Public Relations Cite as least six steps that should be observed in developing an effective public relations program. Provide an example of a recent negative public relations issue in sports.

Public Relations

Cite as least six steps that should be observed in developing an effective public relations program. Provide an example of a recent negative public relations issue in sports.

An effective public relations program helps in winning customers and conveying the right message to the target market.  The six important steps in developing an effective public relations program are as follows

Step 1: Define and write down objectives for the publicity or media plan.

Step 2: Define the goals in achieving this objective.

Step 4: Develop a schedule for the public relation campaigns

Step 5: Develop the plan of action

Step 6: Put measures/ metrics in place to track the results of the PR Campaign.

A successful PR program cannot work unless we know the audience for whom it is meant. One should be very clear and be as specific as possible.  For example, if you are offering sports equipment, you should be clear which sports you are referring to and where is your target market located. Clarity in the selection of target market would help in designing an effective communication strategy.

Next the message to be conveyed should be simple and straightforward.  It is important to put in place important points in the message so that the target audience gets to know them.

Once the above two steps are decided upon, the media through which message is to be conveyed should be selected. It is important to pay attention to the media tool as this would help in reaching the target audience effectively. One can choose print, audio, visual or a combination of all of them.

If the steps suggested are not followed, then opportunity to gain customer confidence may be lost. This would put the company in a   loss.  One can use a platform of an industry association, to launch or communicate. Brochures, newsletters are the most obvious choices of communication. Public meetings can also be used for communicating the objectives of the program. There are several opportunities to be considered. Sometimes, sponsorships can also work where one can make use of celebrity endorsement.  As simple networking can get your task of communication done in a simple and cost effective manner.

Reference
L’Etang J. (2007) Public Relations: Concepts, Practice and Critique SAGE

Marketing Program List the principles that should be observed in a marketing program. Give two specific examples of how these can be applied to a sport program. Describe why this would be advantageous.

Marketing Program

List the principles that should be observed in a marketing program. Give two specific examples of how these can be applied to a sport program. Describe why this would be advantageous.

Marketing program is prepared to for specific market and is used on a company –wide basis. It describes various activities that need to be performed in order to achieve specific marketing objectives within a fixed time period. The first step in a marketing program is to identify customers ‘needs. This can be found by conducting suitable market research. The company should find out how it would fulfill needs the customers by offering a suitable product or service from its stable.  The offering has to generate an acceptable rate of return so that it is beneficial to the company in the long run. An analysis of current market situation (opportunities and trends) would reveal information about the current trends and needs of the customers’. Once these are know, a detailed action program, budgets, sales forecasts, strategies and projected financial statements are included in the marketing plan.

Two examples of how these can be applied to a sport program are as follows

Budget is an important activity. If a budget is not prepared then no control is possible on spending. In the latest project that our team handled, we had to design and conduct an event for a political convention. The contract was awarded to our company after a tough contest with six other established players in the business of even management. We were given an advance of $ 10,000 and were supposed to work and plan and then claim reimbursement of our expenses. Our team leader assigned the task of listing down all the work involved with an estimate of expenses likely to be spent.  This helped us in managing our fund in an efficient manner, without overshooting the budget of $10,000.

The other example is that of preparing detailed action program. For one of our projects, where we had to organize an event for a sports club, the activities were listed down and tasks were assigned to individuals. They were also given a time frame to complete the tasks and also asked to report to the team leader the progress on a weekly basis. These helped us in monitoring the project and keep a tab on the schedule of activities. By this method, the entire task could be coordinated and it was also possible to plug in loopholes or gaps in the process.

Without preparing detailed action plan, and a budget for the expenses, it would not have been possible to complete the task within the time frame and manage the expenses as well. Thus following the marketing plan proved to be advantageous for us. Thus it was beneficial to the company. It also proved to be advantageous and very cost effective for the company as it could save a lot of time and effort in completing the task. Without this, success would not have been possible or quite difficult to achieve at all.

Reference

Luther W.M. (2011) The Marketing Plan: How to Prepare and Implement It American Mgmt Assn

Justification of Resources As the future manager of a large sports program, describe the office personnel and basic equipment you would need to be successful and then justify your request.

Justification of Resources

As the future manager of a large sports program, describe the office personnel and basic equipment you would need to be successful and then justify your request.

