Call At: +919779121071   |       Email:adminanytimehelp@gmail.com
Question & Answers
Home > Q/A
Be Thomas Fleming 9/16/2015 5:22:03 PM Critical thinking is the process we use in problem solving. We can be strong critical thinkers and make the process end with good consequences or we c...
Posted On: Nov. 23, 2017
Author: Shipra


Be Thomas Fleming 9/16/2015 5:22:03 PM Critical thinking is the process we use in problem solving. We can be strong critical thinkers and make the process end with good consequences or we can be poor critical thinkers and have negative consequences. The critical thinking process, when applied with skill, is taking in information, processing the information as it relates to our situation, applying the information in different ways, evaluating the outcomes of each way, and deciding on the best choice. In some manner critical thinking is evaluating your thinking process while you are doing it to become a better thinker. The principles behind critical thinking are that it is reflective, authentic, and reasonable. Critical thinking is reflective in that decision making can be a “knee jerk reaction”, but critical thinking decision making is thinking through the different possibilities before reaching a final decision. Critical thinking also entails authentic or real problems. Adding two plus two does not take a considerable amount of critical thinking skill for an average adult, but interpreting a co-workers mood, body language and actions when presenting them with a difficult situation does. That is authentic problem, with many different ways to handle, and many different outcomes based on the decision made. Critical thinking must also be reasonable. There are no definitive rules to making good decisions, but there are generalities. Reasonableness comes from being flexible and in critical thinking measuring “what you want” versus “what you need” can help to make the right decision. Critical thinking is something that is used in everyday life. Therefore there are many opportunities to utilize good, careful critical thinking as well as opportunities to not apply good critical thinking. An example of good critical thinking would be a manager trying to be as objective as possible when settling a dispute by summarizing the alternatives, with fairness to all sides to a disagreement. (http://insightassessment.com/Resources/Ten-Positive-Examples-of-Critical-Thinking) I believe this is a good example of critical thinking because there is a need to be reflective, and reasonable. The problem is very authentic as well in that it is real and will need more than a “knee jerk” decision for things to end well. The manager is thinking through how best to deal with the problem and is striving to be aware of the feelings of all. There are a lot of moving pieces to what the manager is working through, and he is, “thinking about his thinking”. An example of not applying critical thinking well is a person who buys a car based solely on it color and aesthetics. (http://criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-in-everyday-life) I think this is an example of weak critical thinking skills because it is a quick decision based on want and not so much on need. It would appear that the person who based their decision on aesthetics didn’t do their homework (or thinking through all the possibilities) which could end with negative consequences. Ans: Hi Thomas, I am agreed with your view regarding critical thinking. Critical thinking is to study assumptions which are underlying the current beliefs to examine the accuracy and legitimacy and thus to validate or invalidate the beliefs. Katherine Quinones When we us thinking critically skills, as an alternative of reacting emotionally to a problem, we employ strategies such as learned experiences and consequences to prior rash decisions. (not using critical thinking) Critical thinking is the psychological course of evaluating or assessing information. To reason with or on a topic is the capacity for rational thought, or to think logically. Once we have recognized a rock-solid foundation or a healthy self-concept, it is important to be able to think critically, or to reason. It stands to reason that we question how much of a person’s response is biased, or a reactive uninformed decision. The word haphazard comes to mind. One my parents used many times when I had to deal with my consequences. Great post. And good luck with the final paper. Asn: You are right Katherine. I am also agreed with your view about critical thinking. Critical thinking is the process in which one can assess all the possible outcomes of the problem and then to find out the best of all the assumptions available. Janis Sherer 9/20/2015 9:20:42 PM HI Thomas, You have a great way of explaining and helping a person understand critical thinking. I especially like how you said that a person needs to think through each possibility before making a decision and not using a knee jerk response. How many times do we see this happen? By rushing and not taking the time to be thoughtful we see that we can miss small details that can affect our judgment. What ways can we put into place to avoid rushing or making hasty decisions? Dacia Wood 9/16/2015 5:28:52 PM • Define, describe, and explain the principles of critical thinking. Critical thinking: “Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.” • Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example of good, careful (critical) thinking, and explain why you think it exemplifies strong critical thinking skills. Post a link or reference information for that source, describe the content, and explain how it is a good example of critical thinking. https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766 I think this cite is a good example of explaining what critical thinking is . Critical thinking for what I do for living is working with young children and helping them problem solve, by giving them the words they need to fix their problem. This website states “ Critical thinking varies according to the motivations underlying it. When grounded in selfish motives, it is often manifested in the skillful manipulation of ideas in service of one’s own, or one’s groups; vested interest.” • Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library and find an example that lacks good, careful (critical thinking). Post a link or reference information for that source, describe the content, and explain why you think it demonstrates poor critical thinking skills. I think a perfect statement that lacks good careful critical thinking is Donald Trump statement “ the worst elements in Mexico are being pushed into the United States by the Mexican government.” This statement is true in many ways but the man really didn’t think this through as an opening statement for running for president. He could of brought this up in a softer way but what are we kidding ourselves its Donald Trump he says it like it is. Defining Critical Thinking. (n.d.). Retrieved July 17, 2015. http://www.businessinsider.com/donald-trumps-epic-statement-on-mexico-2015-7



