase. Code produced during construction should be tested.It is very much focuses on achieving goals. This approach is developing software through business needs, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance. Software has to go through various phases before it is born which are as follows: A definition comes from the users of the software. For example, a Pizza Hut may need software to sell pizza. A Pizza store may need software to sell its newly arrived movies or grocery. The owner of the company feels that he needs software that would help him in tracking his expenses and income as well as enhance the selling process. This is how the concept is generated. The owner will specifically tell the software company what kind of software he would need. In other words, he will specify his requirements. Requirements analysis– After the user knows his requirements, then it is given to a software team who will analyze the requirement and prepare requirement document that will explain every functionality that are needed by the owner. The requirement document will be the main document for developers, testers and database administrators. Development:After the detailed requirement documents developers start writing their code for their modules. Testing:Once the code are ready, they are compiled together and to make a build. This build is now tested by the software testers (QA Testers) Deployment: After successful testing the application is delivered to the owner for their use. Maintenance: This process where the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance. Benefit of the SDLC is that it gives a review at the end of each phase so owner can track there progress and see if they’re on target with their goals. This allows for management to exercise their control greatly & also ensures system requirements can be traced back to the original business needs. By this we can save a lot of money & time by rollback to previous stage when there is anything wrong with current stage. Reff • http://www.tutorialspoint.com/sdlc/sdlc_overview.htm • https://airbrake.io/blog/insight/what-is-the-software-development-life-cycle



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Top Down Design Top down design progresses from simple design to detailed design. Top down design solves problems by breaking them down into smaller, easier to solve
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Top Down Design Top down design progresses from simple design to detailed design. Top down design solves problems by breaking them down into smaller, easier to solve subproblems. Top down design creates solutions to these smaller problems , and then tests them using test drivers. Top-down design directs designers to start with a top-level description of a system and then refine this view step by step. With each refinement, the system is decomposed into lower-level and smaller modules. Top-down decomposition requires identifying the major higher-level system requirements and functions, and then breaking them down in successive steps until function-specific modules can be designed. The top-down approach consists of taking the following steps: 1.Analyzing requirements; 2.View integration and conceptual design; 3.Data distribution design; 4.Local physical schema design The Object-oriented analysis examines requirements from perspective of classes and objects found in the specified domain. It focuses on what the system is supposed to do rather than how it will be done and looks at the behavior of the system independent of its domain. It looks at real-world environment in which a system will operate, with this environment consisting of people and things interacting to create some result.The people and things are first analyzed in the most abstract form and these abstractions become the class. The abstraction is analyzed and reanalyzed in multiple iterations until all objects are uniquely identified. Object characteristics and their behaviors are then analyzed to establish the various states an object can have and to define the methods the object will use to create action and the messages used by the objects to cause actions which later used to develop the programming for the system. Benefits of Top down Design 1. Easy to understand - are easy to understand, easy to update and easy to debug. 2.Readable – it is easy to read as they are written using the tags of undefined components. 3.Code reuse - developers can reuse code in various program fragments. Benefits of Object Oriented Analysis 1. Easy to understand- The primary benefit is that it is understandable. 2. Maintainability- OOA are convenient and easy to operate. It therefore becomes easier to identify errors early in the software development process. 3. Data reuse - Encapsulation binds code and enables the implementation of classes without constant changes to its constituent services. 4. Re-usable - it enables reuse of old data in new applications. Top-down design as a simple matter of algorithmic decomposition, where each module in a system denotes a major step in some overall process. In contrast, object-oriented analysis is based on objects and not algorithms. Object-oriented analysis strives to describe what the system should do in terms of key objects in the problem domain while object oriented design strives to describe how the system will work using these objects. Object Oriented Analysis develop real-time systems has the potential to produce safer, more reliable and maintainable code.The OOA approach focuses on identifying objects and their activities. Reff :- 1. http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/~cs150/tdd.htm 2. http://www.codeproject.com/KB/architecture/OOADTutorial/OOAD.pdf