Arika Inc. is a large organization dealing in sports promotion. Its clients are spread out across the length and breadth of the country. In order to meet the obligations imposed on the marketing personnel, it is important to have back up support. Promotion needs a lot of travel and meeting prospects. For doing the task in a successful manner, it is important to have a support staff , that help the field personnel with literature, audio and video equipment so that facilities provided by the company can be communicated in an effective way. The persons should be skilled and trained to conduct the sports program. The infrastructure should be latest and of top quality.

It is for this purpose, a request is being made to the higher management to sanction funds for recruitment of staff and purchase of necessary sports equipment for the sports program. As of now , there is a lack of funds to pursue the activity of recruitment of skilled personnel and purchase of necessary sports equipment.

Reference

August B.D., Krystal L. Bell (2007) Touching Lives Through Your Sports Program Son-Rise Publications & Distribution Company

 

Defining Risk Management Without directly referring to your text, construct a definition (as you understand it) of at least 3 of the following: Legal Liability, Negligence, Tort

Defining Risk Management

Without directly referring to your text, construct a definition (as you understand it) of at least 3 of the following:

- Legal Liability

Legal liability is a set of rules and statutes framed by the law enforcing authorities. These define  and prohibit the conducts or acts that threaten or harm public safety or their welfare. Any act which is objectionable under law is punishable by the law enforcing authorites.

    – Negligence

Negligence is defined as a conduct that falls below the standards of behavior established by law for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm. A person has acted negligently if he or she has departed from the conduct expected of a reasonably prudent person acting under similar circumstances.

    – Tort

Torts are civil wrongs recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. These wrongs result in an injury or harm constituting the basis for a claim by the injured party.The primary aim of tort law is to provide relief for the damages incurred and deter others from committing the same harms.

 

 

Supervising Sports Programs Define what is meant by human resource management and supervision and describe the guiding principles for a supervisor of a sports program. Make sure to indicate what level of program is being supervised (K-5, 6-8, 9-12, college, professional, or health and fitness club).

Supervising Sports Programs

Define what is meant by human resource management and supervision and describe the guiding principles for a supervisor of a sports program. Make sure to indicate what level of program is being supervised (K-5, 6-8, 9-12, college, professional, or health and fitness club).

Human Resource Management is the process of hiring employees and also taking care of their development so that they become an asset for the organization they are working for. The process of human resource management includes several actions such as carrying out job analyses, planning personnel needs, recruiting the right candidate for the job, orientation and training of employees, managing wages and compensation, providing them benefits and incentives so that they are motivated , evaluating their performance , resolving disputes and difference of opinions as and when they arise. Human resources managers should have extensive knowledge of the industry they are working in, should have qualities of leadership, and effective communication and negotiation skills. Sports

Human resource is one of the most valuable resources in any organization. Basically, it’s the employees that make up an organization. Human Resources departments manage these resources by either finding ways to motivate, train, and retain these employees. This can be done through recruiting, incentive programs, training programs, and employee retention and policy creation. They actively seek to practice equal employment while offering a safe and effective workplace environment. Supervision is management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group. Employee supervision is the role of the front line supervisor in a company or organization. Supervisors have direct contact with the employees who they supervise. Supervision helps establish order in the workplace. Supervisors report to managers in the organization hierarchy. Effective supervision is a foundation of a successful organization.

Supervisors are selected and promoted from the ranks of officials for their dedication to the program and previous demonstrations of leadership and maturity. Sports program supervisor is responsible for direct supervision of sports participants, spectators, and officials working in a sports organisation. They are responsible for policy interpretation, program implementation, on-site decision-making, and conflict resolution. The supervisor is also responsible to ensure participant, spectator, and staff safety including the playability of facilities and of sports equipment. Guiding principle for the sports supervisor is that he should keep in mind that every athlete is an individual and unique and every athlete has a different level of competence. Each athlete of a Sports Academy has a unique set of goals, desires and needs which must be addressed appropriately by the sports supervisor in order to allow that athlete to reach and exceed his or her potential. Other principle is that how you train for, prepare for and play sports is representative of how you approach every other aspect of life. Therefore, these activities must be approached with maxim enthusiasm, attention and intensity. Other guiding principle for a sports supervisor is that he or she should make sure of continuous training by playing sports.  Training and sports should be fun and challenging. Sports supervisor should ensure sports fitness training. Sports preparation must be functional, scientifically rational and progressive. Sports supervisor should teach younger athletes proper movement technique and help them develop functional strength, core strength, speed, agility, quickness and endurance. Sports supervisor design the training and preparation programs with the goal of preventing or eliminating injury for every athlete he or she work with. Sports supervisor should create an atmosphere in which athletes will be encouraged to train and play to win! These are the guiding principle for the sports programs who works with social fitness program.