VIEW FILE
FRIEND REPLY Sholonda Clark 1. Based on your knowledge concerning capital budgeting, discuss several factors that would increase the risk associated with a company"s capital investment
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


FRIEND REPLY Sholonda Clark 1. Based on your knowledge concerning capital budgeting, discuss several factors that would increase the risk associated with a company"s capital investment decision. In your opinion explain which factors increase the risk more than others. A. Project Risk-Project risk approximates the chance that the project will not be as profitable as expected due to errors from the company or from the project"s initial evaluation. Project risk is increased when a company invests in a business that is not in its area of expertise. B. Market risk measures the part of a project"s risk from macroeconomic factors such as inflation and interest rates. Market risk is increased during a weak economy. A poor economy can decrease demand for a product, potentially turning a project unprofitable. C. International Risk If a company"s capital budget project will involve another country, it will be exposed to international risk. This entails political and exchange-rate risk of the project. If currency rates move in an unfavorable direction, the company could face higher relative costs and lower relative gains. 2. Based on you knowledge concerning capital budgeting, discuss several factors that would decrease the risk associated with a company"s capital investment decision. In your opinion explain which factors decrease the risk more than others. A. Payback Period A number of capital budgeting valuation methods exist. The payback period method is a simple capital budgeting technique that involves calculating the number of years it will take to recover the initial cash invested. The investment alternative with the quickest payback is preferred. B. Internal Rate of Return -The internal rate of return is another type of capital budgeting technique. It measures the yield on investments by discounting the present value of all cash inflows against the sum of all cash outflows for an investment to determine the earnings over the life of a project. C. Discounted Cash Flow -The discounted cash flow method takes into account the time value of money by discounting an investment"s future return to a present value. The premise of the time value of money is that a dollar in-hand today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. 3. Capital investment decisions are often incremental, involving cash flows over multiple periods. Therefore, procedures must be in place to monitor the progress of projects. One such procedure is the Milestone approach. Conduct a preliminary search to explain how this approach works and why the approach can sometimes be ineffective.Milestones are useful tools in planning and scheduling. They may have been used at a high-level to present the overall project plan. Alternatively, they may be used tactically to identify completion of significant achievements, identify cross-dependencies, then subsequently provide a control and reporting mechanism during the project. 4. To what extent have you seen evidence, what economic conditions have prompted American businesses to reevaluate their traditional approach to capital investment decisions? A. Liberal Lending Practices is one of the economic conditions that an American business has reevaluated its traditional approach to a capital investment decisions? In a growing economy with high employment rates, banks are more likely to lend to consumers and businesses with reasonable rates and liberal repayment terms. When an economy begins to contract, banks and other lending institutions will tighten up lending policies, making it difficult to borrow for home buying purposes or to start or grow a business. B. High unemployment levels can result from an economic crisis in action or can be one of the causes of it. An economic crisis can occur when high interest rates, tight lending and a decrease in consumer spending results in companies letting go of employees to survive the economic downturn. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/factors-increase-riskiness-capital-budgeting-project-15829.html http://www.epmbook.com/planning.htm http://www.economywatch.com/business/global-business-strategy.html http://smallbusiness.chron.com/basic-factors-economic-decision-making-3944.html http://smallbusiness.chron.com/economic-crisis-factors-1720.html Wanda Mason-Ballenger(3 posts) The definition of “Capital Investment” according to Investopedia (2015) indicates that funding bestowed upon a business to further their objectives, vision or mission is considered a capital investment. When a business acquires assets, of the capital or fixed nature, with the intention of maintaining productivity for a period of time, these are considered to be capital investments. A plethora of sources exist, including, but not limited to banks and other financial establishments and investors of the angel, venture capital and equity varieties. Capital investments are utilized for long-term assets and can also be utilized as working capital. Any investment has some risk attached to it. The risk associated translates to not receiving the capital, or money that one has contributed to the cause, capital risk. More stringent measures have been initiated for protection against a bank failing. The stock market can be even riskier and one may lose all or part of that which is invested. Normally, in the instance of capital investment risk, the greater the return on investment the greater the risk due to high volatility, one’s capital may sustain growth or fall significantly. To attain one’s investment goals, a balance must exist between the amount of capital expended and the level of return required (Which? 2015). Not only are funds subject to risk, a company stakes their reputation in potential jeopardy by virtue of the required transparency and the evaluation process that takes place in the event it is needed, as it would apply especially, to large capital-intensive projects with respect to market volatility. Other factors that increase risk are issues that may arise with partners and contractors, the possibility of labor conflicts and the abundance of health, safety and environmental regulations that impact a capital investment. Often time one may encounter difficulty obtaining financing and the associated expense may prove to be prohibitive (Culp, S. 2012). A multitude of factors exist and cause uncertainty when valuing a business investment. Capital budgeting enables one to calculate the financial viability and reveals project valuation as impacted by cash flow projections. Prospective cash flows obtain a discount according to the required rate of return. A comparison can be formulated applying dissimilar potential risk situations and with minor tweaking of the formula for the capital budget, a comparison can be devised for specific risk conditions and considerations. There are four phases that one can follow to complete this daunting task. First, enlarge the rate of return discount factor required as it applies to cash flows. This amendment reduces the valuation of anticipated cash flows. This will reflect as higher uncertainty. Second, lower future cash flows with a loss percentage estimate. This amendment involves the likelihood of anticipated return not occurring. Third, postpone cash flows per annum. This poses a reduction in value and increases larger discounts if delay occurs. Lastly, deduct the elevated start-up expenses from the net present value estimation. It is all about the cash flows and following these directives can reduce the risk that exists and parlays a more accurate synopsis of risk exposure (Small Business Chron, 2015). References Culp, S. (2012), Forbes, Managing capital in a high-risk world as retrieved on 13 August 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/steveculp/2012/05/29/managing-capital-projects-in-a-high-risk-world/ Hearst Newspapers, LLC (2015), Small Business Chron, How to adjust for risk in capital budgeting as retrieved on 14 August 2015 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/adjust-risk-capital-budgeting-10326.html Investopedia (2015), Capital investment as retrieved on 13 August 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capital-investment.asp Which? (2015), Understanding investment risk as retrieved on 14 August 2015 from http://www.which.co.uk/money/savings-and-investments/guides/understanding-investment-risk/capital-investment-risk/