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Programming Practices Good Programming practices are necessary but different in every environment.
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Programming Practices Good Programming practices are necessary but different in every environment. Identify one practice mentioned in the text and research some others. What makes these good? Can you think of a reason why one would not use the good practice. Programming practice is something that can be relate to the quality of software. It is nothing but set of rules that make the software a qualitative one. The practice becomes perfect not by learning or by studying from books, instead it get perfect with the time and experiences of failures in software product. There is no sure fire approach to become a good programmer or to solve a problem but the approaches discussed below can be useful keep in mind the more problem you practice, easier it will to identify which approach to use and when: Following can be considered as good programming practices: • Examplify Writing out the specific examples of the problems and then to figure out the general rule out of it is the practice that makes things easier to understand and implement. For Ex: Documentation, Diagrammatic flow representation etc. • Beginning the code With Comments and also mentioning comments to describe the details of your code, so that if anybody else see the code must get some idea with the relevant comments to the line of code. • Conversion of program to simple language and to write steps that an implementation could follow is the practice that is generally known as Algorithm which makes easier to get the things understood and to implement then. • A developer should use some blank spaces and lines to make code in more readable format. • One should place a space after a comma(,) to increase the readability of the code. • The developer should keep the thing in mind to make code to be properly indented in order to increase the readability and tracking the bugs/issues if comes. • We should always avoid multiple statements in one line. • One should use the Common and mostly used Naming conventions while making the code. This helps another developer to understand and traverse through the code easily. • Breaking the large code into small modules is considered to be best practice of programming. I don’t think that a coder/developer should skip following the good practices and that is also true that it is not possible for one to follow all good practices every time. As discussed above also that the implementation and following of good practices is the matter of more and more practice. The reason if a user is not implementing or following the programming practice is may be due to time constraints where a developer needs to speed up in developing the modules but have less time.



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Programming Practices Good Programming practices are necessary but different in every environment. Identify one practice mentioned in the text and research some others. What makes
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Programming Practices Good Programming practices are necessary but different in every environment. Identify one practice mentioned in the text and research some others. What makes these good? Can you think of a reason why one would not use the good practice Programming practice is something that can be relate to the quality of software. It is nothing but set of rules that make the software a qualitative one. The practice becomes perfect not by learning or by studying from books, instead it get perfect with the time and experiences of failures in software product. if I need to say casually, then I can say that programming practices are like cooking recipes which get perfect from learning from the failures from the consistent practice. Following can be considered as good programming practices: • Beginning the code With Comments and also mentioning comments to describe the details of your code, so that if anybody else see the code must get some idea with the relevant comments to the line of code. • A developer should use some blank spaces and lines to make code in more readable format. • One should place a space after a comma(,) to increase the readability of the code. • The developer should keep the thing in mind to make code to be properly indented in order to increase the readability and tracking the bugs/issues if comes. • We should always avoid multiple statements in one line. • One should use the Common and mostly used Naming conventions while making the code. This helps another developer to understand and traverse through the code easily. • Breaking the large code into small modules is considered to be best practice of programming. I don’t think that a coder/developer should skip following the good practices and that is also true that it is not possible for one to follow all good practices every time. As I have mentioned earlier also that the implementation and following of good practices is the matter of more and more practice. The reason if a user is not implementing or following the programming practice is may be due to time constraints where a developer needs to speed up in developing the modules but have less time. At the time developer may forget or skips mentioning comments, naming conventions, making modules etc.