Reference

Martens R. (2001) Directing Youth Sports Programs Human Kinetics

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal Management As a business manager of a sports program, what aspects of fiscal management would involve you and the management of that sports program? Be sure to define the level in the program you choose for context.

Fiscal Management

As a business manager of a sports program, what aspects of fiscal management would involve you and the management of that sports program? Be sure to define the level in the program you choose for context.

Fiscal management is defined as a process of keeping an organization running within its allotted budget. The word fiscal is invariably used and interchanged with the word financial. Fiscal management refers to the act of money management within a government entity. The objective of any department is to improve the way it operates by properly planning, recording and performing procedures that relate to the budget. This exercise involved use of a variety of tools such as budget spreadsheets, accounting software and other guiding procedures as specified by the government or department itself. Poor fiscal management is indicated by a lack of record-keeping and unnecessary or unplanned expenditures that can cause a department to go over budget or fail to meet its objectives.

Normally fiscal planning is done on a yearly basis, which usually coincides with the fiscal year under which the department operates. A fiscal is a 12 month period which may not always be the same as a calendar year.

The types of expenditures accounted for in fiscal budget may differ, depending on the organization. For a sports program, a fiscal management would consist of buying and maintaining the facilities provided for its clients.  It would also consist of educating and employing the right trainers for the sports program. Budget expenditures at an emergency services department might be used for buying and upkeep of equipment for maintaining the same, uniforms for the sports person, and specialized training for the service professionals.

 

A well-designed management plan can supply a guide upon which department members base financial decisions. Detailed budgets can help prevent financial emergencies by planning recurring expenditures that an organization regularly faces, but which might come as a surprise to managers operating without proper planning.

 

For instance, if a department has already budgeted for the cost of cleaning uniforms, the cleaning cost will not come as a surprise that costs an organization more than its budget can afford. Budgeting for this type of cost can also give a fiscal manager sufficient time to find out solutions that are less expensive for costs placed within the budget. It definitely helps in saving money on avoidable last-minute emergency expenditures that might cost more than they would if they were properly planned in advance.

 

.

Generally, a good fiscal management involves recording all fiscal transactions in a checks-and-balances system that reduces mistakes or omissions that might lead to surprise budget overages. After financial transactions are recorded, they must also be reconciled on a regular basis, usually monthly, to help a fiscal manager identify any discrepancies between the financial records and the available remaining budget. Without proper and regular reconciliation, a small error in recording financial transactions can become a large deficit over time that may create serious budget shortfalls. The level of program chosen for fiscal management in this discussion is at top level, which helps in guiding the people at lower level to budget accordingly and carry out expenditures.

Reference

 

Gentile D. (2011) Teaching Sport Management: A Practical Guide Jones & Bartlett Publisher

Developing Guidelines Prepare a set of guidelines you would follow if asked to manage a commercial fitness club.

Developing Guidelines

Prepare a set of guidelines you would follow if asked to manage a commercial fitness club.