Friend Reply – Please response to both friend post Wanda Mason-Ballenger(1 posts) Jul 28, 2015 06:15 PM
Posted On: Nov. 22, 2017
Author: Shipra


Friend Reply – Please response to both friend post Wanda Mason-Ballenger(1 posts) Jul 28, 2015 06:15 PM The Balanced Scorecard was created in the 1990s by Dr. Robert Kaplan and Dr. David Norton, both of the Harvard Business School (About Money, 2015). It is designed to align particular business activities with the company mission to strategically manage and measure the processes utilized to achieve the company vision. It is a communication tool that measures goals and evaluates performance; including fiscal objectives and dimensions. There are four facets included on the Balanced Scorecard, covering internal company procedures, consumer, financial and learning/growth. To help implement strategies and objectives the Balanced Scorecard endeavors to measure and avail feedback as “a performance metric used in strategic management to identify and improve various internal functions and their resulting external outcomes” (Investopedia, 2015). After the vision and stratagem have definition and agreement, determining the causes of ascending and descending progress on the Balanced Scorecard must be identified. According to Organized Change (2010), their a four specific causes related to the movement on the Balanced Scorecard identified as Environmental; which includes aspects beyond company control such as regulations imposed by the government, politics at all levels and the economy or economic cycle. Organizational drivers; which encompasses organizational strategy, policy, procedures, company structure, salaries and human resources. Department or group work in progress, associations, tasks and assignments and Individual; which takes into account persona, styles of management, capabilities and behavior. At this juncture, SMART comes into play to realize the correlation between the causes as they apply to the mission. SMART is the acronym representing specific, measurable, agreed upon, realistic and time-bound and refers to attaining the target goal, via the methodology, specific timetables and resources required. In the instance that some improvements have been viewed and some performance measures have been successful while others have not, the management team may wish to redefine the measurements being utilized. The correct items being measured is imperative to reflect what is actually happening, which translates as success, is a function for which measures are used. Additionally, management may wish to re-evaluate the techniques and methods; which directly bear upon success. These fall into two categories, small or minor in scale; representing, as an example, motivating speeches, problem-solving groups to address technical concerns and visual aids and presentations to bring more clarity to the mission. On the major or large scale, the technique may encompass restructuring, pay incentives, increasing funds and staff, additions or modifications regarding consumers, products and services, improving core competencies and things of this nature (Organized Change, 2010). The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) measures performance with the addition of strategic non-financial performance measure which is combined with the traditional financial observations to avail a more balanced examination of the company’s performance. In this way, not only the “bottom line” is considered in reporting. The BSC has developed from the simplistic performance capacity tool to a full blown strategic planning and management system. According to the Balanced Scorecard Institute (1998 – 2015), the BSC “transforms an organization’s strategic plan from an attractive but passive document into the ‘marching orders’ for the organization on a daily basis”, thus the management team is able to soundly execute the strategies in place with a viable framework that present performance measurements and assists plan makers determine the appropriate actions to be taken and measured. Weak and vague approaches to management are clarified and become actionable in an effort to provide balance from an economic perception. Strategy is translated by telling a story of the way by which value is created for the company and a clear and logical step-by-step process between objectives in each of the four specific drivers formerly defined. The question asked is, “if we do this than that occurs” and this is done by improving knowledge and skills and improving technology and tools at the organizational level. Next efficiency processes must be increased with a shorter cycle of time. Regarding the consumer, they require shorter wait times and consumer retention needs to be increased. On the financial level, the goal is to reduce costs, improve profitability and increase revenues. Inversely, from the financial aspect and progressing through the same list, the question is, “how”. Everything in between answers these two questions and translates into performance measures. References: About Money (2015), Balanced scorecard, as retrieved on 27 July 2015 from http://consulting.about.com/od/glossaryfaq/g/CF_BalancedScor.htm Balanced Scorecard Institute (1998 – 2015), Balanced scorecard basics as retrieved on 28 July from http://balancedscorecard.org/Resources/About-the-Balanced-Scorecar Investopedia (2015), Balanced scorecard, as retrieved on 27 July 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/balancedscorecard.asp Organized Change (2010), Balanced scorecard, bsc and performance improvement as retrieved on 28 July 2015 from https://www.organizedchange.com/balancedscorecard.htm YacoubHabashi(1 posts) 1. Assume that the company adopts the Balanced Scorecard. After operating for a year, there are -improve ments in some performance measures but not in others. What should management do next? This probably occurs in many places. There is always room for improvement, regardless of the circumstances, such as more training, updated technology, bigger workforce, new clients, and so forth so on. If management sees that some areas still need improvements in areas, then they as a team needs to decide what areas need to improve, and find and calculate a plan to accomplish these ideas. Just because areas still need improvement does not necessarily mean that the balance scorecard is not serving its purpose. 2. How does the Balanced Scorecard communicate strategy to the organization? How is strategy translated into performance measures? A balanced scorecard communicates strategy to an organization through four processes. These four processes are as follows: translating the vision . communicating and linking . business planning and feedback and learning. Strategy is translated into performance measures by these four management processes, which allow the linkage of long term strategic objectives with short term actions (Kaplan & Norton, 2013). 3. Why does the Balanced Scorecard differ from company to company? Whose responsibility is the implementation? A balanced scorecard differs from one company to the next because daily operations of every company are different that one another as well. The responsibility of the implementation of a balanced scorecard should be a special team within management. A special team assigned would be able to focus and dedicate their tasks to fulfill the implications of a balanced scorecard. 4. Based on your understanding of the application of the Balanced Scorecard, discuss how an organization successfully creates and uses a BSC. The process of creating and using a balanced scorecard is not a complicated ordeal. An organization needs to come up with a company vision, their strategies, their perspectives, and important success factors and their necessary measures and then develop an action plan. After an action plan iscompleted then the organization needs to implement all the details into the scorecard and balance it out from there, making adjustments where needed. References Kaplan, S. & Norton, D. (2013). Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. Retrieved from, http://hbr.org/2007/07/using-the-balanced-scorecard-as-a-strategic-management-system/ar/