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Hardware and Software Hardware and Software are in many items we use in our daily lives. Name a few items in your house or office that have some sort of hardware and software. Look
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Hardware and Software Hardware and Software are in many items we use in our daily lives. Name a few items in your house or office that have some sort of hardware and software. Look beyond your computer and other devices used with your computer. Thinking of the software that they may have, what does the software provide and how does it make the device/hardware better? Solution:- Items used in House or Office that have some sort of hardware and software: 1. MP3 Players 2. Smart Phones 3. Tablets 4. Refrigerator 6. Washing Machines 7. Smart Watches 8. Kitchen Appliances 1. MP3 Player An MP3 is a compressed music file. An MP3 player has memory space and can hold hundreds (or thousands) of songs. A small gadget for playing audio files, such as music. An mp3 player is streamlined to play media. It has a "hard disk drive" that stores media and an "operating system" that allows you to interact with the media. However, the "operating system’s" sole purpose is to play media and is very small in size. The screen on the mp3 player can be thought of as your computer screen, only much smaller and maybe not as much color. In some ways, it very much is like a CD player. Think of the CD as a hard disk drive, and the player as the program that lets you play what’s on the CD. 2. Smart Phones Smart phones are mobile phones that have some of the same capabilities as a computer. You can use a smart phone to make telephone calls, access the Internet, organize contact information, send e mail and text messages, play games, and take pictures. Smart phones usually have a keyboard and a large screen. The smart phones as we see these days are heavily loaded with the Software and the updated and enhanced hardware. For Ex: if we see the current market scenario then the snapdragon is the provider of Chipset to the smart phones and for the software if we say is operating system then Android and IOS has the latest boom with Blackberry, Symbian, Windows etc lying behind them. We today look for the smart phone with Best Hardware support with the latest software upgrade. 3. Tablet Slim and lightweight, tablets are a new type of internet-enabled computer that work in a similar way to smartphones, with touchscreens and downloadable apps. Tablets are best for Portable entertainment and quick web browsing playing games, taking notes, quick web browsing. They also have similar kind of hardware but have more capability and provide much lot support to the software installed in it. If we say the real example of Tablet then first thing come in mind is iPad. We are so used to it that we can easily play games, can surf web, can chat with friends etc and this all can be done with software only. 4. Refrigerator A refrigerator (often called a "fridge" for short) is a cooling appliance for the storage and preservation of perishable food In the refrigeration cycle, there are five basic components: fluid refrigerant; a compressor, which controls the flow of refrigerant; the condenser coils (on the outside of the fridge); the evaporator coils (on the inside of the fridge); and something called an expansion device. Here’s how they interact to cool our food. 5. Washing Machines The washing machine is another big hardware that we see and use daily in our houses. Washing machine uses the display, buttons, controls as hardwares and the software behind the working is an operating system that works on Automata i.e once the instruction is given it follows until the next action. Like in earlier days we have batch file system, similarly we put on the bunch of clothes into it, give instructions and wait for the result. The similar concept is implemented in programming and designing the software for washing machines. The correct display of timings and spins can only be ensured because washing machines are equipped with enhanced softwares. 6. Smart Watch The smart watches are much similar to the smart phones that we have discussed just above. These watches are a kind of handheld device or we can say a gadget with having a very compact hardware and much efficient software installed in it. The concept of wearable computing is embedded into smart watches those has the concept of Android as Software with a great capability to show the time the necessary thing along with provides a connection with your phone on your wrist. Smart watches are usually designed with hardware that can be felt as a comfort on a wrist and not a burden over it. 7. Kitchen Appliances We daily visit to our kitchen for one or some another reason and even notice very less that we are surrounded completely by the technology presented to us in the form of hardware’s and software’s. If we have a look, we can easily have a view for some hardware’s like, Water Purifiers, Chimney, Microwave Oven, Juicers etc. These all are the hardware’s onto which we put up our hand daily to make use of them. These all hardware’s can be accessed so easily to us due to some programming is done in that. Some kind of operating system that facilitates the user is embedded to them. Like we can say implementation of Turing machines is there in Microwave Oven. The software’s in these devices make the operating the hardware easy.