Managing a commercial fitness club is not a simple task. The primary objective of running this kind of club is to meet the fitness goals of the client. However, this under no circumstances undermines the importance of basic purpose of running a business, which is earning profits. What it implies is that one should ensure to get maximum returns on investment. The key to running a profitable fitness club is effective management. It does not matter whether you are a franchise or own up your own facility and start it from scratch. It is your personal style of working and the kind strategies that you use to manage the fitness club that would decide how successful your venture is. The primary requisite for owning and managing a fitness club facility is to be an expert in fitness related activities. One has to be physically fit and also need to understand the fitness business thoroughly. It is also important to keep track of current and emerging trends in fitness, and possess knowledge about various types of fitness equipment and their usefulness. In other words, one should be able to think outside the box in order to expand business. It would also be advantageous to have professional certification and training to increase credibility as a fitness expert. A manager has to have a strong support staff to run his business in an effective manner. This is where employee management counts as one of the guidelines. Recruiting the facility with well – qualified, talented and enthusiastic group of people is one of the first things that one need to do. For this, one should know the requirement of each position one is looking to fill and hire people who are most suitable for that particular role. From your customer service reps to the sales and marketing executives, from service technicians to personal trainers – each one of your employee has a specialized responsibility to fulfill and your job is to ensure you get people who are capable of performing that job well. For example, the core responsibility of customer service executive is to ensure customer satisfaction but sales and marketing team has the job of acquiring new clients and come up with specific strategies to promote the business. These two are entirely different functions and need specific skills to achieve their respective objectives. It is important for a manager to make sure that there is flawless integration of the employees in the business. The channel of communication between all the levels should be open at all times. Managing the facility is tough job and as a business owner it is important to frame some guidelines to keep the equipment in working condition. It is better to take professional help to maintain the facilities in good condition. This would avoid breakdowns and interruptions and also ensure safety inspections are in place so that potential security hazards are avoided. Another guideline to be followed is to have a proper client management technique in place. Customer management is the trickiest and perhaps the most difficult to achieve task that those managing health club facilities have to perform. One of the surest ways of achieving customer satisfaction is to offer your patrons excellent services. Provide them with state of the art fitness equipment to use, make sure your facility is sparkling clean all the time, minimize downtime due to machine breakdowns, and offer them some value add services to win their hearts and loyalty. But above all, treat your customers with respect, build a personal rapport with them, and conduct yourself in a dignified manner in front of them and you can rest assured they will keep coming back to you. Reference Bates M. (2007) Health Fitness Management: A Comprehensive Resource for Managing and Operating Programs and Facilities Human Kinetics

Functions of Management Describe the four functions of management as they relate to sport. Are there special considerations that need to be applied to sports management as opposed to general management?

Functions of Management

Describe the four functions of management as they relate to sport. Are there special considerations that need to be applied to sports management as opposed to general management?

 

The major functions that a manager completes can be categorized into four different functions known as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Many people view only the final two viz.  Leading and controlling as the main functions of management. However if we look closely, behind every action of a manager, there is tremendous amount of time spent in planning and organizing the plans. This is necessary so that functions of leading and controlling can be carried out in an effective manner.

These four functions are standard across all industries and service organizations.  They are common to grocery store, restaurant, hotel, amusement park and sports management. Effective managers understand how planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are used to achieve organizational success.  Learning a little more about the four functions of management will help to identify what steps your ineffective manager needs to take to become an effective one.

We must try to think about the four functions as a process where each step builds on the others. Managers must first plan, then organize according to that plan, lead others to work towards the plan, and finally evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. These four functions must be performed properly and, when done well, become the reason for organizational success.

Planning

The first of the managerial functions is planning. In this step the manager will create a detailed action plan aimed at some organizational goal. For example in sports event, all that goes into making it a success will be thought of in advance and steps to achieve the same will be discussed and agreed upon. Arranging conveyance for the sportsperson, their stay and food as well as the list of invitees need to be prepared sufficiently in advance. Planning is an ongoing step and can be highly specialized based on organizational goals, division goals, departmental goals, and team goals. It is up to the manager to recognize which goals need to be planned within his or her individual area

 

Organizing

The second most important managerial function is organizing. This step requires taking care of resources and arranging them in such a manner that they are utilized in the most optimum manner. Allocation of duties, distribution of uniforms, and allotment of work to the volunteers for the sports event is part of organizing function.

Leading

The third function of management is leading. In this step, the sports manager takes the initiative to connect the staff on an interpersonal level. It goes beyond managing tasks and involves communication, motivating, inspiring and encouraging employees towards reaching a higher level of productivity. For example in a sports event, there is a possibility of personnel getting de motivated or they may not be able to get along with their colleagues. Leading function ensures that this is minimized and the concerns of employees are taken care of and disputes settled in an amicable manner. Not all managers are leaders. An employee will follow the directions of a manager because they have to, but an employee will voluntarily follow the directions of a leader because they believe in who he is as a person, what he stands for, and for the manner in which they are inspired by the leader.