VIEW FILE
ADDENDUM NO: 1 CEM 451/651L October 6, 2015 Project Title: I15 CMAR RFP
Posted On: Nov. 21, 2017
Author: Shipra


ADDENDUM NO: 1 CEM 451/651L October 6, 2015 Project Title: I15 CMAR RFP Bid #: Contract No. 12345 INSTRUCTIONS: BIDDERS SHALL INCORPORATE THE CONTENTS OF THIS ADDENDUM INTO THE BID PROPOSAL, AND SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT OF THIS ADDENDUM BY INITIALING ON SHEET 32 OF THE BID FORM AND INCLUDING THIS SHEET IN THE SUBMITTED BID PACKAGE. THE ATTACHED ARE CHANGES AND/OR CLARIFICATIONS TO THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS, SPECIFICATIONS, AND DRAWINGS FOR THE ABOVEREFERENCED PROJECT. BID OPENING: The bid opening date and time remains unchanged . BID FORMS: See attached RFP Forms A1 for revision. CLARIFICATIONS Question 1: Does the addendum page and cover page(s) count toward the page count in the written portion of the project? Answer 1: No. Any addenda issued are to be included in your written proposal packet and they D O NOT count towards your page count. No. Cover pages do not count towards your page count in the written portion of the project. Question 2: I am having a hard time determining the structure of the company. Are there any typical company flowcharts that we can use as guidelines or references that you have available for us? Answer 2: In reference to the first bullet point in the “Team and Experience” section, you are not required to submit an organizational chart depicting the entire company structure, rather the structure of your project team. This would most likely start with your Project Manager, maybe an Assistant Project Manager, General Superintendent, Quality Control Manager, Safety Manager, Cost Estimator, etc. may also be included as you see fit. You may want to add on the chart who the Project Manager reports to such as a General Manager or Company President (as this person is supporting the Project Manager in completing the project). You can list as many people/positions as you need the important thing is to differentiate between a person who will be working on the project and a person who is “key” or critical to the projects success (ie. Project Manager is key to project success, the General Manager is not). ALL OTHER PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS SHALL REMAIN UNCHANGED REQUEST FOR CMAR PROPOSALS 2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS STIPULATIONS ............................................................... 2 TEAM & EXPERIENCE .................................................... 4 AVAILABILITY & CAPACITY ............................................ 5 APPROACH & MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................. 6 SAFETY PROGRAM ........................................................ 7 SIGNATURE FORM ........................................................ 8 I-15 CORRIDOR - TROPICANA AVENUE TO CC 215 BELTWAY CONTRACT NO. 12345 Contractor: ____________________________________________ Contact Person: ________________________________________ Email: ________________________________________________ Address: ______________________________________________ City, State, Zip: _________________________________________ Telephone No.: _________________________________________ Fax No.: _______________________________________________ RFP Forms - A1 Contract No. 12345 Limit proposal to 20 pages total, no less than 15, including these 8 pages.