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Running Applications Install the application provided with the text. You should be installing Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 (Windows Vista users will also need to install Service Pack 1 before
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Running Applications Install the application provided with the text. You should be installing Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 (Windows Vista users will also need to install Service Pack 1 before running the program). You will also need to copy the zip file that provides the C++ libraries: Libraries.zip. Please read these Instructions on downloading the zip files to your hard drive. As part of this exercise you will also use the sample code below to test the application, compile the code and communicate that your application was installed and working. This is the sample code: #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { string str1("Alpha"); string str2("Beta"); string str3("Omega"); string str4; // assign a string str4 = str1; cout << str1 << "\n" << str3 << "\n"; // concatenate two strings str4 = str1 + str2; cout << str4 << "\n"; // concatenate a string with a C-string str4 = str1 + " to " + str3; cout << str4 << "\n"; // compare strings if(str3 > str1) cout << "str3 > str1\n"; if(str3 == str1+str2) cout << "str3 == str1+str2\n"; /* A string object can also be assigned a normal string. */ str1 = "This is a null-terminated string.\n"; cout << str1; // create a string object using another string object string str5(str1); cout << str5; // input a string cout << "Enter a string: "; cin >> str5; cout << str5; system("pause"); return 0; } The code above is a simple program that will output some string statements and then ask for one input and close after you enter text and then hit enter. Try to change the text once you are successful and rename your source file. Play around with the strings. Report your experience and your efforts to the discussion board. Solution: It was a nice experience and a fun playing around with strings. The code seems to be confusing as it comprises of not only with simply displaying the strings on console but also used the tricks between them. With the code I got to know about various different things some of them are even extremely new and exciting to me. I have got the concept of copy constructor with this when the reference of one string object is copied to another string. I have also got to know an interesting thing about the “ + ” operator that the behavior and its functionality completely changes in terms of String. As in integers it adds up the things while in case of string it concatenates. The above code outputs in following manner: Alpha Omega AlphaBeta Alpha to Omega str3 > str1 This is a null-terminated string. This is a null-terminated string. Enter a string: testing Testing Now when I change the Strings the output differs, with input as: string str1("Vegas"); string str2("Chicago"); string str3("Amsterdam"); Output is: Vegas Amsterdam VegasChicago Vegas to Amsterdam This is a null-terminated string. This is a null-terminated string. Enter a string: US US It was a nice experience working with strings like this, I have learnt copy constructor, String comparison, inputting string at run time, adding the string or better say concatenating the string.



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Week 2 - Assignment Text Printing Program Section 2.2 of Chapter 2: First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text is an example of a “text printing program.” Use this example and instructions, ...
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Week 2 - Assignment Text Printing Program Section 2.2 of Chapter 2: First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text is an example of a “text printing program.” Use this example and instructions, but change the text to be an output. Add the following text: Name: Course Name: Famous Quote: ***Note: Make sure you put in your name, the course you are in, and a famous quote you like. Compile the program; include the source and compiled code as attachments and submit Solution: #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { cout<< "Name : Orland" <<endl; cout<< "Course Name: INF 231 Programming Concepts" <<endl; cout<< "Famous Quote: Three D's for Life - Dream, Dare, DO. ! Cheers!!" <<endl; return 0; } Output: Name : Orland Course Name: INF 231 Programming Concepts Famous Quote: Three D's for Life - Dream, Dare, DO. ! Cheers!!



