Posted On: Nov. 20, 2017
Title FINAL LAB REPORT Name SCI 207: Dependence of man on the environment Instructor Date WATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION Introduction Water is one of the vital resources for all living creatures on Earth. Water is required for meeting our day- to - day needs, such as food, growth, and the most important is for our survival. Water has also been instrumental in changing the topography of the Earth from time immemorial. Even though more than 70 % of the planet is covered in water, , a very small part of is potable. A major part of the water( 99%) has salt content in it, which makes it unusable for drinking. The cost of conversion of salt water into fresh water is extremely high. This leaves mankind with just 1 % of the water resource to live with. The most common source of water for human beings is either surface water or ground water. Surface water gets collected on the earth by a process known as precipitation. This water does no get evaporated into atmosphere and also does not infiltrate into the ground through the surface of the earth. It get accumulated in the rivers, ponds , reservoir and other bodies of water, from where it is easily accessible for use. The objective of this study is find out causes of contamination of water. Since the water resources are scarce and not enough for living beings, it is important to understand the meaning of conservation and explore in details the reasons for its contamination. A contaminated water body will not be fit for use and thus make the available resource more scarce. A thorogh study of the causes of water pollution would help in finding a workable solution for conserving the water. Effects of Groundwater Contamination Hypothesis # 1 Common items such as laundry detergent, oil, and vinegar can alter the color, smell, and taste of water. Water Treatment Hypothesis # 2 Water can be made potable by using Alum Drinking Water Quality Hypothesis # 3 Bottled water contains same chemical contaminants as tap water. Materials and Methods The experiments to conduct the verifiability of the above hypothesis provided information about use of some special materials such as alum, potted soil, tap water , bottled water and other scientific instruments. The first experiment was conducted to test the ability of soil to remove oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent from the environment before it reaches groundwater. The second experiment used a technique to test the effectiveness of one filtering method on the ability to purify contaminated water. In the third experiment, the quality of two separate bottled waters and the tap water was tested by measuring a variety of chemical components within the water. Results Tables: The outline of the results section should include all tables used in your experiment. All values within the tables should be in numerical form and contain units. For instance, if measuring the amount of chloride in water you should report as 2 mg/L or 0 mg/L not as two or none. Body Paragraph # 1: The outline of the results section should also describe important results in paragraph form, referring to the appropriate tables when mentioned. This section should only state the results as no personal opinions should be included. A description of what the results really mean should be saved for the discussion. For example, you may report, 0mg/L of chlorine were found in the water, but should avoid personal opinions and interpretations such as, no chlorine was found in the water showing it is cleaner than the others samples. Discussion Body Paragraph #1 - Hypotheses: The outline of the discussion section should interpret your data and provide conclusions. Start by discussing if each hypothesis was confirmed or denied and how you know this. Body Paragraph # 2 - Context: The outline of your discussion should also relate your results to the bigger water concerns and challenges. For example, based on your experiments you might discuss how various bottled water companies use different filtrations systems. Or, you could discuss the billion dollar bottled water industry. For example, do you think it is worth it to buy bottled water? Why or why not? Your outline should at least list some of the resources that you plan to utilize in your final paper to put your results into context. Body Paragraph #3 – Variables and Future Experiments: Finally, the outline of your results section should also address any possible factors that affected your results, such as possible contamination in the experiments or any outside factors (i.e., temperature, contaminants, time of day) that affected your results? If so, how could you control for these in the future? You should also propose some new questions that have arisen from your results and what kind of experiment might be proposed to answer these questions. Conclusions Body Paragraph #1: This section of your outline should briefly summarize the key points of your experiments. What main message would you like people to have from this report? References Include at least 4 scholarly sources and your lab manual here in APA format.