VIEW FILE
Business Research Project Part One …. QNT 561 October 28, 2013 ….
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Business Research Project Part One …. QNT 561 October 28, 2013 …. Business Research Project Part One PROBLEM: The demise of the ethical shopper: shifting non-ethical consumption to ethical behaviour, where the manufacturers selling branded product face tough competition from those offering unethical products at cheaper rates. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research would be to identify and explore the extent of ethical and socially responsible (ESR) behaviour of food shoppers and to examine the ESR factors that influence the choice of products and stores. BACKGROUND: The shoppers of the city currently were found purchasing more than half of the grocery and dairy products such as $2 milk, from the private label grocery manufacturers. Brand manufacturers continue to be concerned with consumers' moves. The consumers cannot be solely held responsible for their unethical shopping habits as they get almost similar products at cheaper rates. Moreover, globally, supermarket retailers continue to increase their proportion of private label products which not only persuade but compel the shoppers to shift their demand from branded products to those private packings. Country's largest food retailer, in November 2011, reported to shareholders their plans to double the proportion of private label, house brand products to 35% of their range. For the brand manufacturers to revive back in the market, they need to plan and manipulate the consumers' shopping needs, by highlighting their product quality and spreading awareness. Awakening the consumers about their unethical shopping behaviour, and convincing them to consume branded products to become a socially and ethically responsible shopper.



VIEW FILE
Weber, J. (1991) Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning Business Ethics Quarterly 1(7), 293-318 Introduction
Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Author: Shipra


Weber, J. (1991) Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning Business Ethics Quarterly 1(7), 293-318 Introduction The paper presents adaptation of Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Judgment Interview and Standard Issue Scoring method. Four important factors are considered in this adaption (i) a blend of less familiar and more familiar moral dilemmas, (ii) follow up questions which further explore managers’ moral reasoning by stressing on key organizational values (iii) the flexibility of utilizing either an oral or written interview method and (iv) a more simpler but trustworthy system or scoring the managers’ responses and identifying their stage of moral reasoning. Analysis of current conditions indicates that managers frequently face moral and ethical conflicts at the place of work. However, not much information exists to understand as to how managers resolve these conflicts. A better understanding of managers’ moral reasoning process could make us more aware of the influencing factors, that affect the decision making process of managers, especially when faced with the ethical dilemma. These dilemmas could range from individual values to prevailing organizational culture. By studying further, one will be able to predict, with greater accuracy the managerial and organizational ethical behavior and the development of guidelines and incentives that help managers take ethical decisions. The problem with understanding the reasoning process adopted by the managers is that there are no well defined metrics available to assess the decision making process of the managers. Lawrence Kohlberg and his associates developed one alternative which was also published in The Measurement of Moral Judgment (Colby & Kohlberg, 1987). This method was based on earlier theoretical constructs of Kohlberg. According to this method, a series of stages of moral reasoning is constructed, which helps in understanding the moral development and the corresponding expression of different types of moral reasoning used by managers in their decision making process. The paper focuses more on the assessment of managers’ moral decision making, but the primary objective of Kohlberg was to review and evaluate the development of an individual’s moral reasoning, right from the stages of his childhood to adulthood. Even though instruments used in Kohlberg’s research method are critical for the study or moral development (which are basically nothing but dilemmas faced by individual from a young age of 6 to 30), the methods are not essential or foolproof and thus may obstruct the real assessment of managers’ moral decision – making processes. In view of the above, the author suggests modification of the methodology used by Kohlberg, which would help in understanding the reasoning process used by managers, when faced with an ethical or moral dilemma. These modifications should be done on four lines, as this would improve the method of measuring managers’ moral reasoning. These are 1) a mixture of less familiar moral dilemmas with more familiar dilemmas from a business organization context, 2) follow-up interview questions which probe managers' moral reasoning by focusing upon key organizational values, 3) the flexibility of utilizing either an oral or written interview method, and 4) a simpler, yet reliable, system for scoring the managers' responses and identifying their stage of moral reasoning. The research conducted by Kohlberg is based on the earlier work done by Piaget and the extended beliefs contained in his earlier own theory of moral development. This earlier theory focuses on reasons as to why certain actions are perceived as morally justified or preferred. Kohlberg is of the opinion that it is these reasons that indicate the stages of moral maturity. This is based on the findings of Kohlberg which looks at the reasons people provide for their moral judgments and moral actions. When analyzed, the differences in their moral outlook become more prominent. These differences are further highlighted in Kohlberg's "Stages of Moral Development." According to Kohlberg, there are three levels of moral development through which an individual makes progress namely, Pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. The pre-conventional stage comprises two phase. The first phase consists of the punishment and obedient orientation, followed by instrumental relativist orientation. At this level, a person responds to notions of "right" or "wrong," especially when expressed in terms of consequences of action (punishment, rewards, exchange of favors), or in terms of imposition of physical power by those enunciating the rules. The conventional stage again has two phases, the first one being the “Good Boy” - ‘Nice Girl” orientation and the second phase is that of the Law and Order orientation. At this level, maintaining the expectations of the individual's family, group or nation is perceived as valuable. It emphasizes behavior that pleases or helps others and is approved by them the post- conventional stage again comprises two stages. The first one relates to The Social- Contract Legalist Orientation and the second one The Universal Ethical Principle Orientation. There is a clear effort to define moral values and principles which have validity and application apart from the authority of the groups and persons holding these principles. Conclusions The most relevant part of this research is that it brings out the fact that the results strongly support each of the adaptations to Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Standard Issue Scoring methods presented in this paper. These adaptations may enable future researchers to better measure and understand managers' moral reasoning. By using these adaptations the researcher may enhance the effort of assessing the moral reasoning used by managers in resolving ethical conflicts. This increased understanding of managers' ethical decision-making processes could lead to greater predictability of managerial and organizational ethical behavior. In addition, based upon an improved understanding of managerial moral reasoning, organizational guides and incentives may be constructed to aid managers toward ethical action.