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Describe the class structure of C++ programming. What are the key contents of classes?
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Describe the class structure of C++ programming. What are the key contents of classes? The classes in the C++ programming are just the representation of groups of similar instances. The classes is the new thing that is not derived from the ancestor of C++ i.e. C. It is the implementation of the concept of object oriented programming that is relating programming to the real world. Following can be defined as the class Structure in C++ programming: class ClassName { access_modifier1: datamember1; datamember2; member_functions1(); member_functions2(); …. …. …. access_modifer2: datamember1; datamember2; member_functions1(); member_functions2(); … }; ClassName: ClassName is the name of the class by which an entity or existence is established for classes. AccessModifiers: Access modifiers are the keywords that are basically used to restrict the part of code to be accessed from other part of code. Possible there are following three access modifiers: • Public • Private • Protected Fields those are marked as private can only be accessed by functions that are part of that class only and not outside the body of the same. Fields those are marked as public can be accessed by anyone i.e. any part or by any function. Fields those are marked as protected are like private only but can be accessed with the help of inheritance. KEY CONTENTS OF CLASS 1. Data members Data members are declared in the same way as a global or function variable, but as part of the class definition. Their purpose is to store information for that class and may include members of any type, even other user-defined types. They are usually hidden from outside use, depending on the coding style adopted, external use is normally done through special member functions. 2. Member Functions Member functions can (and should) be used to interact with data contained within user defined types. User defined types provide flexibility in the "divide and conquer" scheme in program writing. In other words, one programmer can write a user defined type and guarantee an interface. Another programmer can write the main program with that expected interface. The two pieces are put together and compiled for usage. User defined types provide encapsulation defined in the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm. 3. Access labels The access labels Public, Protected and Private are used within classes to set access permissions for the members in that section of the class. All class members are initially private by default. The labels can be in any order. These labels can be used multiple times in a class declaration for cases where it is logical to have multiple groups of these types. An access label will remain active until another access label is used to change the permissions. 4. Constructors A constructor is a special member function that is called whenever a new instance of a class is created. The compiler calls the constructor after the new object has been allocated in memory, and converts that "raw" memory into a proper, typed object. The constructor is declared much like a normal member function but it will share the name of the class and it has no return value. Constructors are responsible for almost all of the run-time setup necessary for the class operation. Its main purpose becomes in general defining the data members upon object instantiation (when an object is declared), they can also have arguments, if the programmer so chooses. If a constructor has arguments, then they should also be added to the declaration of any other object of that class when using the new operator. Constructors can also be overloaded • Default Constructors A default constructor is one which can be called with no arguments. Most commonly, a default constructor is declared without any parameters, but it is also possible for a constructor with parameters to be a default constructor if all of those parameters are given default values. • Overloaded Constructors When an object of a class is instantiated, the class writer can provide various constructors each with a different purpose. A large class would have many data members, some of which may or may not be defined when an object is instantiated. Anyway, each project will vary, so a programmer should investigate various possibilities when providing constructors. 5. Destructors Destructors like the Constructors are declared as any normal member functions but will share the same name as the Class, what distinguishes them is that the Destructor's name is preceded with a "~", it can not have arguments and can't be overloaded.



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What is a Control Statement? There are several types of control statements; define two control statements and use your own example in your definition.
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


What is a Control Statement? There are several types of control statements; define two control statements and use your own example in your definition. A control statement is a programming tool, a phrase, which is used in C++ programming as a way of executing the “algorithm” of the program. The algorithm is like a math formula in algebra. There are key words that are used as instructions for the computer so that it knows what to do with the data. There could be one control statement or many. The algorithms “are constructed from only three kinds of control statements, combined in only two ways” (Deitel & Deitel, 2008, p. 138). The three kinds are: sequence statements, selection statements, and repetition statements. The two ways are: control-statement stacking and control-statement nesting. I will focus on the first two types of statements. The sequence structures are pretty straightforward in that whatever order the commands are entered in to the code, then that is the order in which the program will execute them. An example of this type of programming would be what I see at the hospital where I work. The electronic medical record includes a section for the patient’s home medication lists, referred to as the medication reconciliation. For this part of the chart, whatever order the clinician enters the medications (and their instructions), that is the order that is displayed or printed. The computer does not manipulate that data into any type of sorted listed (such as alphabetical). The second type of structure is the selection statement. There are three categories of the selection statement. They use the keywords “if”, “if…else”, and “switch”. When the statements are true, then they perform or execute, but when false they do not. In keeping with the electronic medical record example from above, the “ordersets” that are used by the clinicians would fall into this category. When a physician wants to enter orders on a patient, they do not have to enter them one at a time. They can pull up an orderset, place check marks in the boxes next to the desired orders and then hit enter. The orders are then populated in the record. However, the system is designed to capture these “selection” statements. For example, if the physician orders a particular medication that needs to be dosed carefully, the system will prompt him to order appropriate lab work and alter the patient’s diet and activity orders if needed. (I just noticed how many times I used the word “if” in that example.) Once he has entered the orders, they are divided into sections on the profile screen. So, all meds are in one section, all labs are grouped together, all nursing instructions are together, etc. It is a quite effective use of programming code to make sure that important steps are not overlooked. Cheryl Burns Hey Cheryl, Beginning the control statements explanation is really appreciative. It clearly seems that you got some brief idea regarding the implementation and the usage of Control Statements. The examples you have used, does not relate to real life examples, like they are not up to the mark, that we can make it a sure shot of real life examples. Although the example you have provided shows your understanding towards the concepts, but the example could be more clear and specific to the scenarios.