 

Controlling

Controlling is the final function of management. Once a plan has been carried out the manager evaluates the results against the goals. If a goal is not being met, the manager must also take any necessary corrective actions to continue to work towards that goal. The control process also includes setting performance standards for employees and continuously evaluating their job performances, therefore sports manager will speak with each of his sports personnel individually to review their performances.

Since the functions are general and common to all industries and services, no special considerations are necessary for sports events or sports management as such.

Reference

Robert N. Lussier, David Charles Kimball (2009) Applied Sport Management Skills Human Kinetics

 

 

Sport Management Philosophy Discuss your philosophy of sport management. Why does sport need to be managed? Give specific examples from the text as well as from your experience.

Sport Management Philosophy

Discuss your philosophy of sport management. Why does sport need to be managed? Give specific examples from the text as well as from your experience.

Sports management recognizes that the sports industry is a unique framework in which community; public and media relations can combine and emerge in a positive manner. In the sports arena, sports personnel and organizations create a space for societal cooperation that is grounded in the dual process of sports institutions, and their impact on the community itself. The sports industry and its personnel bring communities from all walks of life together on a multitude of levels, laying the groundwork for sports management’s primary goal of maximizing personal, organizational, corporate and community needs and services. Sports management is service oriented and works with clients in a highly individualistic manner; providing personality marketing through relations program that offer innovative options designed around clients and their immediate and long-term goals. Highly educated and trained professional managers and marketers working in the field of sport management, plan, implement and evaluate any sporting/sponsored event. By mutual cooperation, sport, community, media and corporate sponsorship exposure is maximized to the advantage of all the stakeholders. There are several examples of sports management. The front office personnel in a professional sports is one of them. The way entire process is handled is reflected in the management philosophy. Similarly, sports functions organized in colleges or for recreation are also examples of sports management. Without proper planning and a very well laid out thought process, it would be difficult to conduct these in an efficient manner. With the advent of professionalism in sports, several colleges and universities have started offering specialized courses in sport management. Reference Robert Baker, Robert E. Baker, Craig Esherick (2013) Fundamentals of Sport Management Human Kinetics

Sociology of Sports’ Theories Compare and contrast the main types of theories used in the sociology of sports. Include in your answer a discussion of the theorist’s views of society, the individual, social change, and sport. Consider how each theory explains sport and its role in society. Provide at least one concrete example.

Sociology of Sports’ Theories

Compare and contrast the main types of theories used in the sociology of sports.  Include in your answer a discussion of the theorist’s views of society, the individual, social change, and sport. Consider how each theory explains sport and its role in society. Provide at least one concrete example.

The sociology of sports is the study in terms of the attributes and processes that exist in an individual. It focuses on the motivation, cognition, self- esteem and personality of the individual. The sociologists study sport in terms of the social conditions that surround and are outside the individual athlete. They concentrate on relations, culture, social class, sexuality, and ethnicity of the individuals.  Sport is related to all aspects of a society. Therefore learning about the sociology of sport teaches about the functioning of the society.

The first part of discussion is about gender ideology.  The sports first developed around an ideology of gender i.e. a gender logic that existed in the dominant culture. This gender logic worked to the advantage of men. It was referred to a common sense. The basic tenet of gender logic is that women are naturally inferior to men in terms of strength, physical skill, emotional control and intelligence. The dominant ideology led to a sport vocabulary supporting the gender logic viz.

  • Correct throw ( like a man)
  • Incorrect throw (like a girl)

Moreover coaches use the logic to motivate players such as “you are playing like a bunch of girls.” The gender logic serves to privilege boys. It creates discrimination against girls in sport. Moreover it has also spilled over into all social life such as politics, business etc. There is also race logic, class logic, and character logic

Sociology of Sport Theory states that it is based on the fundamental tenets of functionalism. The social order is based on consensus and shared values. It is the consensus about shared values that holds society together, reducing conflict. In fact all social systems tend toward a state of balance and equilibrium. Sport is a valuable social institution that benefits society and individuals. It acts a source of inspiration on both the personal and social levels of society. Athletes are frequently elected to political office on the basis of athletic participation for example Jack Kemp, Steve La to name a few.

Reference

Smith E. (2010) Sociology of Sport and Social Theory Human Kinetics