VIEW FILE
Weber, J. (1991) Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning Business Ethics Quarterly 1(7), 293-318 Introduction
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


Weber, J. (1991) Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning Business Ethics Quarterly 1(7), 293-318 Introduction The paper presents adaptation of Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Judgment Interview and Standard Issue Scoring method. Four important factors are considered in this adaption (i) a blend of less familiar and more familiar moral dilemmas, (ii) follow up questions which further explore managers’ moral reasoning by stressing on key organizational values (iii) the flexibility of utilizing either an oral or written interview method and (iv) a more simpler but trustworthy system or scoring the managers’ responses and identifying their stage of moral reasoning. Analysis of current conditions indicates that managers frequently face moral and ethical conflicts at the place of work. However, not much information exists to understand as to how managers resolve these conflicts. A better understanding of managers’ moral reasoning process could make us more aware of the influencing factors, that affect the decision making process of managers, especially when faced with the ethical dilemma. These dilemmas could range from individual values to prevailing organizational culture. By studying further, one will be able to predict, with greater accuracy the managerial and organizational ethical behavior and the development of guidelines and incentives that help managers take ethical decisions. The problem with understanding the reasoning process adopted by the managers is that there are no well defined metrics available to assess the decision making process of the managers. Lawrence Kohlberg and his associates developed one alternative which was also published in The Measurement of Moral Judgment (Colby & Kohlberg, 1987). This method was based on earlier theoretical constructs of Kohlberg. According to this method, a series of stages of moral reasoning is constructed, which helps in understanding the moral development and the corresponding expression of different types of moral reasoning used by managers in their decision making process. The paper focuses more on the assessment of managers’ moral decision making, but the primary objective of Kohlberg was to review and evaluate the development of an individual’s moral reasoning, right from the stages of his childhood to adulthood. Even though instruments used in Kohlberg’s research method are critical for the study or moral development (which are basically nothing but dilemmas faced by individual from a young age of 6 to 30), the methods are not essential or foolproof and thus may obstruct the real assessment of managers’ moral decision – making processes. In view of the above, the author suggests modification of the methodology used by Kohlberg, which would help in understanding the reasoning process used by managers, when faced with an ethical or moral dilemma. These modifications should be done on four lines, as this would improve the method of measuring managers’ moral reasoning. These are 1) a mixture of less familiar moral dilemmas with more familiar dilemmas from a business organization context, 2) follow-up interview questions which probe managers' moral reasoning by focusing upon key organizational values, 3) the flexibility of utilizing either an oral or written interview method, and 4) a simpler, yet reliable, system for scoring the managers' responses and identifying their stage of moral reasoning. The research conducted by Kohlberg is based on the earlier work done by Piaget and the extended beliefs contained in his earlier own theory of moral development. This earlier theory focuses on reasons as to why certain actions are perceived as morally justified or preferred. Kohlberg is of the opinion that it is these reasons that indicate the stages of moral maturity. This is based on the findings of Kohlberg which looks at the reasons people provide for their moral judgments and moral actions. When analyzed, the differences in their moral outlook become more prominent. These differences are further highlighted in Kohlberg's "Stages of Moral Development." According to Kohlberg, there are three levels of moral development through which an individual makes progress namely, Pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. The pre-conventional stage comprises two phase. The first phase consists of the punishment and obedient orientation, followed by instrumental relativist orientation. At this level, a person responds to notions of "right" or "wrong," especially when expressed in terms of consequences of action (punishment, rewards, exchange of favors), or in terms of imposition of physical power by those enunciating the rules. The conventional stage again has two phases, the first one being the “Good Boy” - ‘Nice Girl” orientation and the second phase is that of the Law and Order orientation. At this level, maintaining the expectations of the individual's family, group or nation is perceived as valuable. It emphasizes behavior that pleases or helps others and is approved by them the post- conventional stage again comprises two stages. The first one relates to The Social- Contract Legalist Orientation and the second one The Universal Ethical Principle Orientation. There is a clear effort to define moral values and principles which have validity and application apart from the authority of the groups and persons holding these principles. Conclusions The most relevant part of this research is that it brings out the fact that the results strongly support each of the adaptations to Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Standard Issue Scoring methods presented in this paper. These adaptations may enable future researchers to better measure and understand managers' moral reasoning. By using these adaptations the researcher may enhance the effort of assessing the moral reasoning used by managers in resolving ethical conflicts. This increased understanding of managers' ethical decision-making processes could lead to greater predictability of managerial and organizational ethical behavior. In addition, based upon an improved understanding of managerial moral reasoning, organizational guides and incentives may be constructed to aid managers toward ethical action.