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Good evening fellow students, In our book it stipulates that a there are three kinds of control structures that are
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Good evening fellow students, In our book it stipulates that a there are three kinds of control structures that are referred to as control statements, and they are modeled as an activity diagram. A diagram will contain the initial state and a final state which represents a control statement. A beginning and an end, or as our book says, an exit point and an entry point. Our book also tells us that any of the C++ programs can only be constructed from seven different types of control statements, if, if…else, switch, while, do…while and for), they are combined to either stack and or control statement nesting. Deitel P.J., & Deitel H.M. (2008). So I had to think about how this actually came into play at my work place and I came up with a VTC, Video Technology Communication, which if launched from my area, to Hawaii, then to Europe, and on to China stipulates the Entry from me to Hawaii, Europe and then China. Three steps, three different areas and structures. So in that instance the control statement is the loading utility, which would be the first point of facilitation, then on to Hawaii, Europe and then China. Now this is just a visual sort of example, but another would be, 1. , 1.., 1…, or car1, car2, car3. A control statement determines when and how other statements are executed or how expressions are evaluated. The statements can skip or repeat themselves as well. Deitel P.J., & Deitel H.M. (2008).C++how to program (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780136152507 Dear Vietta Lowe, It’s really great that you have been thoroughly to the text book which is the only medium to get the conceptual knowledge. But what I believe is only the conceptual knowledge or the bookish language is not sufficient to explore more things. The concepts can more be explained by using the real life examples and even is lot understood in this way. I suggest you to understand and get things explained with providing real life examples. Control statements are just the way to ease the flow of statements in the program by using some of the keywords like if, else, switch, etc.



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Control Statements What is a Control Statement? There are several types of control statements; define two control statements and use your own example in your definition. Control Statements:
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Control Statements What is a Control Statement? There are several types of control statements; define two control statements and use your own example in your definition. Control Statements: Control Statements are elements in Source Code that control the flow of program execution. There are blocks using { and }, loops using for, while and do - While and decision making using if and switch. There's also goto. Types of Control Statements 1. Conditional control statements These statements are executed when one or more conditions is/are satisfied. C++ supports many such statements. These statements are listed below with a brief description. if : - The statement following the if statement is executed when the condition given is true. if(condition) s1; s2; When the condition is true statement s1 and then s2 is executed. If the condition is false only s2 is executed. If we want to execute more than 1 statements when condition is true then we should write all those statements within braces {} after if. if(condition) { s1; s2; } s3; when the condition is true statement s1, s2 and then s3 is executed. If the condition is false only s3 is executed. if-else:- Also known as either or. This statement is used to select one statement and ignore the other statements. if(condition) s1; else s2; when the condition is true statement s1 is executed. If the condition is false s2 is executed. Thus one of the statements, either s1 or s2 is always executed. if-elseif-else:- It is a branching statement which can choose and execute on of the statements available depending upon the condition. if (condition1) s1; else if (condition2) s2; else s3; When the condition1 is true statement s1 is executed and rest are ignored. When condition1 is false condition2 is verified. If condition2 is true statement s2 is executed and other statements are ignored and so on. Thus only one statement is executed from the top, depending upon the condition. The statement following else is executed when all the conditions are false. However else clause is optional. while:- It is a repeated structure statement which repeats a statement given as long as the condition is true. while(condition) statement1; statement1 is executed till the condition is true. do while:- Like while statement it repeats a statement given as long as the condition is satisfied unlike in while statement the condition is checked at the end of the structure. do { statement1; } while(condition); statement1 is executed till the condition is true. for:- It is a repeated structure which can repeat a statement as long as the given condition is satisfied. for(statement1; condition; statement2) statement3; where statement1 initialises control variable, condition is used to check whether statement written after loop can be repeated or not , statement2 is used to modify the control variable. Statement3 is a simple statement (having only one statement) or compound statement (a set of statements written within braces {} ) which can be repeated as long as condition is true or satisfied. switch:- It is a multi-branch statement which can be used to select and execute one of the available statements. switch(value) { case 1: statement 1; break; case 2: statement 2; break; case n: statement n; break; default: statement d; } Where value can be a variable of type numeric or character. The case label 1 to n can also be written with constant identifiers. When the value assigned matches with case label 1 statement 1 is executed. The break statement written after statement 1 transfers the control out of the switch statement. When the value doesn’t match with case label 1 then it checks with case label 2 and so on. When the value assigned doesn’t match with any of the case labels (1 to n) then the default clause is considered and the statement d is executed. Default clause is optional like else clause in if-else-if-else statement. 2. Unconditional control statements These statements are executed without satisfying any condition. goto:- This statement transfers control from one part of the program to the other part. ------ ------ goto abc; ------ ------ abc: ------ ------ where abc is a label which need not be declared. When the control reaches goto statement then the execution is transferred from goto statement to the statement preceded by the label. Note that the symbol colon (:) is used between the label and the statement. break:- This statement can be used to terminate a repeated structure (loops) such as while, do while and for and multi branching statements like switch. while(condition) { ------ ------ break; ------ } When the control encounters the statement break then the execution of while loop is terminated. continue:- Like the statement break continue can be used in repeated structure. However this statements repeats the loop for next value (next iteration) i.e. the statement continue transfers the control back to the beginning of the loop by ignoring a set of statements written after it. while(condition) { ------ ------ continue; ------ } When the control encounters the statement continue then the control is transferred back to while loop.



