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All agency action can be classified in three categories: quasi-adjudication: order making, judicial quasi-legislation: rulemaking executive
Posted On: Nov. 9, 2017
Author: Shipra

Name of paper Management of sports at different levels Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Introduction Sports industry requires good governance. A good governing body is structured in such a way that it fulfills its mission in the dynamic environment it works in. this throws a big challenge to the governing body as it is required to maintain a balance by being consistent in its operations and simultaneously be aware of the changes taking place in the market and adapt suitably make the organization stay afloat. A sports manager needs to know the factors responsible for smooth operations of a governing body and also understand the pitfalls. This paper aims to evaluate the factors that impact the management of sports organization at collegiate, professional level as well as Olympic organization. These factors affect the working of the organization and it is important to understand and compare their effects at different levels of sports. Finally an attempt will be made to predict as to what kind of factors will be responsible for influencing each level of sports in the next decade. Factors affecting management of sports events Several factors affect the management of a collegiate, professional, and Olympic organization/institution. A classic example is that of mega sporting events those themselves are highly complex and therefore tough to handle successfully. However their execution leaves a big impact on various aspects of organization and the place they are held in. the factors that affect the organizations are related to political, social, economical, physical and cultural aspects. These can leave both positive and negative effects. The success of Olympic Games is an example of how mega-international sporting events have taken the central place in managing sports athletes (Gould et al 2002). An ever increasing number of local political leaders around the world vie for their respective cities to hold the games. The desire to have large amount of funds invested in Olympic bids is an indication that such events act as an opportunity to improve the economic and social facets of the city and the region. Such events tend to invite investments in infrastructure, entertainment, and sponsorships. This has aroused interest on the impact of the Olympics on the socio-economic and political life of the host city, region and the country where the games are held. The Olympic Games are examined vis-à-vis other mega-sporting events, that include World Cup football and Wimbledon tennis championship. The comparison is also done in relation to the possibility of holding commercial and cultural events that includes Expos, festivals with sports themes and so on. It has been proven that such events help in generating interest for the host cities and regions. The Olympic Games, however, should not be treated just like any mega-event as they have other characteristics that make them different. The reason for this is that Games are promoted and packaged as an expression of the spirit of Olympic philosophy. The other factor is that strict institutional framework set by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) act as a guiding force in organizing such events. This makes it more professional in nature. Success of an athlete in colleges, institutions etc. depends on factors related to physical, psychological and environmental factors. Psychological and environmental factors tend to contribute in the initial status of collegiate players. Physical factors tend to discriminate between groups that are differentiated by age, and coping with the uncertainty or initial failure at the starting point. Some researchers are of the opinion that level of mastery of skills of an athletic movement is directly related to the number of hours put in for practice. This helps them in gaining experience and become confident. The number of test matches played also adds to their self-confidence and acts as a motivating factor to pursue the games later on in college and as a professional. Factors that impact the various organizations at the different levels of sports In today’s society, sports have become more popular than anyone could have imagined. Huge number of athletes takes deep interest in participating in a variety of youth, high school, collegiate, professional, and recreational sports. As sports become popular, several factors emerge, that affect all those involved in sports such as organizations holding sports events, coaches, parents who encourage the children to participate in sports. It thus becomes pertinent for officials, and organizers to provide a healthy environment, where athletes compete and play without any personal grudge against others. Several factors affect performance of sports. Hence it is necessary to be aware of these factors because this knowledge can change the outcome of sports performance. The most important among these factors relate to physical characteristics. When one is in good health, he would perform better. Their natural talent and physical strength is all that would make a difference. While health is important determinant to success, practice plays an equal if not more part in the way collegiate sports gain success. Individual practice on a regular basis matter a lot. Next on line is knowledge about the strength and weaknesses of the opponent (Laguna et al 2003). This will help the sports person in making a big difference in his own performance. By