VIEW FILE
People are not simply born knowing what ethical behavior is. It also does not come too naturally. It was taught to them in the course by their parents and family
Posted On: Nov. 18, 2017
Author: Shipra


People are not simply born knowing what ethical behavior is. It also does not come too naturally. It was taught to them in the course by their parents and family members as they grow up. On the contrary, one can say most unethical people are perhaps lack of being taught ethics while they were growing up. The values that children to taught as they are growing up contribute to this. It is not like they learn how to be kind, respect and learn ethics from the day they are born. They learn it by observing the behavior of people with whom they come into contact. By this they get influenced and formulate their own behavior. (Shane2010). Children are very good in copying others. When a child sees that his family members have no ethics, he feels and thinks it to be a good way to live. One starts learning ethics before one even begins school and it moves on into one’s adulthood. Exact ethical values are taught by way of teaching in class rooms or by observing others. Some others are of the view that just like human traits are genetic in nature, in the same way, ethics are also genetic. Moral values in human beings are developed over a period of time. There was the reason how humans started living in a peaceful manner in small groups. As per Rushing (1995), it is the problem based learning that helps a teacher in teaching students to take ethical decisions. This type of learning is proactive and can be applied in groups to which they belong. Kohlberg says that growth can take place if discussions on an unexplored and important topic are done in an unambiguous manner. He cites examples of police officers, who do not care for their own ethical behavior. They carry out their investigations without being questioned from any quarter. They have their own principles of moral thinking. Based on their experience, they take decisions and don’t get involved in any moral dilemma. They apply their own moral reasoning. Their performance would suffer if they pay too much attention to moral thought process. Furthermore, if a person is exposed to novel decision making models, he can interpret them depending on the prevalent situation after taking into consideration the possible outcomes of their actions. The problem based learning helps people in giving importance to ethical decisions. Such people are likely to behave in more ethically acceptable manner. Ultimately moral education that is learnt through problem based learning technique encourages the development of moral judgment skill. These studies also include self – review, and practicing in solving moral dilemmas that they come across in day-to-day situations. All human beings have an inborn ethical sense that helps them to make predictable choices. Even though people feel that their actions are guided by logic and reasoning process, they use reason to justify the action they take for this particular choice. Ethical behavior is learned right from childhood. Everybody faces choices in life and everyone’s perception of right and wrong may not be the same. This discussion has been is focused on the question of ethical behavior being natural or learned. It is the capability to converse that is instrumental in coming up with rational logic by peoples for their actions. It supports the theory of decisions that are based on genetics. While genetic might play some role in the way people take decisions, it is the learned behavior that contributes to ethical behavior. Assumption and dissimulation are embedded in genes. Historically human beings have been known to apply survival techniques which are based on manipulation and lying. A lot of people believe that lying and cheating are quite legitimate ways to achieve selfish ends. However truthful or practical it may sound, from our own learning as children, we know that it is the cooperation that is responsible for achieving success. The ethical thinking, from historical perspective, is known to encourage shared behavior. This is the key to gaining stability within the group. (Williams 2012). Many middle and high school students today will vouch for the fact that it is learned behavior that determines what is right or wrong. Students do not take cognizance of the fact that they owe anything to others or any obligation to society. They do realize the fact that wrong can be done, but are not inclined to judge their own actions which contribute to wrong actions in the first place. (MacKinnon2011). They tend to believe that they cannot do anything wrong because they are the ultimate judges of what is right or wrong. Ethics deals with individual and his perception of situation according to his upbringing. Right from the time we are born in this society, we keep learning ethics. A thought is hammered in our mind from our childhood about what constitutes wrong or right. Our mind is conditioned by laws of the land, our education system as well the media or society in which we live in. left to themselves, human beings would turn out to be violent and selfish in nature. Look far enough back in history; you will hear stories of medieval torture devices and multiple homicide crimes (Wetherill 2010). To cite an example, suppose if one is stranded on an island and left alone with another person, then chances are he won’t share his food with him, especially if the food quantity is limited. Sharing, right? I mean that has the most ETHICAL one according to society's norms... Yeah, wrong, would let the other person die because it has called survival. Without the order we have in society, we would quickly forget the memorized ethics of civilized humanity. The natural instinctual actions would take precedence over intelligent thinking (Rae 2000). These behaviors would have consequently to be taught & learned. So while it is technically accurate to say most of ethics are learned, the actuality is that it is the nature that teaches us ethics and it is developed over a period of time. Furthermore, the ethics will follow natural laws of the land as any member of the society would expect that he be provided protection by laws of the land. Murder and theft are universal sins, and are counted as unethical behavior. William Golding is of the view that man was born as a savage creature that had no moral or ethical values. It is the society that has been responsible in teaching him behavior that is acceptable in society. The contrarian view is held by other philosophers. According to them man is born without any faults but his actions and thoughts are corrupted due to the evils prevailing in the society he lives in. I however fully agree with the view point of William Golding. The question that is raised is how a person acquires moral or ethical behavior. The most probable answer to this question is that these qualities are learned through parents, teachers and other religious leaders during the period of their growth from childhood to adulthood. However sometimes we come across people who have brought up in the best possible manner but still turn out to be immoral and unethical. We also come across people who had faces abusive parents and had no chance of learning moral values, but turn out to be decent and ethically strong persons. This is one questions for which one fails to get a logical answer. Another argument that is put across is how does one define what makes a behavior unethical or immoral. What is the metrics for the same? This is something not many people have been able to figure out. The golden rule is what has been taught in the holy Bible, i.e. treat others the way you would like to be treated. However the fact is that the situations in the world are quite complex in nature and people have no misgivings or regret about lying if it helps them to stay out of trouble. These could be giving false information about one’s qualifications or experiences so that one could get a job which is badly required. By taking such unethical ways of doing things one causes more harm to oneself. It is an individual opinion or choice to indulge in the activities such as use of drugs or paying for sex. Others may call it immoral but left to themselves it is an individual choice. Why should it make a person immoral? People are born as someone who has a clean slate of mind. They imbibe values that are normal or accepted by family and society. Moreover, some may also argue if the ethics or morals are derived from one’s religious beliefs.