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Repetition Statements When would you use a repetition statement? Why? See chapter 5 for one example of the use of the for statement.
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Repetition Statements When would you use a repetition statement? Why? See chapter 5 for one example of the use of the for statement. A repetition statement enables the program to repeat an action as long as a particular set condition remains true. Its form goes as follow For example: let there be a situation that demands you to do the certain set of statements repeatedly. The Best example is here is to consider the case where you have to print 10 No's starting from 0 and end in 10. We can easily use loops to simplify the program in to a single step for loop statement The for loop is another form of repetition statements in C++. The for loop provides for the beginning of the condition, the limit of the condition and updates after every execution. The for loop takes the following form; for (starting point; limiting condition; update) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The stating point can include an initialized control variable either declared internally or using an already existing variable. Any expression however that evaluates to a value can also be used. The limiting condition tells the program that while the conditional expression is true the loop should continue to repeat itself. The update section modifies the control variable by way of increasing or decreasing it to the next level before a next repetition takes place. A semicolon separates the three elements of the for loop condition. It is possible to have an empty section for each of three of them. A semicolon must be provided even if the section is empty. An empty section is evaluated as true and the loop will repeat until something else stops it. Using an example of summing the odd integers, we can write the for loop as follows; #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int total=0; for(int number=1; number<=20; number +=2) total+=number; cout<<”Sum is “ <<total <<endl; return 0; } Output is: Sum is 100



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Arrays Define an Array and why you would use one. Provide an example that is not from the text.
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Arrays Define an Array and why you would use one. Provide an example that is not from the text. An array is simply a fixed collection of variable elements that share the same data type and name and compiler treat this group as a single variable, the only real difference between an array and a normal variable is that the array has an index and the index value identify the individual elements stored in the array int a[4]; a[0]=10; a[1]=13; a[2]=14; a[3]=122; If you want to use an element, for example for printing, you can do this: cout<<a[2]; Output: 13 Array is just an English word which actually means in contiguous. Here in programming too array is the user defined type that has contiguous memory allocation i.e. memory is allocated in continuous manner. An array always the index or f we say index value starts with 0 and the Zeroth index is considered as the Base Index of an array.