understanding his own strength, he can focus on the same and gain an upper hand over his competitor. Similarly by understanding the weaknesses of the opponent, it is possible to design a strategy to take a lead over them. Analysis of both strength and weaknesses helps one to adjust how to play and give best performance against the competing team. While practice and health are important factors affecting performance of sports athletes, effect of psychological factors cannot be ruled out. There are several psychological factors that play an important part in how one plays and perform in a game. Being pessimistic is a sure recipe for failure. By feeling discouraged or demoralized, one may not put in his hundred percent, and thus will not go for shots that could make a difference between winning and losing. Nervousness affects the performance and one tends to lose focus on the game. This might hurt how they perform in a match. Having a good frame of mind and by remaining focused, will help in taking a lead and also result in better performance. The confidence level shown can also affect the competing team, who may not be able to match and thus lose out. Lastly, it has been observed that many athletes make use of drugs and medications to improve their performance. While this may help in the shorter run, it’s after effects in the longer run can lead to deadly consequences. It is also not ethical to indulge in these activities. Contrary to what people feel, influence of legal or illegal drug can affect how one performs in sports. This invariably turns out to be negative in nature. Thus the above factors need to be considered while evaluating sports performance. A lot many of them can be controlled individually and one should make a sincere attempt to optimize these and play in the best manner of sportsmanship. Factors that will influence each level of sports over the next ten years Across the globe, one can see a union of sports and entertainment industries. The common factor that binds these two is the rising challenge of new and improved digital technologies. These are responsible for shaping the way we look at and spend our relaxation time. Simultaneously, one cannot ignore the fact that it is the sponsorships and media rights (both TV and Audio, as well as print) that have emerged as the main drivers of growth. This has put the traditional methods of generating revenue under severe pressure. The current events would force organizations to focus more on developing and making use of more complex and sophisticated techniques to generate better returns of investment in sports. The current need of the hour is to identify and investigate the issues that key players in the world of sports are encountering and find out alternate methods of generating revenue for them to remain successful and survive. The future holds the key to factors responsible for the growth of sports market (Werner et al 1966). It has also become important to find out these factors in view of increasing economic and political uncertainty prevailing across the countries in the world. It is important to investigate and explore the new opportunities that exist and the challenges one is likely to face to future growth in sports. The positive aspect of the environment is that in spite of the downward trend in the economy, sport has continued its journey of growth and is flourishing. This can be witnessed by the fact that major events continue to become popular than ever. The only difficulty is that of lower level of event, that are having problems and finding it difficult to attract support in terms of sponsorship and generation of revenue. Their survival is a cause of concern for their event managers. The trend is to focus more on providing value for money for the spectators, who have become more demanding. This hunger for value for money is being fulfilled by adding entertainment by way of offering trade shows, post- event concerts and also organizing concerts indirectly related to the events as well. One can see that the popularity of mega events is sustained by ongoing improvements in broadcasting technology. Their innovative ways are helping in carrying out better –quality coverage than what was ever being done earlier. The popularity of TV networks and social media is seen to be believed. Both of them are taking up the activity of engaging the fans and deliver a mind boggling experience, never felt before. At the same time, sponsors are vying with each other to be associated with sports events and team with a view of becoming a part of their marketing plan. They are taking help of research firms to increase the understanding of the level of participation of spectators and thus gain useful insights into their demographically spread target markets. While the outlook appears to be positive, the challenges are many and one has to remain vigilant to meet the same by finding out newer ways of handling. The situation is that market exists for big events as the stadia and arenas are full but spectators are faced with the unresolved state of affairs of rising ticket prices. Even sponsors face hurdles in terms of economic and regulatory constraints. Under these circumstances, the conventional media is struggling to find better ways of extracting more value from new media options. While on the one hand, sports continue to find newer ways of increasing their revenues, they are bogged down with rising costs of maintaining players in their fold. As things stand today, players are the single largest contributors to the expense in most of the sports. The trend is continuing and there is no respite in sight. This has put a tremendous amount of pressure on their