VIEW FILE
week 7 inter-professional network
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application inter-professional network



VIEW FILE
Week 8-Historical Development of Professional Assocations
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application historical development of pressional associations



VIEW FILE
Week 9-Technology in Human Services Organizations
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application technology in human services organizations



VIEW FILE
Week 10-Advocacy Plan for Social Change
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application advocacy plan for social chang



VIEW FILE
week 1 final project
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


week 1 final project



VIEW FILE
application historical eras in human services
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application historical eras in human services



VIEW FILE
Performance Leadership Assessment
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


Performance Leadership Assessment Background This assessment is based on a Plan, Do, Measure, Learn cycle The questions are based on the key ingredients to ensure your organization is enabled to deliver good performance A number of research models on effective performance leadership have been used for compiling this assessemnt Completing the assessemnt The leader and team members should complete the assessment individually or as a team, with active debate Enter the individual or team name in cell C2, then complete the assessment in order, only scoring in column C Rate each statement according to the scoring below Scoring 1 Strongly disagree 2 Somewhat disagree 3 Neutral 4 Somewhat agree 5 Strongly agree Add comments in sheet 3 (one per line) as required, starting on line A5. Review and Action To print each assessment, print the Assessment sheet (3 pages) and the Comments sheet (1 page) Compile an average scrore for the team Compile all comments and determine common themes/issues Develop an action plan to address any areas that require attention to improve the overall performance culture Source: www.peoplepositive.co.uk



VIEW FILE
Quick Overview Maximum Score Your Assessment Score Percentage
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


Quick Overview Maximum Score Your Assessment Score Percentage 1.0 Device 1 95 1 1% Color Scoring: 2.0 Device 2 75 1 1% 3.0 Device 3 60 1 1% Good overall score Caution - needs to improve Poor - needs major improvement Color Scoring Your percentage scores are highlighted in one of three colors: Good Score falls in a range between => 70% 100% Caution falls in a range between => 50% 69% Poor Score falls in a range between => 0% 49% Feel free to change these ranges to whatever you like!



VIEW FILE
Week 1-Historical Eras in Human Services
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


apllication histrycal eras in human sevirces



VIEW FILE
Week 2-Transition to a Consumer-Based Model
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application: transition to consumer- based model



VIEW FILE
Week 3-Legislation Reforn
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application legislation reform



VIEW FILE
Week 4-Leadership Styles & Patterns
Posted On: Nov. 17, 2017
Author: Shipra


application leadership styles and patterns



VIEW FILE