Character Arrays Chapter 7 continues the discussion of arrays. Arrays include multiple data types and
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Character Arrays Chapter 7 continues the discussion of arrays. Arrays include multiple data types and can include characters. Understanding that you can use characters in an array, give an example of how you would use a character array and what data could be stored in this array. See page 351 for an example. An array can be considered as a row in a table, each element is kept into successive block.An array is ‘char’ then it means the array stores character elements. Since each character occupies one byte so elements of a character array occupy one byte each. Character arrays are basically used to hold the character or String value. String is an array of characters terminated by the null character (‘\0’) For example, if we store the word "George" in a character array, the individual characters of "George" will be stored and the last character of the array will be a null character (‘\0’). If I want the same to make character array with characters, we can write it as: char word[6]={'h','e','l','l','o','\0'}; Here, it has size 6 because the variable word is having 6 characters including the ( ‘\0’ – null) character. # include <iostream> int main ( ) { char name[15]; cout<< "Enter your name : "; cin>> name; cout<< "Your name is "<<name; }



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Formal Report: Part 1 Your assignment this week is to write a Table of Contents and Introduction for your Formal Report. Please read the assignment directions located on the Formal Report
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Formal Report: Part 1 Your assignment this week is to write a Table of Contents and Introduction for your Formal Report. Please read the assignment directions located on the Formal Report tab under Course Home before you begin.



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Outline view: You can write your report in outline view. Or you can close the outline view and return to the normal view, which will look similar to the following: Level 1
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Outline view: You can write your report in outline view. Or you can close the outline view and return to the normal view, which will look similar to the following: Level 1 Level 2 Level 2 Level 1 Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. Body text. You can modify all levels and body text from the HOME tab. Put your cursor on the text you want to edit, move your cursor to the corresponding text on the HOME menu, right click, select MODIFY. (shown below) It is these level headings that become the items of your TOC. To create the TOC, go to the location/page where you want your TOC, go to the REFERENCES tab--on the left of the menu you will see Table of Contents, drop down as shown below and select the TOC style you want. After you select the TOC style, your TOC will appear: Table of Contents Level 1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 Level 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Level 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Level 1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 As you add content to your report, simply make sure that the headings are assigned the appropriate corresponding level (see second screen shot), which tells the TOC function to pull that heading into your TOC. To update your TOC, put your cursor in the table, right click, and select UPDATE FIELD. (shown below) Then select the appropriate option from the next menu.



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Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


Cloud computing Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. Examples of such nodes include end user computers, data centers, and Web Services. We term such a network of nodes as a cloud. An application based on such clouds is taken as a cloud application. Cloud computing is a mix of the latest ideas, technology and delivery models including Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS), and other models in the IT sector that use the Internet for delivering services to the user. Users can access infrastructure namely, the servers, software, and data center space or network equipment; the required computing platform and solution stack for a building an application, covering the cycle of development, testing, deployment, hosting and maintenance; and also most of the regular software applications; these are all provided cheaply and efficiently over the Internet. Cloud computing technology centralizes storage, memory, processing, and bandwidth, which allows much more efficient computing.The term "Cloud computing" seems to be relatively new, while it actually just means Internet storage & applications. The main idea is to use the existing infrastructure in order to bring all feasible services to the cloud and make it possible to access those services regardless of time and location. The most famous use of Cloud computing is social networking sites, including Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Twitter, and many others. Social Networking is mainly used to share information with others. The characteristics of cloud computing include on-demand self service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity and measured service. On-demand self service means that customers (usually organizations) can request and manage their own computing resources. Broad network access allows services to be offeredover the Internet or private networks. Pooled resources means that customers draw from a pool of computing resources, usually in remote data centers. Services can be scaled larger or smaller; and use of a service is measured and customers are billed accordingly. The computing infrastructure could include hard disk, development platform, database, computing power or complete software applications. To access these resources from the cloud vendors, organizations do not need to make any large scale capital expenditures. Organization need to "pay per use" i.e. organization need to pay only as much for the computing infrastructure as they use. The billing model of cloud computing is similar to the electricity payment that we do on the basis of usage. In the description below vendor is used for cloud computing service provide and organization is used for user of cloud computing services. The emergence of clouds has already caused an impact in the IT industry. Many enterprises are deciding to make use of virtual datacenters to facilitate infrastructure managing and sparing the need of hardware maintenance. Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm that is increasingly popular. Leaders in the industry, such as Microsoft, Google, and IBM, have provided their initiatives in promoting cloud computing Ref:- 1.http://www.academia.edu/4132105/Essay_Cloud_computing_as_a_means_of_access_to_digital_content 2.http://www.eugenecomputergeeks.com/Essay-cloud-computing-eugene-computer-geeks.html



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