bottom line. The definition of stakeholders has widened and sports organizations are finding it extremely difficult to meet their expectations. The new stakeholders include viewers who have at their command the social media, which is being used extensively to voice their opinions. The same is also true for corporate world and sponsors and broadcasters, who have an equal opportunity to mold the experience of the spectators and fans with the help of same social media (Lazarus et al. Sponsor has a lot at stake as any benefit that he might gain using social media, can be destroyed in an instant by associating with sports that have poor sports administrator. The damage could also be done by poor behavior of a player or by news of using corrupt ways of playing such as spot fixing scandal that was witnessed recently in cricket players. All the above discussions lead us to explore and find out the future of sports. There are several pointers that can help us in ascertaining the likely direction the sports may follow in the near future. The sports markets are emerging in developing countries such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (the so called BRIC countries) as well as the Middle East. These countries are expected to offer scope for the development of new and lucrative opportunities that) will not only have space for domestic but international sports and events as well. Secondly, sponsors have realized the potential of sports events and are now willing to allocate a larger amount of money to sports. Looking at the popularity of sports, the sponsors have recognized the potential of earning higher returns on that investment. Thirdly, sports associations are trying to find out new regulations and methods to control the rising cost of holding sports and exploring the possibility of finding out sustainable business model that could survive for a longer period. As things stand today, most of the sports organizations are trying to find a balance between the increased commercial demands of their sports events and need to maintain ethical standards of operating (Weinberg et al 2003). There exists a popular view that sports organizations should focus on making the events more exciting and appealing and avoid any tarnishing of their image that would lead to a permanent damage to their brand name. Globally, revenues from sports are on an increased path as witnessed by events such as FIFA and the World Cup series. The size of the cake is growing and the real competition is not around those organizations that can put forward and deliver the most entertaining offerings that only can claim a major chunk of the market share (Mahoney et al 1987). To do this, sports organizations continue to find newer ways of attracting spectators in their hunt for growth in revenues. This would include combining concerts and sporting events into one mega –event. In the case of IPL, an innovative way of generating revenue was adopted by auctioning the teams that were bought by popular Indian film stars. In these matches, entertainment inspired glamour was added by creating theater and spectacle at matches with the help of hiring cheer leaders who were provocatively dressed. These marketing efforts have to strike a tradeoff between entertainment and sports. The struggle is to draw a balance in drawing crowds and at the same time maintaining the credibility, quality as well as the dignity of sports. Several sports have to toy with the idea of focusing more on live experience vis-à-vis experience of the TV viewer. The viewing experience turns out to be far better as compared to the chaotic atmosphere of the stadium. Organizers can improve the viewing experience by encouraging and providing incentives for participating in contests while the game is on. Similarly in the case of live sports participation, the spectators can become part of the entertainment by encouraging them to display messages in the stands they occupy. This is done by distributing colorful cards, containing easy to understand messages. These are then transmitted by TV networks for the benefit of viewers who can find the experience more lively and entertaining. The crowd can also be made a part of the sponsor as was done by Vodafone who distributed orange caps to the spectators at various Grand Prix events. The sports rights and related advertising revenues will be affected by the availability in abundance of digitized content, web access and social media. What it implies is that sponsors will be able to micro manage the information and focus on their target matter in a better way by putting in place strategies that would draw out more customers to their products. For this, the availability of data would play a crucial role and act as an interface between the consumers, content and brands. References Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffatt, A. (2002) Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172-204. Laguna, P.L. & Ravizza, K. (2003). Collegiate athletes' mental skill use and perceptions of success: An exploration of the practice and competition settings. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 15,115-128. Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping New York: Springer-Verlag. Mahoney, M.J., Gabriel, T.J., & Perkins, T.S. (1987). Psychological skills and exceptional athletic performance. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 181-199. Weinberg R., & Gould, D. (2003). Foundations of Sport & Exercise Psychology (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Werner, A.C., & Goettheil, E. (1966). Personality development and participation in college athletics. Research Quarterly, 37, 126-131